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C.S. Lewis' The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe Essay. Audio Steganography Report! Peter Pevensie, the oldest of the four children. Ide F1 Resume! As the oldest, he is a natural leader and he is notable for his bravery and good judgment. His bravery and leadership skills increase while he stays in Narnia, but this did not mean he was fearless. On the contrary, when Peter first sees Fenris attacking Susan, he did not feel very brave; indeed, he felt he was going to be sick. But that made no difference to what he had to audio, do (C.S Lewis 106). His bravery consists on how he feels and not how he acts. Thesis Statement! In spite of audio report his fears, he brings himself to fight. Also like a similar occasion when Aslan leaves him charge of the battle Religious Imagery in C.S. Lewis' The Lion, The Witch, and on favorite the Wardrobe and George MacDonald's The Princess and the Goblin.
Lewis' The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe is rife with direct references to christianity. Once the child- heroes enter Narnia they are no longer referred to as humans but as a “Son of Adam” and “Daughter of Eve” (Lewis, p. 12), descendents of the steganography thesis report first biblical humans. Once the reader encounters this term it is hard not to see Narnia as a christian land (indeed in the last Narnia novel, The Last Battle, Aslan admits that the thesis human visitors to Narnia have been dead all along making Narnia some Essay about The Lion, the Witch, and audio steganography thesis the Theology of C.S. Lewis. techniques that Lewis uses to argument, be friendlier to audio, his younger audience is his continuous use of w.h. blues essay children as his main or leading role characters in all of his writings. Lewis describes Aslan’s creation of the world of Narnia through the eyes of children, which immediately establishes the audio thesis report link between his younger reader and the narrative. As they set foot into a lightless Narnia at the first stages of its creation, it can be viewed as a biblical image of the world before light was created. Lewis uses the children The Lion, the argument Witch and the Wardrobe Essay. the audio steganography report forces of evil, the White Witch is rude essay, not playing a long hand when she exclaims, “Summon all our people to meet me here as speedily as they can. Call out the giants and the werewolves and the spirits of those trees who are on our side. Call the Ghouls, and the Boggles, the Ogres and the Minotaurs.
Call the Cruels, the Hags, the Spectres, and the people of the audio steganography report Toadstools. We will fight” (Lewis 149) There are many different creatures in Narnia that follow the White Witch and she merely acts as their Essay The Lion, the ide f1 resume Witch, and the Wardrobe. trying to be realistic. Since she seems weighed down with the responsibility of looking after her siblings, she also comes off as thinking she is too old to believe in Narnia at the beginning of the story (The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe). However, she eventually opens up more to the idea of being in steganography thesis this mythical land, and towards the end becomes unafraid of being more like a child.
Before this change her cautiousness causes her to always be the rude students one recommending they Essay about The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe. Audio Steganography Thesis Report! The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe and the Holy Bible. I tell you the truth, unless you change and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven (Holy Bible, Matthew, 18:3). Essay! By being an innocent child and untainted by the evils of the world, Lucy was able to truly believe in what she was seeing. Therefore, she was the only one of the children who could enter Narnia in the beginning of the story. Later in the story, Edmund sees Lucy disappear into the wardrobe and The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S Lewis Essay. Aslan’s similarity to Jesus is noticed when he forgives Edmund.
His forgiveness of Edmund is expressed when he saves Edmund from the White Witch. The Witch claimed Edmund’s life as hers to take (“Into…”). Audio Steganography Thesis Report! In exchange for Edmund’s life, Aslan offers his own life. Aslan is compared to Christ because Aslan forgave and died for Edmund’s sins and Christ died for human sins. The events of Aslan’s execution are similar to the images of the death of Jesus in the Bible. Aslan had Susan and Lucy to follow Essay on The Life and Literary Accomplishments of C.S.
Lewis. affection and the ups and downs of my father’s emotional life… (Joy, 3,4). Students! In 1905 the Lewis family moved to audio thesis report, Little Lea outside Belfast, a house with many odd rooms connected by tunnels on thesis statement the top floor, a similar house appears in audio steganography thesis the Narnia tales. Argument! Here, Lewis now called by his chosen name, Jack, and his brother, Warnie, spent many hours playing in an imaginary land inhabited by talking animals. Lewis describes himself as a product of long corridors, empty sunlit rooms, upstair indoor silences Evil vs. Good: A Representation into Important Characters of Narnia by audio steganography thesis report C.S Lewis. last battle, he will fight on Narnia’s side, which is the of education paper good side, defeating evil. This is why Aslan embody the good figure. In the case of the White Witch, she is the real incarnation of evil.
This can be easily seen throughout her description by the other characters. In the following quote, Lucy is explaining to Edmund who the White Witch is: “She is a perfectly terrible person, said Lucy. She calls herself the Queen of Narnia thought she has no right to be queen at all and […] at least all While Ransom is the noble hero and Weston is the deranged villain, the role of “damsel in distress” falls upon Lady, the creation of Maledill. Lady’s name remains unknown until the end of the story, her name is Tinidill and she considers herself the queen of steganography thesis report Perelandra. Lady is much like a child, because she does not understand evil and the corrupt ways of book Weston.
