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The Catcher in the Rye Essays | …
book report comanche Author of The Last Prince of the Mexican Empire, etc. Book Review by C.M. Mayo. THE COMANCHE EMPIRE. Yale University, 2008. Originally published in Marfa Mondays Blog, T he cover of Pekka Hämäläinen's The Comanche Empire , of a ghost-white warrior with a trio of blood-red slashes down his cheek, is as arresting as the argument that, as it opens, the Comanches' was an American empire that, according to conventional histories, did not exist. In the catcher in the, United States public discourse conflates wildly heterogenous groups into easy categories#151; Native American, white, black, and so on diversity behavior and so forth#151; and then, with school board-approved narratives as mortar, we construct colossal political edifices.
In their shadows, alas, many of catcher rye thesis essay us are blind to the complexities in these writing paragraphs and essays 5th edition our society and history. The complexities are riotous. And when we shine a light on but one of them#151; as Finnish historian Hämäläinen has in this brilliant study of Comanche hegemony#151; suddenly our easy categories and well-worn narratives may look strange, deeply wrong. As those of you who follow this blog well know, I am at work on a book about Far West Texas, that is, Texas west of the Pecos River. Anyone who heads out catcher rye thesis essay there, especially to the remote Big Bend, hears about Comanches, e.g., they crossed the Río Grande here, they watered their horses there.
But the Comanches, an equestrian Plains people who hunted the behavior essay, buffalo, were latecomers to the Trans-Pecos. Catcher In The Rye Thesis Essay. They did not settle there; they trekked through it on the Comanche Trail (more aptly, network of trails) on their way to raid in northern Mexico. They returned driving immense herds of horses and kidnapped Apache and Mexican women and children in tow, for markets up north around Taos, New Mexico, and pearson, Big Timbers on the Arkansas, which garnered them metal tools, cooking pots, corn and other carbohydrates, textiles, and above all, guns and ammunition. The Comanche were raiding south of the Río Grande as early as the catcher in the rye thesis, 1770s, but their large-scale raiding in northern Mexico commenced in the 1820s, plunging deep into Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas and, in the 1840s, as far as Jalisco and the major central market and manufacturing city of Querétaro. This systematic mass violence which left the northern realm of the Mexican economy crippled and its people demoralized, turned it into what Hämäläinen terms an process esl extension of catcher in the rye thesis essay Greater Comanchería. Hence, by the late 1840s, when the U.S. Army invaded Mexico, what they were really invading was, to quote Hämäläinen, the shatterbelt of Native American power. But this is to get ahead of the story. CIRCA 1750-1850: THE COMANCHE CENTURY. The imperialists of the an essay technology, 19th century: wouldn't that be Yankees, the English, the French, the Spanish, the Portuguese, the Germans and Belgians and Dutch#151; white people, so-called?
Hämäläinen's is an audacious argument: In the Southwest, European imperialism not only stalled in the face of indigenous resistance; it was eclipsed by indigenous imperialism. Specifically, from about 1750 to catcher in the, 1850, the Comanches aggressively expanded their territory to eventually dominate what we now call the Southwest. True, they did not have a central government, permanent cities or structures such as pyramids, kivas, or acqueducts, nor any single chief whose role could be compared to that of math help a European-style emperor. Moreover, as nomads for much of the year, their aim may not have been to conquer and colonize, but they were an catcher in the rye thesis essay identifiable group whose aim was to control and exploit. As given by the Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, one of the definitions of empire is an extensive territory or enterprise under single domination of control, hence, unnerving as it may strike some readers, Hämäläinen's use of the word is an essay on communication technology, apt. He argues: The Spanish, French, Mexicans and Anglo-Americans, as they contested the rye thesis essay, heart of the uc personal statement prompt 1 essay, North American continent, were restrained and overshadowed by Comanches. In fact, argues Hämäläinen, the rise of the Comanche empire helps explain why Mexico's Far North is today the American Southwest. Not that said European and Euro-American contestants recognized what they called Comanchería as anything so elevated as an rye thesis empire. They considered the Comanches savages, indios bárbaros , requiring extermination or, failing acceptance of their invitation, a frog-march into Christian civilization, Catholic or Protestant, end of story.
But here, in Hämäläinen, unfolds the many-chaptered story. ARRIVAL AT THE EDGE OF THE KINGDOM OF NEW MEXICO. A Spanish report of statement prompt 1706 is the first written mention of the in the rye thesis, Comanches, who called themselves the Numunu. Process. With their then-allies, the Utes, they were preparing to attack Taos, at the mountainous edge of the Kingdom of New Mexico. Sometime before, this nomadic Uto-Aztecan speaking people had broken away from the Shoshones, then in the central plains in present-day Wyoming, to head south, skirting the catcher essay, eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains, in search of on communication technology game and horses. Horses had arrived in Mexico in catcher in the rye thesis 1519 with the conquistadors and, along with the Spanish colonists, spread north. In New Mexico the Spanish prohibited indigenous Puebloan peoples' access to horses, but the 1 essay, corrals blew open, as it were, with the catcher in the, Pueblo Revolt of 1680, and horses and equestrian know-how quickly spread north across the plains.
For the help, Comanches, the horse changed everything, economically, militarily, and down to the marrow of their culture. With the horse, writes Hämäläinen, In almost an instant, the world became smaller and its resources more accessible. On the one hand, the horse allowed the Comanches to more efficiently harvest the buffalo, which roamed in herds of rye thesis essay tens of thousands on the shortgrass plains. On the other hand, the horse enabled them to fight and an essay on communication technology, raid more effectively. And more: for the Comanches, horses served as a store of value, a signal of status, and in the rye thesis, a trade commodity. Within a few decades, Comanches were specializing in hunting buffalo and stealing horses and taking captives, and trading these to provide for process their other needs. While this allowed them to thrive#151; in 1740 Athanase de Mézières wrote, They are a people so numerous and so haughty that when asked their number, they make no difficulty comparing it to the stars#151; in reality, with an catcher unsustainable resource base plus severe external shocks to come, they were on the rise of a Seneca Cliff. THE COMANCHES AND SLAVERY. In the contemporary American imagination the word slave conjures images of African-Americans in the old South, their bondage cemented by a legal system that defined and enforced racial identity. Comanches, however, were apparently colorblind, and a captive, whether African-American, Mexican, Apache, Puebloan, or, say, German, might as easily be slaughtered as sold, or kept and exploited, oftentimes mercilessly, or adopted.
One child captive, Cynthia Ann Parker, kidnapped from essay, her family's Texas frontier farm, ended up the wife of a leading Comanche chief, and mother of the incandescently famous chief, Quanah. According to Hämäläinen, Comanche society was a complex one in which several standards of conduct coexisted simultaneously. Nonetheless, Comanches built the largest slave economy in the colonial Southwest. Numbers are guess-work, however, based on multiple and diverse anecdotes. Initially, in and around New Mexico, Comanches took captives as they warred on Apaches, Pueblo Indians, other indigenous peoples, and Spanish and in the essay, mestizo colonists. And initially, the colonists, though victims themselves of raiding, provided a ready market for them.
In many cases, Comanches pocketed the rescate, or ransom, and victims were returned to their families. Although since the mid-16th century Spanish law prohibited slavery, for pearson homework the colonists of New Mexico, trading in Indian slaves was too lucrative to resist. Catcher In The Rye Thesis Essay. Writes Hämäläinen, In theory, these ransomed Indians were to process essay, be placed in Spanish households for religious education, but in catcher in the rye thesis essay practice many of them became common slaves who could be sold, bought, and exploited with impunity. By the late 18th century, large numbers of Apache and other Indian captives purchased from Comanches had been sent to the silver mines in Mexico and Caribbean tobacco plantations. Comanche slaving began to essay want to study, change in the early 19th century when, smallpox having devastated Comanche and other Indian populations, Euro-American fur traders and other traders moved onto the plains. In response to richer trading opportunities, Comanches began to make greater use of captives to tend their larger horse herds and to scrape and prepare buffalo robes. Catcher In The Essay. But again, Comanche society was a complex one in which several standards of conduct coexisted simultaneously. There were several notorious cases of gang rape and torture-murder of captives, including of children, as well as several cases when captives, assimilated into the Comanche way of life and kinship networks, refused the opportunity to process essay, return to their original families. EXPANSION IN THE 18th AND EARLY 19th CENTURIES. Early in 18th century, in search of buffalo and captives, the Comanches roamed east onto the Plains.
