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licenciate thesis Liquid Phase Epitaxial Growth of SiC. Institute of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linköping University, Sweden. Manuscript under construction for Licenciate Dissertation. This page is currently under construction! Silicon Carbide (SiC) is mumbai terrorism, established as a semiconductor material suitable for device applications. The research in this material has been carried out for a long time, but has increased a substantial amount the last decade. The growing interest is due to the properties of SiC which has many advantages compared to conventional semiconductors. The wide band gap, high electric breakdown field strength, chemical stability, high saturated drift velocity, high thermal conductivity makes SiC very attractive for high-power, high-frequency, and high-temperature device applications.

However, there still remains some features of the material to be obliterated, i.e. the structural quality still needs to the inspector inspector essay, be improved. Terrorism? Since it is expository essay a good leader, possible to grow high-purity and mumbai terrorism essay, high-quality semiconductor materials from the liquid phase, it is natural to exploit this for SiC. For example, Si liquid phase growth tends to makes a good, reject metallic impurities by a factor of 103 to 105. For SiC the rejection ratio might be as high as 1010 [1]. To date, there has only been a limited amount of research on terrorism essay, Liquid Phase Epitaxial (LPE) growth of SiC and most of the work was performed two decades ago. The purpose of the present work is to gates millenium, update and contribute to the research of SiC growth from the liquid phase. Basic Properties of SiC. SiC exists in essay a large number of different one dimensional polymorphs called polytypes [2]. On The? Basically, all polytypes have a hexagonal frame with a C atom in center of mass of a triangle of Si atoms, Fig. 1a. The distances of a and C-Si are 3.08 Å and 1.89 Å, respectively [3].

The main focus of the research has been the on the 3C, 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. The difference between the polytypes is the stacking order of the layers. The stacking sequences of the 3C, 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes are shown in essay Fig. 1a. The letters A, B, and C denotes a double layer of Si and C atoms. The notation of the polytypes follows the number of layers in the unit cell and the crystal structure (C for cubic and H for hexagonal). Often 3C-SiC is referred to as b-SiC and the hexagonal polytypes as a-SiC. Mla Titles? The 3C-SiC polytype is the only polytype which is cubic. The structure of the essay hexagonal polytypes is wurtzite. The height of a unit cell, c, varies within the different polytypes. Growth is often carried out on surfaces parallel to the basal plane, i.e. on surfaces perpendicular to the c-axis, Fig.

1b. This is stated as growth on modest, an on-axis substrate. However, it has been observed that growth on a surface off-oriented from the basal plane is terrorism essay, favorable [4-6]. The substrate orientation is then stated off-axis. Most often the misorientation is toward the (11 0) or (1 00) plane. The first plane is shown in Fig. 1b. SiC is a polar material, i.e. the outer most atoms in the [0001] direction are the Si-atoms and in the [000 ] direction are the C-atoms, Fig. 1c.

As a consequence of this, the on the proposal analysis two faces have different growth characteristics and chemical behaviour. A common crystalline defect in SiC is the Double Position Boundary (DPB), often seen in terrorism essay 3C-SiC grown on 6H-SiC substrates. DPB's appear when islands of the two possible stacking sequences (ABC and ACB) meet. The probability of formation is higher when growing on on-axis substrates and the number of DPB's are reduced when growth is performed on misoriented substrate surfaces. Another serious crystalline defect in SiC is the micropipe: a hole which runs through the crystal along the c-axis. Homework? The diameter of a micropipe is in the mm range. These defects have also been observed in GaN, but with a diameter in the nm range [7,8].

The density of the micropipes is higher in SiC grown with the Modified Lely method (200 cm-2 for high-quality material) compared to material grown with the Lely method. The Lely method is, however, not suitable for large area growth. The micropipe is terrorism essay, detrimental for on pie SiC devices [9,10] and is thus a severe problem for power applications which often require an area of several cm2 for a device. The micropipe density must consequently be reduced considerably before SiC devices are of real commercial value. Fig. 1. (a) The tetrahedral structure of the C and Si atoms in SiC. The double layer stacking sequence of the 6H, 3C, and 4H-SiC polytypes are also shown. (b) The basal plane, c-axis, and (11 0) plane of SiC. (c) The upper and lower face of SiC. The upper has Si-atoms with dangling bonds.

The lower side has C-atoms with dangling bonds. (a,b) from [3]; (c) from [11]. Wetting of a Solution in Contact with a Solid. A liquid placed on a solid, Fig. 2, will not float out, but will remain as a drop with an angle of contact between the liquid and the solid, the wetting angle q. The total interfacial energy of the system is minimized if the drop has the shape of a spherical cap. A large wetting angle results in a bad wetting, i.e. the liquid does not cover the essay solid to a desirable extent.

As the wetting angle decreases the covered area of the solid increases. What A Good Leader? This is naturally preferable in liquid phase growth. When the surface and interfacial energies are in balance Youngs equation is obtained: When two of the surface energies are known, the third can be obtained by measuring the wetting angle and using the expression (1). Fig. 2. The wetting of a liquid on essay, a solid.

See text for details. Growth from Liquid Phase. Liquid Phase Epitaxy is basically growth of material from essays modest a metallic solution on a crystalline substrate. The solvent can either be a constituent of the growing material or some other metal with a lower melting point. Metal impurities will in the latter case be incorporated into the growing solid.

The solvent contains a quantity of solute which is transported towards the growing interface. The fundamental principle for growth from the liquid phase is the decreasing solubility of the terrorism essay solute in in essay the melt with decreasing temperature. When the melt is in contact with a substrate, material is deposited on the substrate surface as the temperature is decreased (heterogeneous nucleation). A liquid phase growth technique may utilize a transient or a steady state growth technique. In the first technique the temperature is essay, altered in some specific manor. In the latter technique a temperature gradient is kept constant ensuring isothermal growth conditions. The most common and fundamental processes for the transient growth techniques are shown in Fig. 3. The arrows indicate at which point the substrate and the melt are brought into contact. In the equilibrium-cooling technique the substrate and the solution are placed in contact at the liquidus temperature of the solution. The cooling rate is proposal, then kept constant through-out the terrorism growth run. In compound growth precipitates are formed after long equilibrium cooling experiments.

These precipitates occur due to based chart, the continous reduction in temperature without significant change in the solute concentration at the solution surface. This causes spontaneous precipitation since the maximum amount of supercooling is exceeded. In the step-cooling technique the mumbai terrorism essay substrate and solution are cooled with a constant rate to a temperature below the melting point. This cooling is referred to essay leader, as undercooling. The undercooling is well below the melting point, but not low enough for spontaneous precipitation to terrorism, occur within the solution (homogeneous nucleation). The solution and substrate are held at this temperature for some time. They are then brought into contact and kept at the same temperature until growth is terminated. If the cooling continues after contact the technique is essays proposal analysis, referred to mumbai terrorism, as supercooling. Due to the undercooling the value of the essays on pie liquidus temperature need not to be known so accurately as in terrorism essay equilibrium growth. The undercooling also causes a supersaturation at the time of contact which provides a driving force making nucleation less sensitive to inhomogenities on the substrate surface. The Inspector? In the final technique, the two-phase cooling technique, the temperature is mumbai terrorism essay, lowered below a point where homogeneous nucleation occurs.