She does not understand fear, death, rebellion, murder, pain or peace. When Ransom’s knee begins to audio, bleed due to a fall, Lady wants him Essay on Freud and C.S Lewis: Opposite Points of View on Religion. In his teens and school fairing days Freud, studied the sciences. In his preparation for schools during the 1880’s and 1890’s Freud was exposed to many different ways and argument ideas of thinking. Audio Thesis! Freud’s thinking partially took on the ideas expressed in the times popular book, The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin.
The learning climate that Freud was developing in plum resume was one of science and logic. The scientist and researchers around the world now explained mysteries that once confounded the human mind,
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Gay Marriage: The Arguments and the Motives. -Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing for the majority of the U.S. Supreme Court in the decision overturning Colorado's Amendment 2 referendum. Then you get to gay marriage. And that's when all this talk of audio thesis report equality stops dead cold. About half of ide f1 resume people in the U.S. support gay marriage, far less than those who are otherwise supportive of legally enforced gay rights (about 75%). This means that many of the same people who are even passionately in favor of gay rights oppose gays on this one issue.
Why all the passion? It's because there is a lot of misunderstanding about audio steganography thesis report, what homosexuality really is, as well as the erroneous assumption that gay people enjoy the same civil rights protections as everyone else. There are also a lot of stereotypes about gay relationships, and even a great deal of misunderstanding of what marriage itself is all about. The purpose of this essay is to clear up a few of these misunderstandings and auden essay discuss some of facts surrounding gay relationships and marriage, gay and straight. First, lets discuss what gay relationships are really all about. Steganography Thesis! The long-standing, but increasingly obsolete stereotype has it that gays are promiscuous, unable to funeral form lasting relationships, and the relationships that do form are shallow and uncommitted. Audio Thesis! And gays do have such relationships!
But the important fact to note is that just like in straight society, where such relationships also exist, they are a small minority, and w.h. blues essay exist primarily among the very young. Indeed, one of the most frequent complaints of older gay men is steganography thesis that it is almost impossible to argument statement find quality single men to get into a relationship with, because they're already all 'taken!' If you attend any gay event, such as a Pride festival or a PFLAG convention, you'll find this to audio thesis report be true. As gays age and mature, just like their straight cohorts, they begin to book resume appreciate and find their way into long-term committed relationships. The values that such gay couples exhibit in their daily lives are often indistinguishable from those of their straight neighbors. Audio Steganography! They're loyal to their mates, are monogamous, devoted partners. Of Education Paper! They value and participate in family life, are committed to making their neighborhoods and steganography thesis communities safer and better places to live, and honor and abide by the law. Many make valuable contributions to book resume their communities, serving on school boards, volunteering in community charities, and audio steganography thesis report trying to be good citizens. In doing so, they take full advantage of their relationship to make not only their own lives better, but those of their neighbors as well. A benefit to heterosexual society of gay marriage is the fact that the commitment of a marriage means the participants are discouraged from promiscous sex. This has the advantage of slowing the thesis for philosophy spread of sexually transmitted diseases, which know no sexual orientation and are equal opportunity destroyers.
These benefits of gay marriage have changed the attitudes of the majority of people in Denmark and other countries where various forms of gay marriage have been legal for audio steganography thesis, years. Indeed, in argument statement, 1989, when the proposal to legalize marriage between gays first was proposed in Denmark, the majority of the clergy were opposed. Now, after having seen the benefits to steganography report the partners and to society, they are overwhelmingly in favor, according to the surveys done then and now. So, having established the value of gay marriage, why are people so opposed to it? Many of the reasons offered for opposing gay marriage are based on the assumption that gays have a choice in who they can feel attracted to, and the reality is quite different. Many people actually believe that gays could simply choose to be heterosexual if they wished. But the reality is that very few do have a choice -- any more than very few heterosexuals could choose which sex to book find themselves attracted to. Additionally, many people continue to believe that homosexuality is about nothing but sex, considering it to be merely a sexual perversion.
The reality is that homosexuality is multidimensional, and is much more about love and affection than it is about sex. And this is what gay relationships are based on report, -- mutual attraction, love and affection. Sex is a means of expressing that love, just the same as it is for heterosexuals. Being gay is much more profound than simply a sexual relationship; being gay is part of that person's core indentity, and goes right the very center of his being. It's like being black in a society of whites, or a blonde European in a nation of black-haired Asians. Plum Book! Yes, being gay is just that profound to audio steganography thesis the person who is.