Empowered by the horse, and enriched by the bounty of the buffalo and both tribute from New Mexico and in the rye thesis essay, stolen horses and captives, throughout the and organizational essay, century Comanches continued pushing east, north, west, and south on essay the Great Plains with what Hämäläinen calls a vigorous diplomatic and commercial expansion, forging a far-reaching trade and alliance network that in diversity behavior time dwarfed Spain's imperial arrangements in in the North America. By the 1750s, having displaced the Apaches, the uc personal 1 essay, Comanches controlled the western Great Plains below the Arkansas River. In 1762, when by the Treaty of Fountainbleau Carlos III took Louisiana off of Louis XV's map, writes Hämäläinen, the catcher essay, transfer was, in effect, imaginary. The following year, the Treaty of Paris confirmed Spain's North American expansion, refining its border against what was now British territory to the east#151; again, ignoring the mammoth and dangerous reality of an expanding Comanchería. But the Comanches did not settle permanently in any one place; they moved with the buffalo and, with lightning speed, towards raiding opportunities, primarily in New Mexico and other the Spanish colonies in the north.
For the uc personal statement 1 essay, Spanish, already stretched thin in the north, then weakened by catcher in the the wars for essay esl Independence that began in 1810, Comanche raids proved devastating. Hämäläinen: Itinerant American peddlers provided Comanches with nearly bottomless markets for stolen stock while supplying them with weapons that made raiding more effective. The result: Rather than New Spain's absorbing the southern plains into its imperial body, Comanches had reduced the Spanish borderlands to catcher rye thesis essay, a hinterland for an imperial system of their own. Spanish Texas, which lay north of the Nueces River and hugged the Gulf Coast into Lousiana, was subject to so many Apache, Comanche, Tawakoni, and other indigenous depredations of why you abroad its missions, presidios, and ranches that it seemed it might not survive, never mind prosper. When he visited San Antonio in rye thesis 1821, Stephen F. Austin described the whole country from the Sabine River west a wild, howling, interminable solitude. To make a convoluted story short, by invitation of the uc personal prompt, Mexican government, Austin, now a Mexican citizen, would sign a contract as an empresario , receiving land in exchange for catcher in the rye thesis the commitment to colonize it. Mexico City's aim was to both counter Anglo-American colonization by effectively absorbing it qua Mexican, and, crucially, to establish a buffer between Apache and Comanche raiders and its other northern ranching and population centers.
To give an uc personal 1 essay idea of how urgent that latter project was, in 1825 over in the essay, 300 Comanches arrived in San Antonio to settle in for six days looting the an essay on communication, town. By the 1830s, for fear of Indian depredations, the catcher rye thesis essay, Anglo settlers or Texians, as they came to be known, had still refused to settle east of the Colorado River. South and east Texas, largely under Comanche vassalage, remained Tejano, and was so poor and process esl, terrorized that, writes Hämäläinen, basic economic functions began to shut down. Farmers did not dare venture into in the essay their own fields or onto the roads. In 1835 the Texians, along with many Tejanos, rebelled against Mexico City.
The Texas Revolution is a foundational story told and retold in an overwhelmingly triumphalist literature, both academic and process, popular, emphasizing the manliness of the Anglo heroes of the Alamo, Goliad, and in the rye thesis essay, San Jacinto, and the weakness of the Mexicans under the cruel and math homework help, corrupt Antonio López de Santa Anna. Hämäläinen's bucket-of-cold water revisionism: MEANWHILE, IN NEW MEXICO. The distance between what was then Texas and New Mexico was almost inconceivably vast and extremely perilous to cross. Even today at in the full speed on a major highway it takes eleven hours to travel from San Antonio, Texas to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Unsurprisingly, developments in 19th century Texas and New Mexico differed.
What they had in common was their rivalry with what lay between them: Comanchería. Texans, their ranks growing rapidly with ambitious and color-conscious immigrants from these writing and essays 5th edition, slave states such as Kentucky, South Carolina, Tennesssee, Virginia, and catcher essay, elsewhere, took a largely belligerent stance against the Comanches, while New Mexicans, increasingly isolated and impoverished, looked to Comanchería for process the necessities that kept them alive. One of the little known phenomena of early 19th century New Mexico was the growth of its genízaro settlements. The word genízaro is the Spanish translation of Janissary, the early 16th century term for catcher in the a kidnapped Christian boy trained to become a Turkish elite soldier. An Essay. In New Mexico, genízaros were Puebloan Indian or Apache, mestizo, Spanish or other people who had been captured and raised by catcher in the essay Comanches. Many retained close friendship and on communication technology, family ties to Comanches. Notes Hämäläinen, The rise of genízaro settlements did not signify New Mexico's expansion into the Comanche realm but rather the colony's persisting gravitation toward the economic and cultural power of Comanchería. This was when and where the comanchero commerce began to catcher rye thesis, develop, and the ciboleros, New Mexican bison hunters, emerged on prompt the plains. Catcher Rye Thesis Essay. Comancheros specialized in trading with the Comanches#151;and so meeting the needs of two societies across a narrowing cultural gulf, one narrowing so quickly that, writes Hämäläinen, [m]any nineteenth century observers found it impossible to pearson math homework help, differentiate ciboleros, comancheros, and Comanches from one another.
Comanchería's frontier with New Mexico then was a trading and tribute zone, while other frontiers were assigned to the collection of tribute, other types of in the rye thesis essay trade, and raiding. Raiding depended in part on whether tribute was paid and that, in turn, depended in part on resources forthcoming#151; and often they were not#151; from Mexico City. By the 1830s, as Comanche raiding in Mexico stepped up, New Mexicans had resigned themselves to purchasing peace from the essay why you want, Comanches, even if it meant inflicting death and suffering for the rest of northern Mexico. Put another way: New Mexican elites had been forced to choose between appeasing one of two imperial cores and, in more cases than not, they chose Comanchería. COMANCHERIA'S TRADE PUMP AND THE EXPLOSION INTO NORTHERN MEXICO.
Having pushed the Apaches out of the rye thesis, southern Plains, in the 1830s, using Texas as a byway, Comanches now pushed the process esl, Apaches west and south out of some of the in the essay, richest raiding zones of northern Mexico. The door had been left open, so to speak, for and organizational behavior essay in the wake of two decades of war for its independence from Spain, then the bloody contests among monarchists, federalists, and republicans, Mexico did not have the material nor political resources to catcher, protect its northern frontier. Process Esl. But as Hämäläinen explains, the in the rye thesis essay, Comanches were drawn into northern Mexico not only by their own vitality, the clamor of along these lines young warriors seeking status in catcher in the action and booty, but because of the pearson, vulnerability of catcher rye thesis their power complex. In essence, the Comanches had constructed what Hämäläinen calls a trade pump. By thievery, they suctioned into the southern plains massive herds of horses and then, via trade with comancheros and prompt 1 essay, others in New Mexico and in the essay, around Big Timbers on the Arkansas, released them into the maw of what seemed an insatiable demand.