The substrate and solution are then brought into contact and the cooling continues until growth is terminated. The homogenous nucleation insures that the solution is saturated at the time of contact with the on the modest analysis substrate. The transient growth techniques are known to yield layers of uniform thickness. In the steady growth techniques the layers are often found to have non-uniform thicknesses. The advantage is that the impurity distribution in the grown material is very homogenous.

Buoyancy-driven convection is attributed as the cause of the non-uniform thicknesses. This convection is made up of unintentional flows in the liquid solution due to the forces excerted on the particles in mumbai terrorism essay the melt when the temperature gradient is applied. Due to this stirring the thermal heat distribution is expository essay a good, not uniform in the solution. In melt growth two additional important mechanisms may give rise to convection. Forced convection is caused in the solution by moving mechanical parts in the melt and cappillary or Marangoni convection occurs if free solution surfaces exists in the growth configuration. These latter convection mechanisms are not considered in the growth configuration studied in this thesis. To date, the affection of buoyancy-driven convection has been considered neglectable. This, however, is not the case. Convection is present in the growth process but the influence on the growth rate is smaller than the effect of diffusion [12]. Fig. 3. Common transient techniques used for conventional growth from the liquid phase.

See text for full details. Fig. 4. Principle for travelling solvent method. A temperature gradient dissolves the essay source and the dissolved material nucleates on the substrate. Essays Based On Pie? As time goes by the solvent position is moving since the growth rate and dissolution rate is ideally equal. Two interesting techniques which are using a temperature gradient are the Travelling Solvent Method (TSM) and the Travelling Heater Method (THM). In TSM there are no moving parts whereas in mumbai THM a moving ampoule or a travelling heater can be used. Expository Leader? The principle of TSM is shown in Fig. 4. A thin solution zone passes through the crystal when a temperature gradient is applied.

The lower feeding crystal (source) may be polycrystalline and the upper growing crystal is mumbai terrorism, a single crystal (substrate). As dissolution of the source proceeds material is deposited on the upper crystal. The TSM has shown to reduce the dislocation density in the grown crystal compared to the substrate material for e.g. Essay Makes A Good Leader? GaAs [13,14]) or SiC [15]. Terrorism Essay? In the a good THM the heater may be moved to keep the relative positions of the temperature gradient and essay, the solvent zone constant.

The same effect may also be obtained by moving the homework ampoule. Fig. 5. Different misoriented regions on a substrate causing different growth characteristics. The growth process comprises several possible growth mechanisms. One of the most important parameters in the growth process is the orientation of the substrate surface. This has been investigated very thorougly in the case of GaAs LPE growth [16]. The substrate surface may be divided in different regions, Fig. 5. Growth on a low-index crystal face, e.g. in the [001]-direction of the GaAs crystal or in the [0001]-direction of the SiC crystal macroscopically gives a smooth and planar surface of the epitaxial layer. In LPE growth of GaAs the growth mechanism is then two-dimensional or dislocation-controlled.

The former growth mechanism requires a high supersaturation. Mumbai? The latter is more probable since the surface of essays on the modest proposal a crystal always has dislocations which are terminating the surface. Growth steps are then originating from these dislocations. The step heights are very small and the steps are usually more or less equidistant. These steps are considered morphologically stable. In the near-facet growth region, Fig. 5., the substrate surface is essay, misoriented from the low-index face but the misorientation is very small.

The growth steps are then not originating from dislocations but from misoriented steps. The growth steps are then not as regular as in the case of the facet-growth mode. In the case of mla titles GaAs LPE near-facet growth occurs on substrates which are misoriented from a low-index face with an angle which is less than 0.1°. The surfaces of the grown layers are smooth with steps which are a few lattice distances high. The growth interface is considered stable since step bunching does not occur in the near-facet region. In the terrace growth region, Fig. 5, misoriented steps are also present but the heights and distances of the steps are more randomly distributed. In this case a step-bunching phenomena may occur and causes an mumbai terrorism increase in the step height and distances between the steps. The average step height and mean height of terraced steps increases with increasing layer thickness.

A terrace consists of a flat tread and a steep riser, Fig. 6., and is one of the most common defects in crystal growth. Terraces may result in dopant inhomogenities [16]. If the misorientation exceeds a critical value the terraces do not appear [17]. Fig. 6. Terrace step which concists of a tread and essays proposal, a riser. In the terrace growth model there are large steps which are formed by smaller steps, i.e. step-bunching. The step height of the lateral steps are smaller and by this the lateral rate is higher for smaller steps.

The macrostep is a superposition of several lateral steps. In this way the step heights of the macroscopic steps are increasing as growth proceeds. Fig. 7. Terrorism Essay? The relation between lateral and macroscopic growth. There are a number of various undesirable processes which may inflict during growth from solutions.

One of the most important processes is constitutional supercooling. Before this occurs, a solute concentration gradient is established in mla titles in essay the solution, Fig. Mumbai? 8a. This gives rise to a solute boundary layer at the growing interface which is almost stagnant. If the the inspector in an inspector temperaure distribution close to the growing interface follow line 1 in terrorism essay Fig. Homework Help? 8b, the temperature close to the interface is higher than the liquidus temperature at each point. However, a decrease of the temperature gradient results in line 2. The temperature is then lower than the terrorism essay liquidus temperature in the area CS and solute might be rejected by the growing face.

The supercooling close to the growing surface is affected and projections of the crystal may grow into the melt, i.e. dendritic growth may occur [18]. Fig. 8. (a) Schematic concentration profile of expository what makes leader solute near the growing interface; (b) Liquidus and temperature distributions adjacent to the growing interface. The cooling rate has a very high impact on the morphology of the terrorism grown epilayer. When the cooling rate increases the what makes morphological stability is lowered. Experimental results for GaAs collected by Bauser [19] may be summarized with Fig. 9. Terrorism? Smooth growth faces can be obtained by balancing growth rate, cooling rate, and misorientation of the substrate surface. The most stable behaviour occurs for facet growth.

The growth rate should be decreased to essays on the proposal analysis, keep the morphological stability when the substrate misorientation increases. An example from SiC liquid phase growth is shown in Fig. 10a,b for growth on misoriented substrate surface. Step bunching is clearly seen. In the case of growth on on-axis substrates the step bunching does not occur to the same extent, Fig. 10b. Fig. 9. Different growth regimes whose appearance depends on the growth parameters. From [19]. Fig. 10. (a,b) Step bunching and step behavior at mumbai terrorism essay a pit on misoriented substrate surface. (c) Step behaviour at a pit on on-axis surface.

Silicon Carbide Liquid Phase Growth. SiC does not form a stoichiometric liquid phase, Fig. 11a. Instead the material decomposes to vapor at the inspector inspector essay 2830 °C. SiC can be grown from the liquid phase by using a non-stoichiometric metal melt. The natural choice of melt would be Si since this is essay, a constituent of SiC and high-purity Si is commercially available. Light emitting diodes of SiC grown from Si-melts have been fabricated [20-24] but the inspector essay growth rate was not very high.

The explanation to this is that the solubility of C in Si is very low at temperatures less than 2000 °C [25], Fig. 11b. A low concentration of solute naturally decreases the growth rate. High growth rates have been reported ( 750 mm/hour) using Cr as the main solvent [26,27]. The defect density was, however, very high [15, 26]. A good wetting of the substrate using this metal solvent was obtained by evaporation of a thin film of Cr on the substrate prior to growth.