This is something that few heterosexuals can understand unless they are a minority themselves. Science itself has finally weighed in on the reasons why conservatives in particular are so opposed to students essay gay marriage. It has a lot to do with the conservative mindset, of placing high values on a sacred, valued in-group - the thesis report married - and the intrusion into that sacred group of a largely despised out-group - gays. So now we know why conservatives as a group is in opposition to gay marriage, but there are additional, subtle reasons which will be delineated below, which address individual concerns, not necessarily related to a general conservative worldview. The Arguments Against Gay Marriage. Here's a summary of the common reasons given: 1. Marriage is an institution between one man and one woman. Well, that's the most often heard argument, one even codified in auden, a recently passed U.S. Audio Thesis Report! federal law.
Yet it is easily the weakest. Rude Students! Who says who marriage is to audio thesis report be defined by? The married? The marriable? Isn't that kind of like allowing a banker to decide who is going to own the resume money in steganography report, stored in his vaults? It seems to rude essay me that if the straight community cannot show a compelling reason to deny the institution of marriage to gay people, it shouldn't be denied. And such simple, nebulous declarations are hardly a compelling reason. Thesis! They're really more like an book, expression of prejudce than any kind of a real argument.
The concept of not denying people their rights unless you can show a compelling reason to do so is the very basis of the American ideal of human rights. 2. Marriage is for procreation. The proponents of thesis that argument are really hard pressed to explain why, if that's the case, that infertile couples are allowed to marry. I, for one, would love to be there when the ide f1 resume proponent of such an argument is to steganography thesis explain to his post-menopausal mother or impotent father that since they cannot procreate, they must now surrender their wedding rings! That would be fun to watch! Again, such an argument fails to persuade based on the marriages society does allow routinely, without even a second thought. 3. Same-sex couples aren't the optimum environment in which to raise children. That's an interesting one, in light of who society does allow to of education get married and bring children into their marriage. Check it out: murderers, convicted felons of all sorts, even known child molesters are all allowed to freely marry and audio steganography report procreate, and do so every day, with hardly a second thought by these same critics.
So if children are truly the priority here, why is thesis this allowed? Why are the advocates of this argument not working to prohibit the above categories of people from raising children? The fact is that many gay couples raise children, adopted and occasionally their own from failed attempts at heterosexual marriages. Lots and lots of scientific studies have shown that the outcomes of the children raised in the homes of gay and lesbian couples are just as good as those of straight couples. The differences have been shown again and audio steganography thesis again to be insignificant. Psychologists tell us that what makes the difference is the thesis for philosophy of education paper love of the parents, not their gender. The studies are very clear about that. Audio Steganography Thesis Report! And gay people are as capable of loving children as fully as anyone else. 4. Gay relationships are immoral and violate the sacred institution of marriage. Says who?
The Bible? Somehow, I always thought that freedom of plum book resume religion implied the right to freedom from religion as well. The Bible has absolutely no standing in American law (and none other than the father of the American democracy, Thomas Jefferson, very proudly took credit for that fact), and because it doesn't, no one has the right to impose rules anyone else simply because of something they percieve to steganography be mandated by the Bible. Plum Resume! Not all world religions have a problem with homosexuality; many sects of Buddhism, for example, celebrate gay relationships freely and would like to have the authority to make them legal marriages. In that sense, their religious freedom is audio steganography report being infringed. If one believes in on favorite, religious freedom, the recognition that opposition to gay marriage is audio report based on religious arguments is reason enough to discount this argument. 5. Marriages are for ensuring the continuation of the species.
The proponents of such an argument are going to plum have a really hard time persuading me that the human species is in any real danger of dying out audio steganography thesis, through lack of procreation. If the ten percent of all the auden essay human race that is gay were to suddenly refrain from procreation, I think it is safe to say that the world would probably be better off. Audio Steganography Thesis Report! One of the world's most serious problems is overpopulation and the increasing anarchy that is resulting from it. Seems to me that gays would be doing the world a favor by blues essay, not bringing more hungry mouths into an already overburdened world. So why encourage them? The vacuity of this argument is seen in the fact that those who raise this objection never object to infertile couples marrying; indeed, when their retired single parent, long past reproductive age, seeks to marry, the usual reaction is thesis how cute and sweet that is. That fact alone shows how false this argument really is. Let's face it - marriage is statement for philosophy paper about love and audio steganography thesis report commitment, and support for that commitment, not about thesis, procreation. 6. Same-sex marriage would threaten the institution of marriage. That one's contradictory right on the face of thesis it. Threaten marriage?
By allowing people to marry? That doesn't sound very logical to me. If you allow gay people to marry each other, you no longer encourage them to marry people to whom they feel little attraction, with whom they most often cannot relate sexually, and thereby reduce the number of supposed heterosexual marriages that end up in thesis statement of education, the divorce courts. If it is the institution of heterosexual marriage that worries you, then consider that no one would require you or anyone else to participate in a gay marriage. So you would have freedom of choice, of choosing what kind of marriage to participate in -- something more than what you have now. And speaking of divorce -- to argue that the audio steganography institution of marriage is worth preserving at the cost of requiring involuntary participants to students remain in it is a better argument for tightening divorce laws than proscribing gay marriage. 7. We shouldn't alter heterosexual marriage, which is a traditional institution that goes back to the dawn of time. This is morally the weakest argument.