The vulnerability was that their productive foundation#151;Hämäläinen's euphemism for the territory they had been raiding#151; was becoming exhausted. Texas had been scoured of easy-pickings, and impoverished New Mexico was now locked into a tribute relationship. Demand for horses had three wellsprings. First, northern Plains Indians such as the along these writing paragraphs and essays 5th edition, Arapahoe, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Crow, Pawnee, and Sioux, among others, needed horses for hunting, and to replenish the stock that could not survive or reproduce in in the essay the harsh winters north of the Arkansas River. Secondly, demand came from the an essay technology, Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole) that had been forced out of the southeast United States and into Indian Territory by President Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act of 1830. Thirdly, demand came from catcher in the rye thesis, pioneers, those heading from all points east, northeast and northeast into the fringes of the Plains and overland to California, Oregon, and math help, Colorado. If a dollar was to be made, there were traders, such as the Bent Brothers and Holland Coffee, who would eagerly deal in horses stolen from Mexico. Rye Thesis Essay. Texas officials even supplied Comanches with provisions, the want abroad, better to speed them through on catcher essay their way to an essay technology, and from Mexico. Shocking expanses of northern Mexican soon lay in waste, its farms and ranches abandoned.
The all-important Chihuahua road had become an Indian plunder trail, commerce was paralyzed, and mines languished unused. By the end of the 1840s, the U.S. Army marched down through northern Mexico, encountering surprisingly little resistance, and in some cases, assistance, and occupied Mexico City itself. Catcher. By the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico ceded to the United States territories that are today the esl, states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming. And here again, asserts Hämäläinen, it was Native American expansion that paved the way for the Anglo-American one. The US-Mexican War was in fact, a display of both United States and Comanche power. Catcher Essay. CHILDREN OF THE SUN. The sixth chapter, sandwiched in why you abroad between that on Greater Comanchería and essay, Hunger, the beginning of the collapse, is diversity, Children of the Sun, wherein Hämäläinen offers a monograph-like examination of Comanche every day and seasonal life, family, social, military, political, and religious structure, including slavery and polygyny, and how these changed as trade expanded and the Comanches increasingly specialized in in the buffalo hunting and raiding horses.
If somewhat lumpily placed in the middle of the book, Children of the Sun is a fascinating and illuminating chapter. As the Comanches specialized in moving stolen horses and processing buffalo robes for trade, they also moved toward more highly structured and competitive warrior cult and, for the extra household labor it could provide, polygyny. The latter reinforced the former, as young warriors, obstructed by older chiefs, found it difficult to accumulate horse herds and obtain wives. The result, firing Comanche expansion, argues Hämäläinen, was relentless competition for process social prestige. This chapter also includes an intriguing albeit brief look at the Comanches' political councils, massive, ordered, hierarchical and democratic all at once, which met at the high elevation points of Medicine Mounds, the Wichita Mountains, and the Caprock Escarpment, in the general vicinity of present-day Amarillo and Wichita Falls, Texas.
The United States en route to its Manifest Destiny, and the fall of the Comanches: it would seem that the one was the Juggernaut that rolled over the other. Catcher Rye Thesis. Hämäläinen is careful to underline, however, that the American expansion did not trigger their decline; by the end of the 1840s the Comanches' decline was already underway, and the cause was ecological. The buffalo were being overhunted by Comanches and other indigenous peoples, many of whom had been granted hunting priviledges in Comanchería as part of trading agreements. These Lines And Essays 5th Edition. Rising demand for buffalo robes#151;a new fashion#151; came from urban centers in the northeast; to in the essay, satisfy it, many of the Indians newly arrived in Indian Territory took to mounted buffalo hunting. In addition to the Comanches, others, including ciboleros, and Arapahoe and Cheyenne hunters, brought into uc personal prompt 1 essay Bent's Fort#151; the main trading post near Big Timbers on the Arkansas#151;tens of thousands of robes. By 1841, in eastern Comanchería, bison populations were thinning rapidly. Yes, the white buffalo hunters who came in with their buffalo guns to wipe out what was left of the herds#151;leaving a horrific photographic record of stupendous mountains of bones and hides#151;but that was later, primarily in the 1870s and essay, early 1880s. In the 1850s, it was indigenous overhunting, combined with the destruction of the buffalos' prime winter riverine habitat by essay horses, and a sudden and severe onslaught of drought that had begun in 1845, that left the Comanches starving.
In 1849 Bent closed his trading fort, and a second fort closed in 1860, and with that ended almost 150 years of organized Comanche trade in the Arkansas valley. With ever fewer buffalo to hunt, Comanches warred over hunting rights with ciboleros, the indigenous newcomers to Indian territory, and with Osages and Kiowas. From the in the rye thesis essay, east, immigrants to Texas, many from Germany, were settling in Comanchería, and from the why you to study, west, in New Mexico, new settlers were establishing sheep and cattle ranches. After the last wave of gold rushers had passed through the upper Arkansas valley to Colorado in 1859, that valley, once a haven for Comanches and their horses, had become a dust highway. In short, the great Comanche trading empire had collapsed. And when it collapsed, the Comanches had lost their access to rye thesis, corn and other vegetables, guns and ammunition. When they tried to raid, the Texas Rangers and the U.S. Army went after them. And then, suffering from malnutrition, they were decimated by smallpox and cholera. Writing Paragraphs 5th Edition. Trading, raiding, and their own numbers collapsed.
By 1860, it seemed the sun was setting on Comanchería. But then, in the mid-1860s, there came a dramatic revival. Catcher In The Rye Thesis Essay. The rains returned to the Great Plains and the buffalo herds rebounded, and in the chaotic aftermath of the U.S. Civil War, the Comanches renewed their lucrative practice of stealing horses, and now also cattle, and kidnapping women and children. Post-bellum Texas began to disintegrate. Prompt. It seemed that the solution to Comanche violence would be imposed by the U.S. Army under such as General William Tecumseh Sherman, famed for his March to the Sea and essay, burning of Atlanta.
It would, eventually, but in 1869, President Ulysses S. Essay Why You. Grant, bowing to his constituents' anti-war sentiments and lobbying by Protestant missionaries, introduced his Peace Policy. A Quaker named Lawrie Tatum was put in charge of the Comanche and Kiowa agency. Under Tatum, Comanches continued hunting and raiding as they always had, but enjoying rations on the agency in the winter. In The Rye Thesis. As Hämäläinen so originally puts it: Tatum made a practice of ransoming Comanche captives, both American and Mexican, paying out as much as a hundred dollars each, then a staggering sum. Uc Personal Prompt 1 Essay. Tender-hearted Tatum could not last.
For General Sherman and other veterans of the U.S. Civil War who had fought for the Union and catcher, the end of essay why you want to study abroad slavery, it was outrageous to permit Comanches to rye thesis, engage in stealing livestock and what amounted to slave trading on U.S. soil. In 1871 General Sherman was authorized to unleash war on the Comanche. Along These Writing Paragraphs And Essays. But it was not by battles so much as strategic sabotage that the U.S. Army crushed the Comanches. Beginning in 1872, breaking the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the in the, U.S. Army permitted the white hunters onto tribal lands. With powerful new long-range guns, they began an industrial butchery of what was left of the buffalo#151;and, as at pearson math the two battles of Adobe Walls, fought off and deeply demoralized the Comanches and their allies.
With a string of forts and camps, U.S. soldiers and scouts occupied Comanche water sources and, whenever possible, destroyed their horse herds, hides, and food supplies. Essay. Over the pearson, course of what came to be known as the Red River War, the Comanches were harried off the plains and into the reservation in Indian Territory. In the autumn of 1874, U.S. Army surprised the catcher in the, last substantial holdout of Comanches in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Only three Comanche warriors died in that encounter, however the army destroyed over 1,000 of their horses and made a bonfire of their tipis and winter food stores, rendering them unable to survive outside the reservation. By the following June, the last of the essay why you want abroad, free Comanches, including Quanah, surrendered at Fort Sill. DOING AWAY WITH THE UNANTHROPOCENTRIC BARRIER METAPHOR In his concluding chapter Hämäläinen coins the phrase: The unanthropocentric barrier metaphor. He means the image served up by in the earlier historians, among them, Frederick Jackson Turner (The Significance of the Frontier in American History) and Walter Prescott Webb ( The Great Plains ), of the Comanches as blood-thirsty savages, like the cacti and the mountain lions and process essay, the eagles, a part of the landscape, altogether representing, to quote Hämäläinen, an catcher rye thesis essentially nonhuman impediment to the U.S. Essay Esl. empire. In plain English: monsters in feathers blocking our way.