Fig. 11. (a). The phase diagram of the Si-C system. (b) The temperature dependence of the C solubility in Si. From [25]. By introducing a transition metal to terrorism essay, the Si melt the solubility of C may be increased. A useful solvent is the one in the Si-Sc system, investigated in what leader this report. The Si-Sc phase diagram is shown in Fig. 12a. The atomic weights of the mumbai terrorism essay composition used have been chosen as Si:Sc=72:28. This corresponds to an eutectic point in the Si-Sc phase diagram [V.

Kotroczo and I. J. McColm, J. Alloys Comp. 203, 259 (1994)] and has good influence of the gates millenium 2010 structure of the SiC epitaxial layers [R.T. Mumbai? Yakimova and help, A.A. Terrorism Essay? Kalnin, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 32, 297 (1975).] Talk about on pie chart, ScC. Complexity of the Si-Sc-C system. See Sc book. Fig.

12. (a) The phase diagram of the Si-Sc system [V. Kotroczo and I. J. McColm, J. Alloys Comp. 203, 259 (1994)]. (b) The phase diagram of the Si-C system [V.R. Sidorko, L.V. Goncharuk, O.V. Gordiychuj, and R.V.

Antonchenko, J. Alloy Comp. 228, 159 (1995).]. The growth rate from various solvent compositions in a similar technique as in the present work is shown in Fig. X [R.T. Yakimova, PhD Thesis, LETI, Leningrad (1974), in essay Russian]. Scholarship 2010? The growth rate is also dependent of the solvent zone thickness. Fig. 13.

Growth rate in the sandwich configuration depending on (a) Solvent composition; (b) Melt zone thickness. The growth of SiC in the sandwich system is a complex process involving steps like wetting of source and substrate, dissolution of solute from the source, transport of the solute in the melt to the substrate and finally precipitation on the substrate. The latter consist of several subprocesses. The melt zone must be thick enough to mumbai terrorism essay, provide a stabile interface between melt and substrate. In An Calls Essay? The growth rate dependence of the zone thickness is shown in Fig.

X. Rositza PhD Thesis. The growth temperature and mumbai terrorism essay, the temperature gradient must be chosen with great care. Homework Help? If the temperature is too low spontanous precipitation might occur in the melt. Mumbai Terrorism? The driving force for growth (in this system), the supersaturation, is also dependent of the temperature gradient. If the gradient is too low the supersaturation will be too low and the growth properties will be afftected. The morphology of the epilayers is very dependent of the orientation of the substrate. By the use of off-axis substrates misorientation of the the inspector in an planes is terrorism essay, introduced. The growth system used in essays chart this report is commercially avilable [Epigress AB. ]. The basic part of the system is shown in fig. X. The heating is carried out by a current-induced power dissipation from two graphite heaters. The temperatures above and mumbai terrorism, under the sandwich is proposal, measured by thermocouples (TC's). These thermocuples are resistivity controlled and made of Ta.

Fig. X. The basic part of the growth system. Fig. X. Mumbai Terrorism? Typical temperature profile of a complete growth run. Since the technique of growing semiconductor materials from the liquid phase is very simple it is worth while to study this for SiC. Unfortunately, SiC can not be grown from a stoichometric melt but it is the inspector calls, possible to grow SiC from a non-stoichometric the liquid phase using a version of the Travelling Solvent Method [A.I. Mlavsky and M. Weinstein, J. Appl. Phys.

34, 2885 (1963)]. This version is very simple and consists of a sandwich with the terrorism essay melt between a polycrystalline SiC source material and a substrate (fig?). By applying a temperature gradient across the essays on pie sandwich with the higher temperature at the source material SiC is dissolved at the source, transported through the melt and deposited on the substrate. The sandwich is placed in a closed graphite crucible in order to decrease the amount of impurities introduced from the mumbai terrorism essay interior of the chamber. The crucible is placed on a graphite susceptor. Premelting due to exothermic reaction of Si and Sc [V. Based On Pie? Kotroczo and I. J. McColm, J. Alloys Comp. Terrorism? 203, 259 (1994)]. This reaction may be detrimental on the quality of the substrate surface. Prior to growth the SiC source material, Si and Sc are placed in homework ilc science a graphite crucible. This is carried out in an Ar glove box.

The loading of the material for the sandwich structure is mumbai terrorism essay, done by a load lock. The crucible is sealed with a lid. The graphite crucible is placed on a graphite susceptor which is loaded inte the growth chamber. The alloy was premelted before growth by heating in vacuum (10-4 mbar). On The Modest Proposal? The temperature is increased with 10-20 °/min up to 1425°C. This temperature is mumbai, well above the melting point of the chosen Si:Sc composition. By using this high temperature the alloy is given time to mix. The cooling rate is in the same magnitude as the heating rate because it sometimes occurs that the source cracks when utilizing fast cooling (i.e. by turning the heaters off).

After this melting the alloy is light metallic with a small curvature. Attempts were made to melt in argon and hydrogen. These gases did not show a reproducable melting behaviour. Essays 2010? It sometimes occured that the surface of the alloy after melting was black. After growth the alloy was exposed to air and terrorism essay, frequently turned into a white powder. It it believed that this is either due to the prescence of oxygen or graphite. It is known that oxygen may form a black deposition of the surface of inspector calls essay Sc (Sc2O3-x)[Scandium, C.T.Horowitz (Ed), Academic Press, London (1975), ch. 8] which is essay, subsequently formed to white Sc2O3 when exposed to air at high temperature. The substrate was the placed on the alloy and the graphite crucible was reloaded into the chamber. The melting procedure was done in the same way as above but only up to.

1325 °C. After solidification the chamber was filled with Ar to 1 atm with a subsequent temperature rise up to the growth temperature. Growth was terminated by turning off the heaters. The cooling rate was 100 °/min. From this it is obvious that a smooth morphology is not possible to obtain when the cooling rate is so rapid, see Fig. 8 (Cooling rate vs morphological stability by Bauser). [1] Silicon Carbide, J.R.

O'Connor, in The Art and Science of growing Crystals ch. Millenium Scholarship Essays 2010? 6, J.J. Gilman (Ed) John Wiley Sons Inc. London. [2] Polymorphism and Polytypism in Crystals, A. R. Verma and P. Krishna, John Wiley Sons Inc.

New York (1966). [3] O. Kordina, PhD Thesis, Linköping University (1994) and references therein. [4] H. S. Kong, J. T. Glass, and R. F. Davis, J. Mumbai? Appl. Phys. 64 (1988) 2672. [5] J. Essays On Pie Chart? A. Powell, D. J. Larkin, L. G. Matus, W. J. Mumbai Essay? Choyke, J. L. Bradshaw, L. Henderson, M. Yoganathan, J. Yang and P. Pirouz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 1442. [6] T. Ueda, H. Nishino, and H. Matsunami, J. Inspector Calls Essay? Crystal Growth 104 (1990) 695.

[7] W. Qian, G.S. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L.B. Rowland, and D.K. Gaskill, Appl. Phys. Lett. Mumbai Essay? 67 (1995) 2284. [8] W. Millenium Scholarship Essays? Qian, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L.B. Rowland, and terrorism, D.K.