Slavery was also a traditional institution, based on traditions that went back to the very beginnings of audio report human history. But by thesis statement, the 19th century, humankind had realized the audio report evils of that institution, and abolished its legal status. So what happened to tradition? In the first place, no one is proposing the alteration of heterosexual marriage at resume, all. Heterosexuals may still marry (and divorce) at will - entirely unaffected by the institution of gay marriage. No change there - not even one whit. Then there is the issue of divorce. If we are supposed to worship the traditional status and nature of marriage, why do we freely allow divorce, which has only been legal in steganography, most states for just a few decades?
To suggest to ide f1 resume most of the steganography report ardent supporters of this argument that they should not only be married, but will get only one shot at getting it right, and plum resume a mistake will and must permanently ruin their life, will sound onerous. But how less onerous is the notion that one will have to marry someone one cannot love and to whom one cannot relate, if one is to enjoy the benefits of marriage? Clearly, this hypocrisy - on the one hand, asserting the importance of the traditional nature of marriage, while allowing its destruction through the thoroughly modern concept of divorce with hardly a second thought - demonstrates very clearly that this really isn't about traditional definitions at all, it's about audio, using this argument as a cover for another, less acceptable motivation. Why not recognize the hypocrisy - that there is no sound moral ground on ide f1 resume, which to support the notion of worshipfully traditional heterosexual marriage while freely allowing its destruction through divorce? Wouldn't it just be better to recognize that the concept of marriage is not as rigidly traditional and fixed as claimed? 8. Same-sex marriage is an untried social experiment.
The American critics of steganography same-sex marriage betray their provincialism with this argument. The fact is that a form of w.h. auden funeral blues gay marriage has been legal in Denmark since 1989 (full marriage rights except for adoption rights and church weddings, and a proposal now exists in the Danish parliament to allow both of those rights as well), and most of the rest of audio thesis report Scandinavia from not long after. Full marriage rights have existed in many Dutch cities for several years, and it was recently made legal nationwide, including the word marriage to describe it. In other words, we have a long-running experiment to examine for its results -- which have uniformly been positive. Opposition to the Danish law was led by the clergy (much the same as in the States). A survey conducted at the time revealed that 72 percent of Danish clergy were opposed to the law.
It was passed anyway, and the change in the attitude of the clergy there has been dramatic -- a survey conducted in 1995 indicated that 89 percent of the Danish clergy now admit that the law is thesis a good one and has had many beneficial effects, including a reduction in audio report, suicide, a reduction in rude students, the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and in audio thesis report, promiscuity and infidelity among gays. Far from leading to rude the destruction of audio report Western civilization as some critics (including the Mormon and Catholic churches among others) have warned, the result of the experiment has actually been civilizing and strengthening, not just to the institution of marriage, but to society as a whole. So perhaps we should accept the fact that someone else has already done the w.h. funeral blues experiment and accept the results as positive. The fact that many churches are not willing to accept this evidence says more about the churches than it does about gay marriage. 9. Same-sex marriage would start us down a slippery slope towards legalized incest, bestial marriage, polygamy and all manner of other horrible consequences. A classic example of the reductio ad absurdum fallacy, it is calculated to instill fear in the mind of anyone hearing the argument. It is, of course, absolutely without any merit based on audio steganography thesis, experience. If the argument were true, wouldn't that have already happened in countries where forms of legalized gay marriage already exist? Wouldn't they have 'slid' towards legalized incest and bestial marriage?
The reality is that a form of gay marriage has been legal in Scandinavian countries for many years, and no such legalization has happened, nor has there been a clamor for it. It's a classic scare tactic - making the end scenario so scary and so horrible that the first step should never be taken. Such are the ide f1 resume tactics of the fear and hatemongers. If concern over the slippery slope were the thesis report real motive behind this argument, the advocate of this line of reasoning would be equally vocal about the fact that today, even as you read this, convicted murderers, child molesters, known pedophiles, drug pushers, pimps, black market gun dealers, etc., are quite free to marry, and are doing so every day. Where's the outrage? Of course there isn't any, and that lack of outrage betrays their real motives. Statement! This is an audio steganography thesis report, anti-gay issue and plum book resume not a pro marriage or child protection issue.
10. Granting gays the right to marry is a special right. Since ninety percent of the population already have the right to marry the informed, consenting adult of steganography thesis report their choice, and would even consider that right a fundamental, constitutionally protected right, since when does extending it to the rest constitute a special right to book that remaining ten percent? As Justice Kennedy observed in his opinion overturning Colorado's infamous Amendment 2 ( Roemer vs. Evans ), many gay and lesbian Americans are, under current law, denied civil rights protections that others either don't need or assume that everyone else along with themselves, already have. Audio Steganography Thesis! The problem with all that special rights talk is that it proceeds from rude students that very assumption, that because of audio steganography report all the civil rights laws in this country that everyone is already equal, so therefore any rights gay people are being granted must therefore be special. That is most assuredly not the case, especially regarding marriage and all the legal protections that go along with it. 11. Churches would be forced to marry gay people against their will. This one has absolutely no basis in law whatever, existing or proposed.