Beginning with Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show in the late 19th century, American and world culture have been bombarded with cartoon-like images of Comanches. John Wayne movies, dime novels by the dozen, Rawhide and other TV shows, and more recently, novels such as Cormac McCarthy's Blood Meridian continue the tradition of portraying Comanches as, to quote Hämäläinen again, beastlike. on the other side of humanity.
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The Catcher in the Rye Essays | …
How to catcher in the rye thesis essay, Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an on communication technology effective nursing resume summary is easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and these days that’s after the resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. An effective nursing resume summary is catcher in the concise and easy to read. It correlates the want, candidate’s experience with the job description in question. And it piques the catcher in the, reader’s interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the resume in on communication, greater detail. How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume. That’s right, 6 seconds.
You maybe wondering why you’d even bother writing a resume summary at all. Well, this particular study only studied the rye thesis essay, initial review of the resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by the candidate. They want to know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in question. So they look at the job title and essay esl, the dates of employment. Recruiters also focused on the employers and education of the candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of general professionals as opposed to professionals in the healthcare field. We’d expect slight variations from recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in addition to essay, these other attributes. But that doesn’t change the an essay on communication technology, fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiter’s attention.
If recruiters see some or all of what they’re looking for in an initial review, then they may give the resume a closer look. Even then, the resume may only receive 20 seconds total. You’re probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. Well, they’re actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it. And that’s important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and easy to read. The reader should be able to review it quickly and pick up on the keywords and concepts that they’re looking for. This is why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. By doing this, you’re playing to the realities of the review process.
Most summaries are written in paragraph form. This is fine for conveying large volumes of in the essay information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the process, reviewer is rye thesis essay actually going to take the time to read it. Unfortunately, they will not do this in the vast majority of along lines paragraphs cases. Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the reviewer from picking up on the key points or distract them from even reviewing it at in the, all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and stand-alone snippets allows the lines writing paragraphs, reviewer to quickly scan this section and easily pick up on the keywords and points you’re making.
You might include a quick snippet from an online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to the site where the rest of the information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of in the essay your skills in bold print and then provide bullets for the rest of the prompt, information you’re seeking to convey. What should be included in catcher, your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and there is no exact science as to what to include. Math Homework? Different people will have different cards to play based on their level of experience and in the essay, the specifics of their job search. The only certainty is that you should always due your best to match your skills and process esl, the information you convey on your resume with the qualifications and job description in question. You might include the following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. A summary of your qualifications for the job in catcher in the rye thesis essay, question. Help? A sense of rye thesis essay your work or management style. Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for essay, the job and/or company.
Professional achievements. Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Measurable improvements that you’ve made for previous employers. Accolades or awards that you’ve received from previous employers. When considering what to write in your summary, do your best to rye thesis, avoid stand-alone cliches like “team player” or “results oriented”. Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples.
You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y. Finally, you’ll want to ensure that the rest of pearson math homework help your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information that’s pertinent to the job in question. So you don’t necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume. As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of highly technical skills and diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isn’t repetitive shouldn’t be a problem.
Below is one example of a summary: Registered Nurse with over 7 years of critical care experience. Rye Thesis Essay? Specialized practice in cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and intensive care. Extensive experience and thorough understanding of diversity and organizational behavior pathophysiology and catcher in the rye thesis essay, pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Paragraphs? Promoted to Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Current member of the in the essay, American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008. Prompt? AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and catcher rye thesis, Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. Along Lines Writing Paragraphs And Essays 5th Edition? How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as.
8 Things Every Nurse Ought to catcher essay, Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for essay, nursing jobs. We provide. Hello, I just recently graduated from catcher in the rye thesis, a BSN program last week so I haven’t taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an LPN for 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an math help LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the fact that I don’t have a license yet? Is it appropriate to in the, say “license pending?” Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee!
There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations. Assuming you’re looking for RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and then add the RN. In the Licenses and Certifications section of these writing paragraphs 5th edition your resume, list the RN license as Pending and provide a status, ie. scheduled for NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for License 6/7/2017. As for the summary, I would indicate that you’re a new grad with experience as an catcher rye thesis LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). From there, try your best to uc personal statement prompt 1 essay, highlight how your experience relates to the qualifications and requirements for the specific job your applying for. And remember, always be looking for ways to rye thesis, explain why you’re the solution to their problems….rather than explaining what they can do for you. Pearson Math? I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an Experienced Nurse? I am working on my resume and do not know how to catcher rye thesis, tailor it in on communication technology, regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?.
I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. Rye Thesis? So in total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced. However, how you approach your resume would depend on whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that you’re applying for. For example, if you have 1 year of uc personal experience in rye thesis, Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in an essay, a hospital’s ICU, then you might want to include details about clinical rotations in the ICU during your schooling, in addition to your experience in LTC.
I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. Catcher In The Rye Thesis Essay? I have two years experience working in on communication, a nursing home setting and only recently graduated from the LPN program. I’m concerned that my few years of overall experience is catcher essay going to effect me finding a good job. These Lines And Essays 5th Edition? I have tried to construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in what I have so far. Catcher? Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated! I am struggling in writing my resume.
I am not sure how to present myself. My most recent jobs included the Program Nurse head for pearson, a Life Skills Program for medical fragile children and the nurse in catcher, charge of all the medical needs for an essay, a camp, including managing all aspects of the clinic. I also have worked at several doctor clinics and in the early days of my career, I was an ICU nurse at catcher in the rye thesis essay, several hospitals. I would like another position in some type of on communication technology nurse management. In The Rye Thesis? Suggestions on how to summarize myself? Thanks for the inquiry, Jean. There’s no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to transition into process, a new area of the field. Catcher In The? My recommendation would be to review each job posting for lines paragraphs 5th edition, hints about qualifications and requirements that you may be able to equate to your past experience.
You can also research the employer posting the job to catcher rye thesis essay, see if there is some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with. You can also review the and organizational behavior essay, job descriptions for rye thesis essay, similar jobs of many different employers to uc personal statement, find hints about the qualifications that are being sought for the type of position you’re interested in. There’s a good chance that if a qualification is important to one employer, it’s important to others. The main goal is to convey how you are going to help solve the problems an employer is facing; how you are the best solution for rye thesis essay, their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of experience to draw on, and that’s a good thing. The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the help, qualifications of the catcher essay, new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an employer’s problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into want abroad, 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps! I’m a former travel nurse of in the many years inclusive of interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions.
Honestly, my Resume’ would look more like a “rap sheet” if I listed 10+ years of contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently. Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to move from Director roles into the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to display your travel nursing experience as one entry in technology, your work history. For example: Worked for rye thesis, various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to the job posting for which you are applying. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach. Typically, we recommend listing out the hospitals, but in your case it might be too much.
That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for this article! Helps a lot =) Thanks for letting us know; we’re glad to hear it’s useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to me! #128578; Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to apply to uc personal statement 1 essay, medsurg positions as well. Rye Thesis Essay? What should I highlight in 1 essay, my executive summary?
Thanks in advance! Thanks for catcher, the question. Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. There’s a bit about essay want abroad summaries there. In addition to what’s covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things. As always, review the job listing, learn about the employer and catcher rye thesis, the challenges the employer faces. Then, try to highlight anything in your experience that might align. I hope this helps! Thanks for sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in med/surg.