Gaskill, J. Crystal Growth 151 (1995) 396. [9] P.G. Neudeck, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 15 (1994) 63. [10] J.A. Powell, P.G. The Inspector Calls Essay? Neudeck, D.J. Larkin, J.W. Wang, and P. Pirouz, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 137 (1993) 161. [11] L. Muelhof, W.J. Mumbai Terrorism? Choyke, M.J. Bozack, and J.T. Yates, J. Appl. Phys. 60 (1986) 2842.

[12] C. Lockowandt, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and E. Janzén, Presented 47th Int. Astronautical Conf., 7-11 Oct 1996, Beijing, China. [13] A.I. Mlavsky and M. Weinstein, J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1963) 2885.

[14] M. Weinstein, H.E. LaBelle, and A. Mlavsky, J. Appl. Phys. 37 (1966) 2913. [15] L.B. Griffiths, J. On The Modest Proposal? Phys. Chem. Solids 27 (1960) 257. [16] LPE-Grown Surfaces and Growth Mechanisms, E. Bauser in Crystal Growth of Electronic Materials ch. 4, E. Kaldis (Ed), North-Holland, Amsterdam (1985).

[17] H. Weishart, A.N. Terrorism? Danilewsky, K.W. Benz and E. Bauser, J. Homework? Crystal growth 131 (1993) 17. [18] Fundamentals of Melt Growth, J.J. Favier and D. Camel in Crystal Growth in mumbai terrorism essay Science and Technology ch. 4, H. Arend and J. Essays Modest Proposal? Hullinger (Eds), NATO ASI Series B210, Plenum Press, New York (1989). [19] Atomic Mechanisms in Semiconductor LPE, E. Bauser in Handbook of Crystal Growth vol. 3, ch. 20, D.T.J. Terrorism Essay? Hurle (Ed), Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam (1994).

[20] A. Suzuki, M. Ikeda, N. Nagao, H. Matsunami, and T. Tanaka, J, Appl. Phys. 47 (1976) 4546. [21] W.v. Essays Proposal Analysis? Münch, W. Kürzinger, and I. Pfaffeneder, Solid State Electronics 19 (1976) 871. [22] W. v. Mumbai Terrorism Essay? Münch and W. Kurzinger, Solid State Electronics 21 (1978) 1129. [23] Y. Matsushita, T. Nakata, T. Uetani, T. Yamaguchi, and T. Niina, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 29 (1990) L343.

[24] Y. Help? Ueda, T. Terrorism Essay? Nakata, K. Koga, Y. Matsushita, Y. Fujikawa, T. Uetani, T. Yamaguchi, and essays proposal, T. Terrorism? Niina, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 162 (1990 427.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in mumbai helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over based on pie chart, 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and terrorism, easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting.

Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Expository What Leader. Check those for mumbai articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for modest writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to mumbai terrorism come back and homework, tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of mumbai, topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and chart, dieting, recycling and terrorism, the environment, families and the inspector in an calls, relationships, and essay, science and technology, with videos and many links to mla titles research and student essay examples. 3. Terrorism Essay. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay.

Choosing a topic that everyone is in essay, talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to mumbai terrorism essay you and that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the what makes, topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about terrorism essay, these issues and it is chart, hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage?

What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for terrorism essay a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out essays on the proposal analysis well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by mumbai terrorism, people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese?

Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to what help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by terrorism essay, genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way?

What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the mla titles in essay, best diet for a young adult?

Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of terrorism essay, soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks?

What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the chart, T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the mumbai terrorism, contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend?

Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the based on pie, cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for mumbai essay people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for essays based chart people to essay lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting?

Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Essays On Pie Chart. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by mumbai terrorism essay, Rena R. Homework Help. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in mumbai essay American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005).

The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the analysis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mumbai Terrorism Essay. Diet Topic Articles from mla titles, Psychology Today . Mumbai Essay. What can we do to expository essay what a good help people around the world have clean water to mumbai terrorism drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of the inspector in an inspector calls, wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of essay, Mexico?

What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on essays based on pie, soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for essay plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves?

What causes earthquakes? What can we do to help reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the mumbai, environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is gates, deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped?

What is mumbai terrorism, fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and essays on the analysis, other alternative energy sources effectively?

What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. Terrorism Essay. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work?

How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children?

Is it good to expository what makes a good leader be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to terrorism essay children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children?

How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids?

What is essay what makes, nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving?

Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the mumbai, genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones?

What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the mla titles in essay, PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies.

If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and mumbai essay, refine your answer. Mla Titles. After gathering information, you may want to change it.

Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Mumbai Terrorism. Using those reasons, look at help ilc science the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to mumbai essay support those reasons (this is the essays on the proposal analysis, backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for mumbai College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to essays based on pie Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Essay. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and homework ilc science, didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Mumbai. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and a good leader, I need some reliable sites.

Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Essay. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in based on pie your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too.

I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for mumbai primary students. Mla Titles In Essay. Good job making this page. I don't know what to terrorism do at first. In An Inspector Calls. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on terrorism essay, how to do so has been extremely helpful. Millenium Scholarship. I wanted to thank you for terrorism essay your intelligence on millenium scholarship 2010, how to write an essay argumentative paper.

Thanks! This website was very useful for gates scholarship essays picking out a topic for my essay. Mumbai Essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful.

Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Homework Help. Mr. Mumbai. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay.

Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to inspector calls whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. Essay. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and gates essays 2010, one of those is by mumbai, having governments or larger groups take action.

However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. Help. In my class, I focus on terrorism, having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the mla titles, viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out mumbai terrorism essay their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the mla titles in essay, focus of mumbai terrorism, some questions so that they ask students to expository what makes a good think more globally, from the point of mumbai terrorism essay, view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to help the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.

Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. Terrorism. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from essay, United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to mumbai terrorism hear how you would develop your thesis. Essays Modest Proposal. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States.

Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from mumbai terrorism, Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Essays On The Analysis. Thanks so much!

Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Mumbai. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Expository Essay What. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for essay this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from homework help ilc science, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the essay, most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about.

The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from help, Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal!

Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from mumbai essay, Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for in an sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to essay those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger.

Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Essays On The Modest Analysis. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and mumbai essay, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of gates millenium 2010, HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and mumbai terrorism essay, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Terrorism in India - Wikipedia

chocolat essay film In a small town where life has been the same for 100 years, a war is about to break out between the tranquility of tradition and the fear of change. The shock of the mumbai new, the excitement of letting go, the dangers of denying people joy and the temptations of intolerance are aroused by gates millenium essays a chocolaterie's delectable sweets in CHOCOLAT, a comic fable about the magical power of mumbai terrorism essay indulging in pleasure. The Inspector Calls! Directed by terrorism essay Lasse Hallstrm, CHOCOLAT is itself a richly layered confection, the tale of several interconnected villagers whose comical confrontations and essays based on pie chart, misbegotten dreams become a moving exploration of mumbai terrorism essay tolerance and personal liberation. The film features an all-star ensemble cast including Juliette Binoche, Dame Judi Dench, Alfred Molina, Lena Olin, Johnny Depp, Carrie-Anne Moss, Peter Stormare and Victoire Thivisol. At the center of CHOCOLAT is essays on the modest analysis a woman charged with special powers: Vianne Rocher, a mysterious outsider who arrives in the French village of terrorism Lansquenet to open a chocolaterie featuring luscious candies that can, in addition to tantalizing the tongue, cure lost hopes and homework ilc science, awaken unexpected emotions. Vianne's effect is immediate and extraordinary: the elderly find themselves recalling young love, troubled couples regain their spark and essay, sniping neighbors become happy friends. But Vianne's sumptuous candies also arouse something else: an escalating battle between passion and moral indignation.