There are many marriages to which many churches object, such as interracial marriage, interfaith marriage, the marriage of divorcees, etc., and yet no state law of which I am aware requires any church to marry any couple when that church objects to performance of rude essay that particular marriage. The right granted by the state to a church to steganography report perform marriages is a right, not a requirement, and to pretend that it would be a requirement in ide f1 resume, the case of gays, but not in the above examples, is disingenuous on audio steganography thesis report, the face of it. 12. If gay marriage is legalized, homosexuality would be promoted in w.h. funeral essay, the public schools. Gay marriage is already legal in several states and many foreign countries, including Canada, but can anyone point to audio steganography an example of homosexuality being promoted in the public schools? No.
Because it hasn't happened in any significant way. What is ide f1 resume being objected to is tolerance of gays, not genuine promotion of homosexuality. And if tolerance itself is not acceptable, what is the absence of tolerance? It is bigotry. If we do not promote tolerance in the public schools, we are accepting that bigotry has a place there.
Is this really what we want? 13. Gay marriage and audio steganography report its associated promotion of homosexuality would undermine western civilization. Homosexuality is as old as civilization itself, and has always been a part of civilization, including this one - indeed, cross-cultural studies indicate that the percentage of essay on favorite homosexuals in a population is independent of audio thesis culture. So even if promotion of homosexuality were to occur, it wouldn't change anything - people aren't gay because they were recruited, they're gay because they were born that way, as the population statistics across cultures makes clear.
As for gay marriage itself undermining western civilization, it is ide f1 resume hard to see how the promotion of love, commitment, sharing and commonality of values and goals isn't going to strengthen civilization a lot sooner than it is going to steganography undermine it. Gay marriage has been legal, in various forms, in parts of thesis statement for philosophy of education Europe for more than twenty years, and in Canada and many states in report, the United States for some time now, but can anyone point to any credible evidence that gay marriage itself is leading to the crumbling of western civilization? If they can, it certainly hasn't been presented to me. 14. If gay people really want to get married, all they have to do is to become straight and students marry someone of the opposite steganography thesis report, sex. There are several problems with this argument, the first of which is that it presumes that sexual orientation is a choice. This lie is thesis statement of education promoted so endlessly by bigoted religious leaders that it has become accepted as fact by society as a whole, and thesis report it was advanced, beginning in the 1980's, for the purpose of discrediting the gay rights movement. But the reality is that a half century of rude social research on this subject, consisting of thousands of audio steganography thesis report studies, beginning with the Kinsey and Minnesota Twin studies of the 1950's and continuing to the present, has shown conclusively - beyond any reasonable doubt - that among males, sexual orientation is only very slightly flexible, and among females, it is only modestly more so.
That homosexuality is plum resume congenital, inborn, and has a strong genetic component. Audio Steganography! In other words, if you're gay, you're gay and there is little that you do about it, regardless of the endless propaganda to the contrary. Another problem with this argument is that it presumes that heterosexuality, if it were a choice, is paper self-evidently a more desireable and/or morally superior choice to make. This is a qualitative argument with whom many gay people - and many thinking straight people as well, both religious and secular - would take issue. A third problem is that this argument presumes that someone else has the right to veto your presumed choice sexual orientation on the basis that they are not comfortable with the choice you have made. It is difficult for me to see how any religionist or anti-gay bigot, however sincere and well-meaning, has the audio steganography right to plum book resume arrogate to himself that veto power. Or, frankly, why a homosexual should be forced to steganography go out of his way to make bigots comfortable with their bigotry. A fourth, legalistic problem with this argument is that it presumes that if the choice of sexual orientation can be made, the voluntary nature of that choice removes any and all right to the protection of the law for the choice which has been made. But I would point out that the First Amendment to the United States constitution protects, by constitutional fiat itself, a purely voluntary choice - that of religion.
So if it is acceptable to argue that unpopular sexual minorities have no right to equal protection of the law because they can avoid disadvantage or persecution by voluntarily changing the ide f1 resume choice they have presumably made, then it is equally true that the First Amendment should not include protection for choice in audio thesis report, religion, because no rational person could argue that religious belief is itself not a choice. Ide F1 Resume! In other words, this is like arguing that you should not expect legal protection from being persecuted because you are a Mormon or a Catholic; the solution to such disadvantage or persecution is simple: just become a Southern Baptist or whatever. I have never, ever seen a religious opponent of thesis report homosexuality who is asserting that homosexuality is essay on favorite a choice, advance that last point with regards to religion - a fact which very glaringly demonstrates the clearly bigoted character of this argument. The real reasons people oppose gay marriage. 1. Just not comfortable with the idea. The fact the people aren't comfortable with the idea stems primarily from the fact that for many years, society has promoted the audio steganography idea that a marriage between members of the w.h. funeral same sex is ludicrous, mainly because of the audio objections raised above. But if those objections don't make sense, neither does the idea that gay marriage is thesis neccessarily ludicrous. Societies have long recognized that allowing civil rights to steganography report certain groups may offend some, and at plum book, times, even the majority. But that is why constitutional government was established -- to ensure that powerless, unpopular minorities are still protected from the tyranny of the thesis report majority.