Thanks for the inquiry, Kayla. I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in math, the summary. Catcher Rye Thesis Essay? Be sure to review the job posting carefully to see what they’re looking for so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isn’t a standard length or file size for nursing resume. Most would say that it’s best to keep the and organizational, resume to 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isn’t as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm. Here is an article with some more considerations on the topic.
How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in the medical settings since I graduated in 2005. In The Rye Thesis Essay? I worked in family doctor’s office as over all in charge. Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on my papers to stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and CNA of on communication 4 yrs. Essay? Now, I started working as an RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in and organizational behavior, a long term care. I really want to be a dialysis nurse. I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in 2006. My apologies, Luz, but I’m a little unclear as to your situation and in the rye thesis, primary goal.
If you’re interested in becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into pearson homework, the major dialysis services, Fresenius and DaVita, as potential employers. They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and many aspects of your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you. I would like to become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in catcher rye thesis essay, that area I have worked in these paragraphs and essays 5th edition, cardiac telemetry and psyche. I did do peritoneal dialysis on essay the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description.
Please advise how to open the essay why you to study abroad, door into a new arena of in the essay nursing. And Organizational? Thank you so very kindly, El. Towne. Thanks for the question! Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so that’s a great start.
You also have some relative experience in the field. You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. In The Rye Thesis? Next, you might consider inquiring with the along and essays 5th edition, larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. The ratings for these employers on Glass Door and Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to 2 years of experience in the specialty before searching for a more desirable hospital based position. The private Dialysis operators tend to in the essay, a bit more welcoming to candidates without experience.
That said, the pearson help, job market for RNs is very hot in 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. I hope this helps! What about for a second career new nurse? I have over seven years of experience in the communications field with three years of supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the NCLEX. My nursing experience is limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work.
I am struggling how to catcher in the, relate my past experience with nursing to diversity and organizational essay, make me stand out in catcher in the rye thesis, my Summary. Yes, it’s difficult to relate experiences in other industries to nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of nursing. Esl? That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of your former career. Catcher In The Rye Thesis? Your promotion, leadership, team-work and other aspects are all good qualifications to on communication technology, address in your summary. Also, here is an rye thesis essay article on math new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful.
I hope this information helps! What would you write as a nursing student looking to catcher in the essay, start applying for jobs? I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me. Help? I wont be taking my boards for about 5 months still. Set to graduate in December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the rye thesis essay, best way to present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the titles of pearson math homework ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at in the essay, my most recent employer? Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on Monday and Tuesday. Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility. Working with physicians I developed new protocols for homework help, wound assessment, treatment, and management and catcher rye thesis, every Monday I functioned in the role of Wound Nurse.
Is it best to break each job into why you want, its own summary and bullet list? I’m in over my head trying to figure out the best way to present myself in a resume now, including the profile. Thanks for in the, the inquiry. This is essay esl a great problem to have for your nursing resume! I agree it’s difficult to manage though.
Typically, when people have multiple roles with the same employer, they’re not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the time-frame they were performed. Essay? In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and and organizational essay, break each into it’s own summary and catcher rye thesis essay, bullet list. Essay Why You Want To Study Abroad? The reason is that these are all very different roles. Catcher In The? Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.) Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse. Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for the facility.
Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date. I think something like that works well in this case. It might take up quite a bit of space, but you’ve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to want to study, the position applied for and highlight quantifiable and tangible achievements where possible. As for your resume summary, I think it’s best say something like, “X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an in the rye thesis essay ADON, and statement, X years as a Wound Care Nurse.” And/or, “Leadership and teamwork skills recognized by current employer with promotions and special assignments.” Remember, the summary itself is catcher just that, a quick summary designed to pique interest and these lines, get the in the rye thesis, reader to spend more time reviewing the rest of the help, resume and the actual accomplishments. It’s also an excellent opportunity to match your qualifications with the catcher in the rye thesis, required qualifications for the job. So, if the job is looking for X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, “Over X years experience as an along these and essays 5th edition ADON.” I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns. When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to add awards you were nominated for but did not receive? Great Question! Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no.
I would say that it depends on how well you can quantify the nomination. For example: One of five Staff Nurses out of 160 to be nominated for rye thesis, the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an honor just to be nominated. If you’re able to do this, or something like it, then adding the nomination to your resume could be useful. I hope this helps!! Thank you. Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no? I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for a BSN or will the process essay esl, supporting information under education provide enough information? That’s a tough one.
I’m not sure that I have seen a BS instead of a BSN. To be honest, I don’t think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to include your credentials as BS, RN. Catcher In The Rye Thesis? The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the required work experience. That said, if you’re a new grad, it shouldn’t matter either. Like you’ve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on resumes.
I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and I think your situation is no different.
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I was wondering if you would want to in the rye thesis add another model. I#8217;ve just created a pretty different design from what is listed on this page. Why You Want. :)
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The Catcher in the Rye Essays | …
essay on mk gandhi Gandhi's Concept of Social Welfare. With Gandhi's advent on the Indian scene in 1915, things began to change all round. Gandhi looked at social welfare in in the rye thesis, his own unique way. His ways, indeed, were unique, so much so that even as early as 1894 i.e. when he was just 25 years old, he wanted to help his compatriots in South Africa by saving them from blatant and crushing racial discrimination. This shows Gandhi's consideration of his fellow men even at that young age.
Gandhi never equated happiness with economic prosperity and uc personal statement prompt, physical pleasure alone. His concept of the welfare of society was totally opposed to the utilitarian concept, viz. the greatest good of the greatest number. Gandhi said, A votary of Ahimsa would strive for the greatest good of all and die in the attempt to realise this ideal. He would be willing to die so that others might live. He would serve the in the rye thesis essay, rest by dying himself. Uc Personal Prompt! The greatest good of all, inevitably included the good of the greatest number, and, therefore, he and catcher essay, the utilitarian would converge on many points. But ultimately they would have to an essay part company and catcher in the essay, even work in opposite directions.
The utilitarian to statement 1 essay be logical will never sacrifice himself. The absolutist will even sacrifice himself'. It is Gandhi's deep-rooted conviction that individual happiness lies in the happiness of society and vice-versa; and this is constantly seen in almost all his pronouncements regarding social welfare. He considered man superior to the system he propounded, and in the, so he was against the system which brought about an essay, moral degradation of Indian society. Gandhi never drew a sharp distinction between economics and ethics. For him, economic policies which were harmful to the moral well-being of an catcher in the individual, community, society, country or a nation were immoral and therefore, sinful.
For him happiness meant the happiness of the society as a whole and was indicated primarily, by its moral standard and secondarily, by its physical and economic well-being. 'Sarvodaya' the greatest good of all through truth and non-violence became the ultimate goal of Gandhi in social welfare. On Communication Technology! His methods of working towards this goal were different from those of many other leaders and social reformers. He took an integrated view of life and disapproved of catcher in the essay dividing an essay individual's life into different compartments. Also the individual was looked upon by him not as a separate entity but as a constituent unit of society. On his return from South Africa, he perceived after a year of in the essay extensive travel all over India, that if his mother-land wanted to get out diversity behavior, of the in the essay, grinding poverty, political freedom was the foremost requirement. This could come only through the awakening of lines writing paragraphs society. His ideas of social reconstruction had already started forming in the last few years of his stay in South Africa.
He believed firmly that the individual and the society were contributory to each other's happiness. To Gandhi, nothing was more sacred than truth and non- violence. Originally he believed that God is Truth. Later he changed this a little and maintained that Truth is God. Generally speaking, Gandhi said, observation of the law of truth is understood merely to mean that we must speak the truth but we . should understand the word 'satya' or truth in a much wider sense. There should be truth in thought, truth in catcher rye thesis, speech and truth in action. For seeking as well as for along these lines writing paragraphs finding truth, Ahimsa - non-violence - love for all beings - was a necessity.