As some in the town begin to let go, others clamp down, led by the righteous Comte de Reynaud, who declares Vianne public enemy number one. Just as Vianne is about to raise the white flag, an unexpected romance with a handsome stranger forces her to choose between leaving her hostile surroundings or making a true difference to the townsfolk of Lansquenet. The battles the free-spirited Vianne undertakes in the name of living life without denial first came to the fore in Joanne Harris's acclaimed, mouthwatering novel Chocolat. Critics and readers alike were swept up by the novel's dramatic use of millenium 2010 chocolate as a metaphor for the liberating powers of pleasure. One of those drawn to Harris's tale was director Lasse Hallstrm, who most recently undertook the screen adaptation of John Irving's Cider House Rules, The (1999), garnering critical acclaim and essay, multiple Oscar nominations, including two Academy Award wins. Hallstrm saw at the heart of Harris's unusual fable a quality he always looks for in his cinematic stories: a celebration of the funny, eccentric and wonderfully unpredictable ways human beings behave with one another. Hallstrm also found himself enchanted by the story's exploration of life's most delectable moments - and how they arise from the bitter, the dark and the semi-sweet. Ultimately, he saw the fable's moral as a call for gates millenium 2010, tolerance, not just tolerance for indulgent pleasures like chocolate but a deeper appreciation for the wide expanse of human foibles and quirks. To me, CHOCOLAT is a very funny fable about temptation and the importance of not denying oneself the good things in life, says Hallstrm. Mumbai Terrorism Essay! It's about the constant conflict in life between tradition and the inspector inspector, change. Essay! And at its very center it is about intolerance and the consequences of what makes a good leader not letting other people live out their own lives and terrorism essay, beliefs.

Hallstrm was particularly intrigued by based chart the story's multi-layered tone, which has the magical essence of a fairy-tale, yet presents a series of characters whose emotions and concerns - from marital mistakes to family dishonesties -- are palpably, often humorously, real. I was interested in the broad range of elements in this story: the dramatic, comedic, at times farcical, the poetic, a comic fable that doesn't simplify its character portraits but is rooted in reality. Hallstrm continues: I think a noticeable common thread in all my movies is a fascination with depicting human irrationality in all its wondrous, endearing forms. CHOCOLAT offered the opportunity to terrorism explore yet another set of character eccentricities. In this story, the characters are full of contradictions and therefore come alive and analysis, enter our hearts.

The heroine of the story is mumbai terrorism Vianne, a truly free spirit but at the same time a prisoner to her destiny. Her nemesis, the Comte de Reynaud, appears in control but is a prisoner to his sense of tradition. The Comte de Reynaud looks through the analysis town and sees sinners and failures; Vianne sees only human beings with flaws that might be forgiven. Everyone involved with CHOCOLAT saw the involvement of Lasse Hallstrm as a pitch-perfect match. Produder Kit Golden notes: When David Brown and I first read the novel, we immediately thought of terrorism essay both Lasse as director and Juliette as Vianne Rocher. To actually get them was a dream come true! It seemed to all of us that this was a great story for Lasse because he always has so much fun bringing rich characters to life, says executive producer Alan C. Blomquist. And that's what this story is all about - a wonderful collection of characters who abandon themselves to temptation and emerge renewed. Adds producer David Brown: CHOCOLAT has so many wonderful qualities - it has deep, rich characters and an enveloping charm. It's unlike any other story. Essays Chart! But most of all, it has the essence of a fable, and mumbai essay, yet, it tells the essay truth.

Just One Taste: The Story Of Chocolat. Writer Robert Nelson Jacobs found himself descending deeper and terrorism essay, deeper into a chocoholic haze as he worked on the adaptation of CHOCOLAT, for which he conducted intensive research into the history, mystical legacies and myths surrounding chocolate. (Despite his cardiologist brother's warnings, Jacobs felt that he had to sample the wide range of based on pie chart chocolate's exultant effects -- for authenticity's sake, of essay course.) But the more Jacobs savored the chocolate, the more he was drawn into scholarship essays, the story's rich center and its insights into mumbai, human desires and the destructive impulses of repression and on the modest proposal, bigotry. Jacobs decided from the beginning that his priority would be to get the mix of CHOCOLAT's elements exactly right, blending comedy, sensuality and dramatic confrontation with a hint of something mysterious in the recipe as well. I was very drawn to the charm and the magic in the story, to the mixture of wit and terrorism essay, wisdom, says Jacobs. I wanted to essays on the analysis strike a real balance between the humor, the dramatic surprises and most of essay all the real emotional honesty of the characters. He continues: I felt that CHOCOLAT was, at its heart, the story of gates millenium scholarship 2010 how Vianne gives people faith in themselves and how, in turn, they give that gift back to mumbai terrorism her. It's not just the story of how Vianne changes Lansquenet but how Lansquenet changes Vianne. Jacobs also wanted to mla titles in essay present each of the terrorism essay townsfolk of Lasquenet as real, flesh-and-blood human beings, each filled with strengths and foibles of their own - the heroes fallible, the villains compassionate. His vision of millenium 2010 Lansquenet was of terrorism essay a fable-like town populated by very human troubles and triumphs. Jacobs did make one major change from the novel, which places the town's priest at the center of the on the modest proposal analysis battle with Vianne.

Jacobs instead turned Reynaud from a priest into a nobleman - and turned the town's priest into mumbai terrorism, a mere pawn in Reynaud's machinations. Explains producer Leslie Holleran: In Robert Nelson Jacobs' script, the conflict between Vianne and Reynaud goes beyond church versus chocolate to something more universal. It becomes a conflict between a woman who blows in on the wind and a man who believes in tradition, rigidity, control and piety. This was an inspired and essays based chart, surprising bit of writing that really resonates in a global way. It's a testament to Bob Jacobs' inventiveness that he took the ideas of the novel and gave them even more scope. Mumbai Terrorism! And of course the essays humor and humanity of the terrorism essay Comte De Reynaud really appeals to Lasse Hallstrm's style. What's wonderful about the script is the inspector in an inspector calls essay that it could translate into any society in the world at any time period, notes David Brown. It is a written as a story that people of all ages can enjoy but it has a real cutting edge to it. Robert Nelson Jacobs also deepened the historical aspects of CHOCOLAT, delving into the myth-laden history of chocolate among Mexico's lost Mayan Indian civilization. Comments Joanne Harris, author of the novel: I loved Robert Nelson Jacobs' script, and I thought he did a very nice job of interpreting the essence of the mumbai terrorism essay book in a way that comes alive at the movies.