2. It offends everything religion stands for. Whose religion? Many mainstream Christian denominations, to be sure, and definitely most branches of Islam and Orthodox Judaism, but outside those, most religions are unopposed to gay marriage, and many actually favor it. Plum Book Resume! When the steganography thesis Mormon church arrogantly claimed to represent all religions in essay on favorite book, the Baehr vs. Lewin trial in Hawaii, the principal Buddhist sect in audio, that state made it very clear that the Mormon church didn't represent them , and made it very clear that they support the right of gay couples to marry. Rude Students! That particular Buddhist sect claims many more members in Hawaii than does the Mormon church. Report! In a society that claims to offer religious freedom, the plum resume use of the power of the state to enforce private religious sensibilities is an affront to all who would claim the right to worship according to the dictates of audio thesis their own conscience. 3. For Philosophy! Marriage is a sacred institution and gay marriage violates that sanctity. This is, of audio thesis report course, related to the motive above. But it is really subtly different.
It's based on the assumption that the state has the responsibility to sanctify marriages - a fundamentally religious idea. Argument Statement! Here we're dealing with people trying to enforce their religious doctrines on someone else, but by doing it through weakening the separation of church and audio state, by undermining the Bill of Rights. Not that there's anything new about this, of plum course. But the attempt itself runs against the grain of everything the audio thesis First Amendment stands for - one does not truly have freedom of religion if one does not have the essay book right to freedom from steganography thesis religion as well. It would seem to plum book resume me that anyone who feels that the report sanctity of their marriage is threatened by a gay couple down the street having the right to marry, is mighty insecure about their religion anyway. Even if one accepts the thesis for philosophy of education paper presumption of the audio steganography thesis report United States as a bible-believing, Christian nation as an acceptable legal doctrine, as many conservative Christians insist, and essay on favorite the bible should be the basis for the sacred institution of marriage, perhaps those Christians should get out their bibles and actually read them for a change. Including all the inconvenient passages that not only permit but can even require polygamy, involuntary marriage and the like. How about Deuteronomy 25:5-10, for example: When brothers reside together, and one of them dies and has no son, the audio report wife of the deceased shall not be married outside the family to a stranger. Her husband's brother shall go in to her, taking her in marriage and performing the duty of a husband's brother to her, and the firstborn whom she bears shall succeed to the name of the deceased brother, so that his name may not be blotted out of statement Israel. But if the man has no desire to marry his brother's widow, then his brother's widow shall go up to the elders at the gate and say 'My husband's brother refuses to perpetuate his brother's name in Israel; he will not perform the duty of a husband's brother to me. Then the steganography thesis elders of his town shall summon him and speak to him.
If he persists, saying 'I have no desire to marry her,' then his brother’s wife shall go up to him in the presence of the elders, pull his sandal from his foot, spit in his face, and declare 'This is what is done to the man who does not build up his brother’s house. Throughout Israel his family will be known as 'the house of him whose sandal was pulled off.' If the Bible is sacred and rude inviolate when it comes to the institution of marriage, then the above passage and all the other inconvenient ones require reverence too, do they not? If the Christian is going to say, well, that's old, quaint and should no longer be expected to apply, well, then, that's exactly the point! The institution of steganography report marriage as it is w.h. blues practiced in the real world is a culturally defined institution, not biblically defined, as a reading of the steganography report above quotation should make quite clear, and it is high time we recognize and argument thesis face up to audio report the cold reality that cultural values have changed since the bible was written, and book resume the institution of marriage has changed along with it.
Gay marriage is simply part of that evolutionary process of social progress. 4. Gay sex is unnatural. Audio Steganography Thesis! This argument, often encoded in the very name of thesis sodomy statutes, betrays a considerable ignorance of behavior in audio report, the animal kingdom. The fact is that among the approximately 1500 animal species whose behavior has been extensively studied, homosexual behavior in animals has been described in at least 450 of those species. It runs the gamut, too, ranging from occasional displays of affection to life-long pair bonding including sex and even adopting and raising orphans, going so far as the rejection by force of argument thesis potential heterosexual partners. The reality is thesis that it is so common that it begs for ide f1 resume, an explanation, and sociobiologists have proposed a wide variety of explanations to account for steganography, it.
The fact that it is so common also means that it has evolutionary significance, which applies as much to humans as it does to auden funeral other animal species. 5. A man making love to another man betrays everything that is masculine. Well, I've known (and dated) plenty of very masculine gay men in my day, including champion bull-riding rodeo cowboys and audio report a Hell's Angel biker type, who, if you suggested he is essay book a limp-wristed fairy, would likely rip your head off and hand it to you. There was a long-honored tradition of gay relationships among the tough and macho cowboys of the audio report Old West, and thesis many diaries exist, detailing their relationships. In fact, the audio steganography Autrey Museum of the Old West in Los Angeles recently did an exhibition of rude students essay this little-told story. Plenty of masculine, respected movies stars are gay.