Although Ahimsa - non-violence - is a negative word, Gandhi certainly did not consider it as a negative force. His concept of in the rye thesis essay Ahimsa is not confined to human beings but includes the entire creation. He says, In spite of the negative particle 'non', it is no negative force. Homework! Superficially we are surrounded in life by strife and blood- shed, life living upon life. Catcher Rye Thesis! But some seer, who ages ago penetrated the centre of truth, said, 'It is not through strife and violence that man can fulfill his destiny and his duty to his fellow creatures'. It is a force which is more positive than electricity and more powerful than even ether. It is statement prompt 1 essay essential to under- stand the implications of in the non-violence as Gandhi understood them as it was the creed to process which he rendered life-long service.
Non-violence is the law of human race and is infinitely greater than and superior to brute force. In the last resort it is of no avail to those who do not posses a living faith in the God of love. Non-violence affords the fullest protection to one's self-respect and sense of honour, but not always to possession of land or money, though its habitual practice does prove a better bulwark than the possession of armed men to defend them. Non-violence is a power which can be wielded equally by all - children, young men and women or grown-up people, provided they have a living faith in the God of love and have therefore equal love for all mankind. It is a profound error to suppose that whilst the law is good enough for individuals, it is catcher not for the masses of mankind.
According to Gandhi, Ahimsa is a necessity for seeking, as well as, for finding Truth. To him both are so intertwined that it is uc personal statement 1 essay almost impossible to catcher essay disentangle them. He calls Truth and Ahimsa two sides of' a smooth unstamped metallic disc', nevertheless, to Gandhi ahimsa is the means and essay why you abroad, Truth the end. Gandhi's non-violence was not a weapon of the weak and rye thesis essay, cowardly. It was meant for the fearless and the brave. It was on these two rock-like pillars of truth and non-violence that Gandhi strove all his life to build the edifice of social reconstruction for 'Sarvodaya'.
Of course, he believed that it was only by individual reformation through his famous eleven vows that an ideal society could be built. Individual and Society. To Gandhi, the individual was as important, if not more, than the abroad, society, as he firmly believed that the happiness of the individual formed the constituent part of the happiness of the society. So, for him, social welfare meant the conscious submission of the individual and a voluntary contribution of one's possession to the society, which consisted of all, not a majority and, in return, the social system, built upon the principles of non-violence and democracy, was to give a complete guarantee for the maximum development of the individual's personality. As early as 1915, on his return to in the rye thesis essay India from South Africa, Gandhi's concept of an individual's development had completely formed as is pearson math evident from the following: Truthfulness, Brahmacharya, non-violence, non-stealing and rye thesis essay, non-hoarding, these five rules of want to study life are obligatory on all aspirants. Every one should be an aspirant.
A man's character, therefore, is to catcher rye thesis essay be built on the foundation' of these disciplines. These Writing And Essays! Beyond doubt, they are to be observed by everyone in the world. Though a businessman, one must never utter or practice untruth; though married, one must remain celibate; though keeping oneself alive, one can practise non-violence. After the establishment of the catcher in the, Sabarmati Ashram, Gandhi added the following vows of essay esl physical work, control of palate, fearlessness, acceptance of in the essay all faiths, Swadeshi and the removal of untouchability to along these lines paragraphs and essays those already mentioned, as an Ashram rule 'to enable an individual to lead a disciplined life. It would not be remiss here if it is mentioned that Gandhi's method of combating various evils in rye thesis, society was also not the conventional way of superficial help.
He tackled every problem in its totality and started a two-pronged attack. One from the diversity, individual point of view and from the social point of view viz., changing the individual to change society. He was not destructive, or else non-violence would never have been his creed. Catcher In The! He did not, like many other social reformers, try to break the system or age-old customs of a society. He tried to give those age-old customs a rational interpretation and apply them in the changed context of essay esl modem times. In short, he tried to bring about a synthesis between the good points of both the old customs and the modem ways to bring about catcher in the rye thesis essay, real social welfare.
Like the Anarchists, Gandhi also has a stateless society as his ideal. He is essay esl opposed to the State because the State, according to him, is an catcher instrument of violence. He says, The State rep- resents violence in a concentrated and organised form. The individual has a soul, but as the State is a soul-less machine, it can never be weaned from the pearson math, violence to rye thesis which it owes its very existence. In the ideal society, as conceived by Gandhi, each individual will be a law unto himself and hence, there would be no necessity of a State or State-made law.
He, however, was realist enough to realise that it would take a long time for this ideal to be attained, maintaining that, A government cannot succeed in becoming entirely non-violent because it represents all the people. I do not to-day conceive of such a golden age. But I do believe in the possibility of a predominantly non-violent society. An Essay! And I am working for it. While Plato's second-best ideal is depicted in his dialogue The Laws, Gandhi gives us a picture of his second-best ideal which is catcher called the Non-Violent State. Uc Personal Statement 1 Essay! This State will not be able to completely eliminate violence. Though as a general rule, Gandhi does not believe in catcher in the rye thesis essay, the State encroaching upon statement prompt, the liberty of the individual, he, at the same time, realizes that so long as the State exists, it will have to catcher in the essay try to create conditions which will enable an process individual to realise his best self. The main characteristics of the Non-Violent State are: There would be minimum use of coercion in it. Police force, with arms; cannot be eliminitated.
But the police will be servants, not masters of the people. The policemen will be reformers and their work will be confined to robbers and dacoits. In dealing with crime, the Non-Violent State will discourage undue force. The object of the State will be neither retribution nor deterrence. Punishment becomes necessary in some cases of catcher crime. But it will be corrective and reformative and not vindictive. So far as jails and courts are concerned, jails will be more for reforming the prisoners rather than frightening or breaking them. Prisoners will be treated as defectives and not as criminals to be looked down upon. The jail officials will be their mends and instructors.
Judicial work will be done by the Panchayats. In the sphere of administration, decentralization will be the keynote of the Non-violent State. It will be a decentralized society with equality pervading every sphere of life. Centralization brings about concentration of power in the hands of a few, with the possibility of abuse of power. With decentralization the these writing paragraphs and essays 5th edition, functions of the State will be gradually reduced and transferred to catcher in the voluntary associations. In performing its functions, the object of the State will be to serve the homework help, masses, and the voluntary organizations will be more effective in this as their aim is more 'service of the people' than acquisition and retention of power. So far as institutional changes are concerned, some of the main suggestions made by Gandhi regarding different institutions are: Family: Family, one of the many social institutions, was sacred to him. He considered family as a 'God-ordained institution'. The relationship between husband and wife should be that of true friends and not that of master and servant. He certainly did not approve of the relationship of husband and wife -one superior and the other inferior -as was the case in majority of Indian families.
Both must hold the rye thesis essay, other's body and soul as sacred as one's own. An Essay! He expected the children to be devoted to the parents and to the practice of essay truth. Along These Lines Writing Paragraphs And Essays! He disapproved of the Hindu way of discrimination between the son and the daughter in the matter of inheritance. He wanted sons and daughters to be treated with absolute equality. Just as children should be devoted to parents, so also the in the rye thesis essay, parents must mould the character of the children and provide education to enable them to become self-reliant and to earn an honest livelihood by the sweat of the brow instead of, making them slaves of ancestral property which kills enterprise and feeds the passions which accompany idleness and luxury. Child-Marriage: Gandhi was totally opposed to child-marriage. An Essay! He considered the custom of child-marriage indicative of physical and moral degeneration. He said, This custom of child-marriage is both a moral as well as a physical evil.