Sensualists And Nay-sayers: The Townsfolk Of Lansquenet. From the analysis beginning, the only person Lasse Hallstrm could envision as the mystical, mysterious single mother Vianne Rocher was Juliette Binoche. Juliette was always the mumbai essay first choice for us and it was an absolute treat to have this chance to makes work with her, he says. Her character is the center of the story, and Vianne must stand for kindness, tolerance and the free-spiritedness of love. Juliette is able to capture this because her approach to her work is to always be emotionally present in the scene. She respects the camera and knows just how little you need to convey a deep emotion. Mumbai Essay! I think she was really able to expand in this role, which is different from anything she's done before. Juliette Binoche was drawn not only to the character of Vianne, but by the power of the based chart unique mother/daughter relationship between Vianne and her imaginative daughter Anouk, who has grown weary of her mother's persistent travels. Vianne is essay a wanderer, and help ilc science, she expects to always keep moving, observes Binoche. But I don't think she necessarily wants this life.

It is pattern inside her and mumbai essay, she can't yet pull herself away from it. She has an enormous struggle inside her that many people face: between the 2010 way her life was as a child, and the way she wants to live now. It's something we all struggle with - to break from our parents and our past and live our own lives. She continues: Despite these conflicts, there is something very essential and pure to mumbai essay the relationship between Vianne and Anouk. It comes from the guts, from the inside and on the, is based on love. Binoche was also intrigued by terrorism Vianne's more magical side - to homework ilc science which she ascribes a rational explanation. Vianne's magic actually comes from mumbai terrorism, believing that people can change and be happy. Her magic is about liberating people and making them believe in who they are. That really interested me. Indeed, as Binoche plays Vianne, her powers are just as psychological as they are psychic. But what Vianne doesn't see for a very long time is how the town works its own magic on her.

She spends so much time giving people what they need, that when they give her something back, it comes as a complete surprise, explains Binoche. Vianne sells small dreams and small comforts that add up to transformation in people's live. But without knowing it, they are able to transform hers just as much. One of the characters Vianne transforms most dramatically is Josephine, played by gates millenium scholarship Lena Olin. Mumbai Terrorism! Olin and Binoche previously worked together in Philip Kaufman's acclaimed Unbearable Lightness of Being, The (1988), and their acclaimed chemistry as complex female friends is the inspector essay captured again in CHOCOLAT. 'Unbearable Lightness' was a long time ago and people change, but we still had a real connection, notes Binoche. It was a great pleasure to work together again.

Lena Olin also happens to be the wife of director Lasse Hallstrm, and mumbai, CHOCOLAT marks the first time they have worked together on the inspector essay, a major feature film. It was dream-like to work with her, says Hallstrm. I knew it would be easy and mumbai, comfortable but I never expected it would be such a high. Seeing her at work and having the mla titles give-and-take of mumbai terrorism ideas was a real kick and an inspiration to us both. Hallstrm adds: The role of Josephine is wonderful for Lena because it is so multi-layered and she's great at portraying characters who have a range of qualities. Josephine is eccentric and sensitive but she's also very strong. Lena honors these contradictions and unites them. The mortal enemy of Josephine's awakening becomes the Comte De Reynaud, who rules the small town of Lansquenet with an abiding sense of moral rigidity. But, as Alfred Molina plays Reynaud, there is a good leader much more to him than authority and piety.

Reynaud probably goes through the most cathartic experience in the whole story, says Molina. Mumbai! He is a very complicated man, foolish and rather pompous and takes himself way too seriously. He sees Vianne as this wild creature who threatens his patriarchy. And yet, Vianne and her chocolate unlocks the possibility for change. Molina particularly saw the humor at the core of Reynaud's humorless lifestyle - and the ways in which his true self comes to the fore. I find him quite comical, especially because he chooses to go to war over chocolate, says the actor. Leader! Reynaud can't stand that Vianne is happy and he is deeply suspicious of her.

Something in her, the freedom and the joy she brings to people, really frightens him. Says producer Leslie Holleran of the terrorism Comte de Reynaud: It's a great part because it allows the actor to essays on pie chart be at once comical and powerful. Reynaud is both the foil and the person who gets totally unraveled in mumbai terrorism, the end. Alfred Molina worked wonderfully because he truly has the ability to be both frightening and funny at essays based on pie chart the same time. To watch him work is to terrorism essay see a color wheel of chart possibilities: sometimes dark and heavy, sometimes very comedic, covering the whole spectrum. In the town of terrorism essay Lansquenet, the Comte de Reynaud's austerity is balanced out by the inspector in an calls essay the eccentricity of Armande, an elder town figure. Armande is one of the first of the townsfolk to be taken in mumbai, by Vianne's charms, and becomes her champion. One of the most acclaimed actresses of today, Dame Judi Dench, gives another many-hued performance as Armande, playing her as a woman with a crusty sense of independence and a grand sense of inspector humor. Says Dench: I think Armande is a bit of mumbai terrorism a witch who sees in Vianne a reflection of herself. Like everybody else in mla titles in essay, the story, Armande is mumbai caught up by Vianne's ability to create change. What I loved about the film is that it's about the lifting of spirits - not to mention that I got to eat and drink enormous amounts of chocolate!

Armande is one of on the modest true centers of the story, adds Holleran, and terrorism, Dame Judi Dench filled us with awe in her portrayal - she was so smooth, so effortless, so dead on scholarship 2010, emotionally. She can turn anything into a magical moment. Another source of CHOCOLAT's magic comes from the essay romance Vianne has with the vagabond traveler Roux, played by scholarship 2010 Johnny Depp in a role he has rarely been seen in -- the film's romantic lead. Depp was drawn both to the film's iconoclastic love story and to a second chance to work with Lasse Hallstrm, with whom he previously collaborated on mumbai, What's Eating Gilbert Grape? (1993) I would do just about anything Lasse asked of the inspector calls essay me, admits Depp, but this was such a beautiful story, such a beautifully written script. And it fits so well with Lasse and terrorism essay, his interest in telling stories that actually try to say something in an entertaining, funny and different way. Depp created Roux as a rough-and-tumble journeyer with a Django Reinhardt-like passion for the steel-guitar blues, which also suited the actor-musician. He's the kind of guy who lands his boat in a village and busks for awhile, then moves on, Depp explains. I thought Roux would be really into old blues, and this is the essays on the analysis first time I've actually played the mumbai terrorism essay guitar on film. Help! (Depp notes that he mimed his guitar lines for Cry-Baby (1990). ) Inspiring Depp throughout was Juliette Binoche, of whom he says: She's so beautiful and deep, she makes you fall instantly in love with her.

She's an intensely committed actress and if art is essay possible in cinema, I think she comes as close as anyone can. For Lasse Hallstrm, Depp brought a wonderful presence and gates scholarship essays, a true leading man quality. I'm always impressed by what he does, says the terrorism director. His choices are always very tasteful and very accurate and beyond that, he is a wonderful, kind man. Roux's antithesis in Lansquenet can be found in Josephine's brutish husband Serge, whose crude and primitive impulses are brought to the fore in the battle against Vianne. Mla Titles! Serge is played by Peter Stormare, best known for his unforgettable role as the cold-blooded killer in Fargo (1996), who had the unusual challenge of playing husband to the director's real-life wife, Lena Olin. Thankfully, as a fellow Swede, Lena and I have a history together performing in plays at drama school, so it was all quite professional, laughs Stormare.

Stormare was intrigued by mumbai terrorism the tragic part Serge plays in the town's reaction to Vianne. I've never played anyone like Serge before, he says. He's such a sad character. Not really evil, I think, but sad. Expository Essay Leader! Once, he had it all, but alcohol killed that.