Indeed, Rock Hudson was considered the very archtype of a masculine man. Audio Steganography Thesis! Came as quite a shock to a lot of macho-men to book find out he was gay! So what's wrong with all these kinds of men expressing love for each other? Why is that so wrong? A society that devalues love devalues that upon which civilized society itself is based. Should any form of thesis report that love for one another be discouraged? The base fear here is argument that of rape and a loss of control or loss of masculine status. This is instinctual and goes right to steganography the core of our being as primates.
If you examine what happens in many animal species, especially displays of dominance in other primate species, dominance displays often have sexual overtones. When, for example, in many species of primates, a subordinate male is faced with aggression by a dominant male, the dominant male will bite the subordinate, causing him to squeal in essay, pain, drop the audio steganography food (or the thesis female) and present his rump. This is an act of submission, and it is saying to the whole troupe that the subordinate is just that - subordinate. It has been suggested that homophobia is an instinctual fear of being raped by someone that the homophobe regards as lower than him in audio steganography report, status. And the notion that a gay man might rape him is an instinctual fear. This happens in humans just as it does in essay, other primates. Audio Report! It is the cause of homosexual rape in plum book resume, prisons. Prison rape is not an act of sex as much as it is an assertion of dominance and a means of control.
Nearly all of the men who aggressively rape other men in a prison setting actually revert to promiscuous heterosexual sex once they're on the outside. So is steganography thesis report this something straight men should fear from gay men? Well, relax, all you straight guys. Ide F1 Resume! You've nothing to worry about. Audio! The vast majority of gay men prefer sex in the same emotional setting you do as a straight man with a woman - as a part of the expression of love, affection and commitment. We're not out to rape you or force you into a subordinate position. Ide F1 Resume! The majority of gay men don't want sex with you because we're looking for the same thing in a sexual relationship that you do - the love and affection of a partner. Since we're not likely to get that from you, you're not desirable to us and you have nothing to fear from us. The small minority of us (and it's a very small minority) who enjoy sex with straight men understand your fears and are not going to have sex with you unless it's clearly and audio thesis report completely on a peer-to-peer basis and ide f1 resume your requirement for full and complete consent and need for discretion is honored. 6. Steganography Thesis! The thought of book gay sex is audio steganography thesis report repulsive.
This is the so-called ick factor. Book! Well, it will come as some surprise to a lot of report heterosexuals to find out that, to auden blues essay a lot of audio report gays, the thought of heterosexual sex is ide f1 resume repulsive! But does that mean the discomfort of some gays to heterosexual couples should be a reason to deny heterosexuals the audio steganography right to marry? I don't think so, even though the ide f1 resume thought of steganography thesis a man kissing a woman is rather repulsive to many homosexuals! Well then, why should it work the essay on favorite other way? Besides, the audio steganography thesis same sexual practices that gays engage in are often engaged in by heterosexual couples anyway.
Prompting the book ever-popular gay T-shirt: SO-DO-MY -- SO DO MY neighbors, SO DO MY friends. 7. They might recruit. The core cause of this fear is the result of the audio steganography report fact that most virulent, even violent homophobes are themselves repressed sexually, often with same sex attractions. One of the recent studies done at the University of Georgia among convicted killers of gay men has shown that the overwhelmingly large percentage of them exhibit sexual arousal when shown scenes of gay sex. The fear, then, for the homophobe is plum book that he himself might be gay, and might be forced to audio steganography thesis report face that fact. The homophobia is as internalized as it is externalized - bash the queer and you don't have to worry about being aroused by him. The fear of recruitment is baseless because it is based on a false premise - that gay people recruit. We don't. We don't recruit because we know from our own experience that sexual orientation is inborn, and can't be changed to any significant degree. Indeed, the essay on favorite attempts by psychologists, counselors and religious therapy and audio steganography thesis report support groups to change sexual orientation have all uniformly met with failure - the studies that have been done of these therapies have never shown any significant results, and usually create psychological damage in the process, which is why they are uniformly condemned by mental health professional associations.
So the notion that someone can be changed from straight to thesis for philosophy of education paper gay is audio steganography report quite unlikely. Yet there remains that deep, dark fear that somehow, someone might be. 8. Gay marriage would undermine sodomy laws. Because it would be hard to justify, before a court, allowing a couple to marry and plum resume then legally bar them from having sexual relations, many conservative religionists privately oppose gay marriage in part because it would undermine the legal basis for audio report, sodomy laws, which, even though they have been struck down as unconstitutional by the U.S. Ide F1 Resume! Supreme Court (Lawrence vs. Texas), they are still dreamed of by those who would seek to audio report legalize discrimination against gays - and are occasionally still enforced in some states, in plum book resume, spite of the fact that the laws have been invalidated and doing so is quite illegal and opens the state to civil lawsuit.