For, it undermines our morals and induces physical degeneration. By countenancing such customs, we recede from catcher in the essay, God as well as Swaraj. A man who has no thought of the tender age of a girl has none of God. And under-grown men have no capacity for fighting battles of freedom, or having gained it, of retaining it. Statement 1 Essay! Legislation is being promoted to raise the catcher rye thesis, age of consent. It may be good for statement prompt bringing a minority to catcher in the rye thesis book. But it is not legislation that will cure a popular evil, it is enlightened public opinion that can do it. Statement! I am not opposed to legislation in such matters, but I do lay greater stress on cultivation of public opinion. Ordinarily, a girl under 18 years should never be given in marriage. He gave enthusiastic support to the Child Marriage Restraint Bill (1929) passed by catcher rye thesis essay, the then assembly. This bill legally forbade marriages between boys under eighteen and girls under fourteen years of age, while the Hindus and Muslims were very much against it and opposed it bitterly.
Gandhi also abhorred any measure or condition like widowhood, divorce, the and organizational behavior essay, dowry system, which smacked of catcher in the essay victimization in any form of the weaker section of an essay society. Gandhi had specific ideas about widowhood and he said, have repeatedly said that every widow has as much right to remarry as every widower. Voluntary widowhood is rye thesis essay a priceless boon in Hinduism; enforced widowhood is a curse. Gandhi wanted the enlightened women of India to seek relentlessly the repeal of all legal disqualifications and removal of process essay social discrimination against women in India. He considered legislation to remove the in the rye thesis essay, inequalities of an essay on communication women as essential. But at the same time, he did not favour women competing with men in -all vocations. He advocated selective education for women, not with any sense of catcher rye thesis essay women being inferior to process essay men, but he did believe that they were not identical and that their fields of work were different. Gandhi also did not justify, on catcher in the essay any count, the diversity behavior, position of in the women as mere playthings for the indulgence and pleasures of 1 essay their husbands. Catcher Rye Thesis Essay! Gandhi saw the mother in every woman. He also believed in a life of sexual restraint even between married couples. He believed that couples should have sexual life only when they wanted progeny.
This was his ideal. But he believed in restraint only when it was both mental and physical and pearson math help, not mere outward suppression in the case of married couples. In the catcher in the, matter of family planning, Gandhi firmly believed that self-restraint was the along lines writing and essays, only method of family planning. He was totally and irrevocably against contraceptives because he believed that any method other than self-restraint would only lead to moral degeneration. He did not at all agree with the catcher rye thesis essay, view that abstinence was harmful to men and behavior, women, as it was a denial of a natural urge.
He definitely believed that the sexual act was not essential for normal life outside the purpose of procreation. He has said, Self-indulgence with contraceptives may prevent the coming of children, but will sap the vitality of both men and women. Catcher! He also believed that for diversity and organizational behavior self-restraint not only sex, but all the senses of sight, hearing, taste and touch should be under restraint. He said, If self-control be an catcher interference with nature precisely in the same sense as contraceptives, be it so. I would still maintain that the one interference is lawful and desirable because it promotes the well-being of the individuals as well as society, whereas the other degrades both and is therefore unlawful. Self-control is the surest and the only method regulating the birth-rate. Birth-control by contraceptives is race-suicide. Believing men and women to be equal, Gandhi never approved of the system of purdah. He said that it was, a barbarous custom which, whatever use it might have had when it was first introduced, had now become totally useless and doing incalculable harm to the country. He further said, Chastity is not a hot-house growth. It cannot be superimposed.
It cannot be protected by the surrounding wall of the purdah. It must grow from within, and to be worth anything, it must be capable of withstanding every unsought temptation. It must be a very poor thing that cannot stand the gaze of men. Want To Study! Men, to be men, must be able to catcher in the rye thesis essay trust their womenfolk, even as the latter are compelled to trust them. By seeking to-day to essay esl interfere with the free growth of womanhood of India, we are interfering with the growth of free and independent-spirited men. It partly accounts for our weakness, indecision, narrowness and helplessness. Devadasis Prostitutes: As said earlier, Gandhi considered a situation in all its aspects and so when he was keen to raise the catcher rye thesis essay, status of why you to study abroad women in India to its rightful place, he took into. account the question of the prostitutes and Devadasis. He felt very pained at the problem of Devadas is, because he felt that it was deceiving God to use young girls for the priests' carnal pleasures under the guise of service to God.
Similarly, he considered the catcher rye thesis essay, existence of the institution of prostitutes a shame on society and more so a shame on men. In connection with the problem of Devadas is, Gandhi considered the name 'Devadasi' a euphemism for prostitutes. He considered it in the same light as that of prostitution. And to him this crime of man against on communication technology, woman was much more serious than that of a hungry man stealing a banana or that of a needy youngster picking a pocket. Gandhi believed that this vice was prevalent in cities and the majority of villages were more or less free of it. Thus, in the question of uplifting the status of women, as in other questions, Gandhi looked at in the rye thesis it from the totality and believed that the change should start at the root of social thinking. He held that that was the only way to bring about a meaningful improvement in any situation.
Gandhi's method of an essay on communication combating an evil in society did not vary in rye thesis essay, its fundamental principle of social reconstruction from within and synthesis of the old and the new. The abject poverty in which the essay why you want to study abroad, majority of his countrymen lived, prompted him to be active in public life. He blamed the catcher in the essay, rich for the condition of starvation and poverty and considered it immoral to keep such vast numbers under those conditions. He said,: it is the fundamental law of nature, without exception, that nature produces enough for our wants nom day to day; and if only everybody took enough for himself, and nothing more, there would be no pauperism in this world, there would be no man dying of starvation. He maintained that a non-violent system of government is not possible as long as the wide gulf between the rich and the hungry millions persisted.
Therefore, he suggested, leveling down of homework help a few rich in catcher in the essay, whose hands is concentrated the bulk of the essay why you abroad, nation's wealth on the one hand and the leveling up of the semi-starved, naked millions on the other. But this result had to be accomplished by rye thesis essay, a non-violent process. To achieve the above for maintaining some equality and stability, he propagated his doctrine of Trusteeship. Trusteeship meant that the rich man will be left in essay, possession of his wealth, of which he will use what he reasonably requires for his personal needs and will act as a trustee for the remainder to be used for the rest of the society. Urban Rural Labour: The other major aspect of in the essay social welfare which drew Gandhi's attention was that of urban labour as well as that of the statement prompt 1 essay, landless farmers, constituting rural labour. He was appalled at essay the living conditions of the factory workers in the city and of the technology, landless farm-labourers in the village. He believed that the spinning wheel was the answer to in the rye thesis many of India's problems. By the spinning wheel, he no doubt meant Khadi, but he also meant the revival of village industries.
He was of the opinion that India was a country of villages. The villages had suffered untold misery due to to study lop-sided development of only the coast-line of catcher essay India and its cities, indulged in by the British Rulers to serve their own purpose. The revivification of villages was only possible with decentralization, development of Khadi and village industries, with efforts to make the villages self-sufficient. The self-sufficiency of villages would then gradually eradicate the need to migrate to the over-crowded cities for work and employment to earn their daily bread. Gandhi was completely conscious of the miseries of the urban labourer and believed that the urban labourer must have a minimum living wage, adequate living conditions and ideally, every concern should have a scheme for sharing of abroad profits with all the workers. On the catcher in the rye thesis essay, other hand, the workers also must put in their best in whatever work tJ:1ey were engaged. In the spare time, at home they could take up spinning to augment their income. On the question of urban labour, Gandhi definitely favoured - trade union activities. He was of the opinion that local unions could be more effective than a national body. Nevertheless, he was responsible for establishing the Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in essay why you want, 1947 which had evolved from Hindoostan Mazdoor Seva Sangh started in 1938. His belief in trade unions arose after his experience of the tussle between the textile workers and the mill-owners at catcher Ahmedabad around 1916/17.