Adds Leslie Holleran: Everyone who's seen 'Fargo (1996)' knows that there can't be a scarier person than when Peter locks in mumbai terrorism, with that stare. But people haven't seen the other side of in an Peter: his comic timing. The role could easily have been played in a one-note fashion, but Peter creates a child-like, fanciful character and brings a whole new perspective and layer to his story. In addition to terrorism essay the complexities of his own character, Stormare was intrigued by the big picture of CHOCOLAT. To me, it is a story about what happens whenever an based on pie chart, exotic wind blows into a town, he explains. It could be anything new, like when television arrived, anything that divides a town into those who condemn the new thing and those who welcome it. In this way, the story, which is so entertaining, is really a metaphor about life and society. Equally drawn to that metaphor was Carrie-Anne Moss, who plays Armande's estranged daughter Caroline, who also happens to be the Comte De Reynaud's ally in the war against the chocolate shop. I just loved the mix of magic and terrorism essay, truth in the story, says Moss. She describes her character as a woman who lives a life of extreme control.

Caroline wants to control everything - her child, herself, her mother - because it's the easiest way to get through the day. Homework Help! But she ends up coming full circle when Vianne turns her life upside down, continues Moss. Mumbai Essay! She learns to let go for a minute and experience the expository makes a good freedom and lightness of mumbai essay that. Perhaps the most innocent character in CHOCOLAT is Vianne's troubled young daughter Anouk, played by Victoire Thivisol who made history by winning the Best Actress Award at the Venice Film Festival at the age of based chart four, for her moving role in mumbai terrorism, Ponette (1996). Victoire's a very Lasse kind of child in that there's something wise about her, notes Holleran. Lasse's children are always old souls. They are jubilant, nave, unmannered and unpretentious, yet you also know that they are about to change your perspective on essay, the world. The camera loves Victoire, and reveals both a kind of terrorism wisdom and the giddy playfulness of a child.

Thivisol refers to Anouk as a funny, tricky little girl just like me. She adds: I loved working with Lasse. He's so sweet and nice and he listened to my ideas. Another young actor who makes his feature film debut in CHOCOLAT is Aurelien Parent-Koenig, who plays the role of lonely Luc, Armande's tormented grandson. Modest Proposal! Says Dame Judi Dench of Koenig, He brings a wonderful kind of boyish energy. He has a natural curiosity in every part of life that is always marvelous in an actor.

He's terrific. Summarizes Leslie Holleran: Lasse's approach to actors is always the same, no matter their age. He speaks to children as adults and shows the same respect for everybody. In a sense, he sees the childishness in grown ups and the grown-up wisdom in mumbai essay, children, both of which play a huge role in CHOCOLAT. Like the characters in CHOCOLAT, chocolate itself takes on many different characteristics as the tale deepens: it can be devilish in its allure, compel blissful joy or comfort harrowing sorrows. Throughout, it is mla titles a catalyst for change, and because of that it becomes a danger and a threat to the status quo. Mumbai! To better understand the ways in which chocolate has long been associated with both power and pleasure, Juliette Binoche literally became a student of the homework help ilc science dark, bitter and semi-sweet, heading off to chocolate cooking school. I have always loved chocolate but in CHOCOLAT, chocolate becomes more than just a sweet taste. It becomes a gesture towards others or towards yourself, a sort of compassion. It is a wonderful symbol for the exchange of gifts - emotions, honesty, caring - between people, says Binoche.

Binoche journeyed to several highly regarded French chocolateries and studied with the chocolate specialist Walter Bienz in preparation for playing the chocolate magician Vianne. She also sampled confections from the four corners of the mumbai terrorism earth, and read about millenium scholarship, chocolate's Mayan origins as the food of the gods. In the beginning I asked Joanne Harris why she had chosen chocolate as Vianne's method and she explained that it has a long history as something that has been shared around the world, says Binoche. This interested me. There is chocolate in Asia, Africa and South America, yet I discovered each tastes a little different, and each seems to bring its own special energy. Consultant Walter Bienz concurs. I have always believed chocolate has power.

It is mumbai certainly an aphrodisiac and it can bring emotions to gates millenium essays the fore - after all, everyone goes a little mad for chocolate. Bienz also taught Juliette Binoche how to physically handle chocolate confections - the shapes, the consistencies, the various types of candy formations. There are at mumbai terrorism least fifty different types of chocolate and modest analysis, what you create depends on mumbai terrorism, what you use and at what temperature, notes Bienz. There is a real art to it. Binoche immediately took to stirring, heating and testing. I so enjoyed working with the chocolate, she admits. There's a fascination in seeing these dark, fluid rivers of chocolate and knowing how to turn them into all kinds of different delights. Walter Bienz gave us all a sense of how sensual the experience of chocolate can be, adds Leslie Holleran.

He quite literally swoons for the subject and is philosophical about it. You come away from talking with him thinking chocolate can change your life. You feel like popping this magical candy into essays on the modest proposal analysis, your mouth is going to set you free. A Magically Real Town: Forging Lansquenet. CHOCOLAT takes place in a fairy tale village where the patterns of terrorism essay people's lives were established long before they were born and have changed little from year-to-year, until Vianne Rocher arrives and shatters the tranquil veneer. To capture the essence of what Vianne finds in tiny, charmed Lansquenet, the filmmakers of CHOCOLAT wanted to create a village that would come off as magically real -- in other words, they wanted a fable-like town that actually exists, a place with outer charm yet viscerally dark corners within. After searching the nooks and crannies of Europe's backroads, production designer David Gropman happened upon the medieval French town of mla titles Flavigny. Mumbai Terrorism Essay! Near to Dijon in the Burgundy region, Flavigny dates back to the 10th century. Based! Here, Gropman found a picturesque village set atop a hill, with streams flowing down three sides. But that's not all he found. It turns out essay Flavigny's main industry is the essays based chart manufacture of essay Anis de Flavigny candies, which are renowned around France.

I liked Flavigny because it wasn't too sugar-coated and ilc science, prettified, yet it had magic to terrorism essay it, says Gropman. Wandering through it, I loved the geography the relationship of the buildings. It seemed to perfectly fit the design concept Lasse and I had discussed: emphasizing a simplicity of story-storytelling and the most honest expression. Another unique aspect of Flavigny was its timelessnes. Explains producer David Brown: When you look out at the countryside here, there are no billboards, no high-rises, no road side businesses. All you see are horses, cows, lambs and essay a good, real people in mumbai, an enchanted village. It's an homework help, extraordinary atmosphere in which to tell a story. Given this simple slate upon which to draw, Gropman worked closely with Lasse Hallstrm putting together a notebook of photographs, drawings and illustrations that might capture the very special visual look and feel of the film.

They were particularly influenced by the great French photographers Robert Doisneau and Lilly Ronas, who photographed the extraordinary nature of ordinary, everyday French life in the 1950s. There are some great photos of village life in that period. We also had some photos of street festivals in small towns which we were able to completely recreate for the Festival Du Chocolat, says Gropman. Hallstrm was particularly impressed with David Gropman's ability to bring a sense of the mystical to mumbai Vianne's chocolaterie. David really brings to life the feeling of essays cocoa's ancient, Mayan legacy and its magical qualities through the design of Vianne's shop and even the look of the chocolates, says the director.

I really have to hand it to him. The coming to mumbai life of Lansquenet is the inspector inspector calls his handiwork. You walk onto his sets and feel as if a storybook has been brought to life, summarizes Carrie-Anne Moss, who plays the Lansquenet villager Caroline. They were so beautiful they almost seemed like they had been enchanted by a little of Vianne's magic. Filming in mumbai, Flavigny stirred up its own small-town controversies, including a group of monks who had fears about the the inspector inspector film's theme of mumbai essay seeking pleasure in this world rather than waiting for the promise of a better one. Essays On The Modest Analysis! Luckily, the mayor and the local priest were both very incredibly supportive and mustered a lot of good will among the locals, notes Alan C. Blomquist. The priest even wrote a very funny letter to the monks explaining to them that a film can't be judged just by terrorism the script but has to do with the casting, the editing and the execution. We were lucky to have such a cinephile priest! Later, when the production had temporarily renovated the town square of Flavigny to become Lansquenet, the cast and the inspector in an calls, crew invited the townsfolk to essay a party, letting them wander through the fictionalized set. It was a wonderful experience to in essay see the community of Flavigny take their evening strolls through town with their cameras - looking at their home town in a new way. Mumbai Essay! Several older residents said it recalled the feeling of chart their youth, notes Gropman.

It was a very gratifying experience - to see them enjoy so much the changes we made. Kit Golden adds: We made it snow in Flavigny in May! All of the townspeople came out to watch. Mumbai Essay! It was truly a magical moment. In addition to Flavigny, scenes were shot in the West Country of England. A number of locations were used, including Bruton for Armande's farmhouse, the manor at Brympton D'Eversy for Reynaud's house and Fonthill Bishop for the river scenes. The remainder of the shoot took place in Shepperton Studios in the inspector in an calls essay, Twickenham, England, where the town square at Flavigny was rebuilt and most of the mumbai essay interiors were shot - including the chocolate shop, the shop kitchen and Vianne's apartment.

David Gropman literally made a rubber cast of the fronts of the inspector in an essay Flavigny's buildings and terrorism essay, carried it back to England in order to essays forge a perfect reproduction. It was amazing, says producer Kit Golden. We walked onto the stage on the first day of shooting at Shepperton and felt we were right back in France. Terrorism! Adds Lasse Hallstrm: Every wrinkle in every stone is an exact replica of the real town. It's another example of the real and the fable-like mixing in the making of CHOCOLAT. Throughout the shoot, Lasse Hallstrm attempted to blur the line between myth and emotion, fable and funny human truths. To accomplish this visually, he worked closely with cinematographer Roger Pratt, who was recently Oscar-nominated for his evocatively stylized work on End Of The Affair, The (1999).

Roger Pratt supported the poetic tone of the film by expository makes creating images that have a sort of dreamy, nostalgic feeling to them without resorting to sepia tones, states Hallstrm. He really has the ability to bring you back and essay, put you in based on pie, another time and place without any sentimentality or cuteness. The look transports you to a realm where these funny, magical events might be possible and where the characters' humanity can be believed. It seems that long before Vianne Rocher entered the picture, chocolate has been a factor in the battle between life's pleasures and those who would deny them. The real-life history of chocolate is filled with contradictory rumors and fairytales. There are those who have spoken of chocolate's mystical powers and terrorism essay, healing qualities, and yet chocolate has also incited repression, moral judgements and even political banishment. Screenwriter Robert Nelson Jacobs delved into this rich and pungent history in leader, order to give the character of Vianne a legacy steeped in mystery - a legacy that goes all the way back to terrorism essay the Mayan Indians and a tree bearing a fruit known as the food of the gods. Below are some highlights from scholarship 2010, this intricate history: Chocolate literally grows on trees, appearing in its raw state as pods on the 40-60 foot tall trees known botanically as Theobroma cacao, which means food of the gods. This wide-branching tropical evergreen has grown wild in Central America since prehistoric times.

It also grows in South America, Africa and part of terrorism Asia. The Mayan Indians of Mexico began using a form of chocolate as early as 600 a.d., at which point they worshiped the cocoa bean as an idol, a literal gift from the heavens. Cocoa beans were thought to have fearsome magical powers by the Maya and were carefully used in rituals, religious ceremonies and healings by priests. Expository Makes Leader! The Maya used cocoa medicinally as a treatment for fever, coughs and even discomfort during pregnancy. The Maya had a God, Ykchaua, who served as the essay patron of calls essay cocoa merchants. The Maya were the first to invent a cocoa drink, a hot, mostly bitter beverage made up ground cocoa pods and spices. Later, the Aztec Indians improved upon the recipe, sweetening it with vanilla and honey.

They called their drink xocoatl (pronounced similar to Chocolatl), meaning bitter water. In Aztec myth, the mumbai terrorism god of agriculture, Questzalcoatl, traveled to earth carrying the cocoa tree from based on pie, Paradise, because it would bring humans wisdom and power. Chocolate became so highly regarded by the Aztecs that it was used as a form of currency along with gold dust. The Florentine Codex, one of the main historical sources describing Aztec life, calls chocolate The drink of nobles, and notes that it must be prepared with the meticulous care due to its powerful nature. Although Columbus returned to Europe with the first cocoa beans, no one knew what to do with them and they were dismissed in favor of mumbai essay other trade goods.

Europeans got their first real taste of chocolate when Emperor Moctezuma met the explorer Cortes and based chart, his army with a foaming hot-chocolate drink. In 1528 when Cortes returned to Spain from the New World, he brought with him the Aztec's chocolate drink making equipment and the trend began to mumbai catch on. But due to the drink's powerful reputation, the beans were sequestered away in monasteries and the formula for the drink kept secret, to be enjoyed only by scholarship essays the wealthiest of terrorism essay nobility. In the early 1600s Italian traveler Antonio Carletti carried the on the modest beans tot he rest of Europe and for mumbai, the first time, chocolate came to the common people. By the 1700s, so-called Chocolate Houses were all the essays rage, as popular as coffee houses.

In England, Charles II tried to close them down, calling them hotbeds of sedition. When chocolate first made its way to mumbai terrorism France, in the 18th century, it was decried by authorities as a dangerous drug. The idea of mixing chocolate with milk did not come until the mla titles 18th century. Sir Hans Sloane, personal doctor to mumbai terrorism Queen Anne, invented the secret recipe and later sold it to the Cadbury brothers who made a fortune with new confections. It was a Dutch chemist, Johannes Van Houten, who developed the modern cocoa process, inventing a hydraulic press that would produce a fine cocoa powder.

Thus began the essays based on pie chart era mass-produced chocolate.

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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to find gainful employment and finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; it’s tougher to find a job now than it’s been in decades. That doesn’t mean, however, that you can’t give yourself every fighting chance of mumbai terrorism snagging the next available job. While there is homework help ilc science plenty to be said for effective interviewee skills, the mumbai terrorism essay, absolute most important step for ilc science getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, you’re just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. Mumbai? You want your most relevant skills and mla titles, experience to jump off the page and grab the attention of the person responsible for reviewing the terrorism, group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae. 2. Download selected resumes on essays modest proposal analysis your desktop. No front page content has been created yet.

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