He felt that it was necessary for labour to be united. But he firmly believed that the trade union should only an essay on communication take up issues that were correct from the ethical point of view; that negotiations were the best way to resolve issues; and that confrontation and strikes should be resorted to catcher rye thesis only in extreme cases of injustice. Once a strike was called for, it should be conducted in a non-violent manner and should not be given up under any provocation till justice was obtained. Uc Personal Statement Prompt! But it was essential that the union leaders did not resort to a strike unless the issue was thoroughly examined from catcher essay, all sides and prompt 1 essay, its moral justification was fully established. He was of the opinion that if the cause was right and non- violence adhered to, labour would ultimately win. Thus Gandhi's concept of social welfare was 'Sarvodaya' based on a healthy give and essay, take between the individual and society; each contributing to the other's moral, spiritual, economic arid social progress, prosperity and happiness, based on the firm foundation of truth and non-violence.
Examined from all angles, this concept enveloped the field of social welfare in its entirety, unlike the modem western concept. Even the modem institutional concept of citizen-right is concentrated on the different needs, of an individual or a group like physical, mental or economic. The Gandhian concept takes a total perspective and focuses on homework help the development of the moral and spiritual aspects with truth and non-violence as its base; with all the other aspects, such as physical, mental and economic, to enhance the individual's social sense, thereby creating a society of healthy individuals. One important aspect of Gandhi's social thought was his tendency not only to bridge the in the rye thesis essay, gap between individual and social ethics but also to regard social reality as a counterpart of man's inner reality. In the western concept of social welfare there lies a sense of giver and receiver even in today's institutional and diversity behavior, citizen-right concept. This may be due to the fact that the present concept has developed from the initial residual concept of charity.
In the in the rye thesis essay, Gandhian concept there is no giving or receiving. As said earlier, it is a total perspective, not divided into areas, i.e. the total individual or society has to reform and thus build up the. society on a moral concept of happiness which covers all other aspects. The individual contributes to the society and the society helps the individual. The modem concept of social welfare developed in the West with the onset of industrialization and essay esl, hence into that of citizen- right. The Gandhian concept has been built up in India, where social welfare was woven in the fabric of in the rye thesis its society since time immemorial. Help to an essay on communication the needy was enjoined by 'dharma' for the joint families, communities and kings. Gandhi went a step further and for him, rights and duties Went hand-in-hand. Both parties had to co-relate, co-operate mid improve the conditions; not merely wait for society to help them.
In the modern concept, the welfare services consist of help. in one form or another and catcher in the rye thesis essay, the emphasis is on help in the form of money or material or services obtained through them. In the Gandhian concept the emphasis is on the human aspect and the dependence to contribute to social welfare is process essay esl not on money or materials alone. This being a total perspective, the reform or the reconstruction had to start at in the rye thesis the grass-root level i.e. the village level, gradually reaching the seat of the government. Not only India, but the world came under its purview. Gandhi's doctrine of uc personal statement 1 essay social solidarity was essentially libertarian, humanistic and cosmopolitan. He said, 'As with the individual so with the society. Catcher In The Essay! A village is but a group of individuals, and the world as I see it, one vast village and mankind one family'. Here there is a resemblance to along lines writing paragraphs Kropotkin's social philosophy, as one of its main ingredients was his elaborate analysis of the catcher rye thesis essay, part played in history by people's constructive agencies of 'mutual aid' rather than 'competition' in the Darwinian sense - a point stressed also by Gandhi in every aspect, but emphatically so in human welfare. The government and the law took a secondary place, unlike in the modem concept and the responsibility of 'Sarvodaya' rested solely on human effort and on developing the individual along natural and ethical lines to create a better society. Why You To Study Abroad! For this Gandhi had already formed the eleven vows for the individual.
These eleven vows and catcher, the items of Gandhi's programme of constructive work, touched every aspect of an individual' s and a society's life in every minor and major field. In the case of women welfare too, Gandhi wanted the change in social thinking about the status of women. He did not say that women have to be given their rights. He said that women, by their own spiritual and moral development, have to essay to study win their place as equal partners, without relinquishing their specialized field, 'the home'. On the other hand, he wanted man to catcher in the rye thesis essay so develop as to stop exploitation of pearson woman for his carnal pleasures and stop using her as a slave for his needs. Gandhi was a critic of society, both Eastern and Western. He judged a social structure in rye thesis, terms of want to study abroad his own valuation of what the social process is or could be. He had a clear aware- ness of the catcher in the, 'imperfect state' of society, irrespective of whether it was Eastern or Western. Contrary to the popular belief he was not a traditionalist or a revivalist.
Nor could he be a revolutionary who would tear up the essay why you want abroad, foundation of a social structure without even trying to transform it by peaceful means. He did not believe that traditions should be adhered to if they become a constraint on catcher rye thesis the development of new social processes demanded by changing values of the modem world; but neither did he favour, uncontrolled operation of blind economic forces released by the contemporary technological and industrial civilization, undermining the social foundation in both overt and insidious ways. It is difficult to determine Gandhi's concept of social welfare, because, he dealt with all problems from the point of view of a social revolutionary without violence. His humanism and relentless efforts to wipe off injustice in any form, to statement prompt 1 essay any person or group such as women, Harijans, landless farmers, makes him a pioneer of catcher in the social welfare through social change. with a base of truth and non-violence leading to an essay 'Sarvodaya'. His way of thinking was so unique that he could not be compared with any school of thought. Indeed, in his social thinking, Gandhi never recognized any system of thought claiming an impersonal objectivity. In this respect, he can be regarded as being more akin to Existentialists. We find in him echoes of Kant - we mean Kant's reliance on moral sensibility as a complement to the understanding of the world. Bred in the Indian philosophical traditions, Gandhi believed in the penetration of self and personality as a prelude to the development of moral sensibility which, he thought was an important factor in in the rye thesis, individual and social life, and in terms of which man could judge the validity of his social ideals and of his own social institutions. Ralph Templin, a champion of coloured peoples' cause and an American missionary of these paragraphs 5th edition Indian Methodist Church said in 1930s, 26What is Gandhi's meaning for catcher us?
The world social revolution is homework long overdue. Time presses us to bring our social arrangements up to the level of our technological achievements. Many urge the use of the age's favourite weapon, the 'coup d'etat', which would reform politics from the in the rye thesis, top down and why you abroad, from outside in. Some of these with the usual impatience of immediatists in all ages, reveal contempt for morality as a support of their reform. They are indifferent to the violence which drenches the world in blood. Their futility has been demonstrated by catcher rye thesis essay, every Western revolution, beginning with the French. Gandhi offers an alternative way of process revolution.
In this lies his great gift to the world. He begins with a basic philosophy of eminent soundness which combines all the power of personal integrity - 'Satyagrahi' or soul-force with the pooled strength of the co-operative means to mastery of nature and in the, human nature - 'Swadeshism' or the economics of group self-help. This way of revolution turns its followers back from the political instrument - the mutual application of labour to natural resources in the production and distribution of all that is needed by the human family. Machinery is to be opposed only when it magnifies the power of the political instrument in the hands of those who would attempt to thwart the people's mastery of their own destiny. Without disrupting all at once the structure of a society that has evolved through generations, this way of revolution begins its reformation within each life by stripping away all the psychological elements that divide and disorganize people, such as the desire for power over others, the uc personal statement, desire to exploit or regiment others, and violent attitudes and catcher in the, methods in conflict.
Simultaneously, it attacks both the inner and . outer citadels of esl resistance to reform. On the positive side, it engages people at once and in even wider areas in the mutual conquest of power within and without. Thus Gandhi did not visualize social reconstruction and welfare as a field for helping the needy as charity, but as the emergence of rye thesis people through individual and social discipline, towards a healthy and happy society. [Source: Pushpanjali - Essays on Gandhian Themes, edited by - R. Srinivasan, Usha Thakkar, Pam Rajput]