In several states, gays convicted under these invalidated laws are even still being required to register as sex offenders. 9. Gay marriage would legitimize homosexuality. Audio Steganography! This presumes that homosexuality is something other than simply a normal variation of human development. Plum Book Resume! The reality is that every mental health association has recognized that homosexuality is a perfectly normal variation on how humans develop, and there is now a substantial body of evidence from report science that there are sound reasons why it has evolved, and why it is not selected against in evolutionary pressure. It is not perverted, it does not degrade human culture, it is ide f1 resume not a threat to humankind in any way. All those stereotypes, long cultivated by homophobes and religious bigots, have been disproven both by experience and by audio report, scientific research, but that does not prevent the homophobe from holding to them dearly. And allowing state sanction in the form of marriage, threatens the stereotype by undermining the justification for it. At the end of the day, the opposition to gay marriage stems ultimately from a deep-seated homophobia in American culture, borne almost entirely out of on favorite religious prejudice.
While many Americans do not realize that that homophobia exists to the extent that it does, it is a very real part of every gay person's life, just like racism is report a very real part of every black person's life. Rude Students Essay! It is there, it is audio steganography thesis report pervasive, and it has far more serious consequences for American society than most Americans realize, not just for gay people, but for society in general. The Anti-Gay-Marriage Propaganda Effort. These are some of the most respected religious organizations in the United States. One of the most persistent and vigorous players is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, better known as the Mormons. It was the rude students essay vigorous organization and strong fundraising effort by the Mormon church that raised approximately 70% of the money that came into California from out of state, to push the campaign for Proposition 8, a ballot measure that amended that state's constitution to prohibit gay marriage and steganography thesis report even the w.h. funeral blues recognition of gay marriages performed elsewhere. Other players were the usual suspects, the Catholic church, several of the more conservative Protestant denominations, the American Family Association, Focus On The Family, their various political subsidiary groups, and a whole host of steganography thesis smaller right-wing political and religious organizations, including a few out-right hate groups. The Southern Poverty Law Center maintains a hate group watch on many of these groups.
Hatred by itself, dressed up as religious dogma has been used for so long that it is ide f1 resume beginning to lose its effectiveness (eventually people begin to figure out that it is mostly a tactic for filling pews, collection plates and campaign coffers more than it is audio thesis report a way of reforming lost souls and improving society), so the more clever of these organizations have begun to move onto auden blues a slick propaganda effort based on that long-time favorite argument-winner - fear. Of course, the all time favorite among those fearmongering tactics is that logical fallacy called the slippery-slope argument, described briefly above. Audio Steganography! One sees the ide f1 resume slippery-slope fallacy in almost every one of thesis their arguments, because they have few logically sound arguments to which to resort. Take, for example, one of the thesis statement most popular anti-gay-marriage web sites out there, one so frequently clicked-on that it frequently comes to the top of Google results, the steganography thesis report Ten Arguments page at nogaymarriage.com (as retrieved on 6/3/09). This web site is argument statement operated by the notorious American Family Association, run by Donald Wildmon, and one need only read that organization's Wikipedia entry (in its entirety) to understand just what kind of organization is behind this page. Among those ten arguments, the slippery-slope fallacy (often more than one) can be seen clearly in every one of the steganography thesis ten. But for every slippery slope argument that Wildmon's organization has identified here, there is not a shred of verifiable evidence given for even a single one.
That is a clear demonstration of just how logically fallacious those arguments are - no evidence, just disinformation, just fearmongering. Gay marriage has been a reality for two decades in Denmark, nearly as long in one form or another in several other Scandinavian countries, and for several years now in Canada, and in ide f1 resume, the form of civil unions, and report more recently, full-on gay marriage itself in several states in the United States. Ide F1 Resume! Can anyone point to civilization collapsing (as was alleged would happen in the recent Proposition 8 campaign in California) or students being taught gay sex in the public schools (another frequent allegation from that campaign)? If twenty years of gay marriage in Denmark has not brought about the collapse of civilization in that country (indeed, it remains higher on the United Nations Development Index than does the United States), I doubt that the collapse of civilization will be brought on in the United States by a couple of dudes saying I do - but that simple reality doesn't stop the argument from being made. Fear has long been used to neuter reason, and, well applied, it does so reliably - so all one has to do to nullify a logical argument is to audio steganography instill fear. As for statement, any of the other arguments raised against gay marriage, an examination of what has happened during the last twenty years in that country and other Scandinavian countries that followed suit shortly thereafter, will show that the fears are misplaced and audio thesis the slippery slope so often fearmongered, remains remarkably ungreased.
The easiest way to counter the slippery-slope fallacy is to simply point out that gay marriage has been tried in many places in the world for many years, including the resume United States itself, and audio none of the dire effects insistently predicted have yet to occur in any of those locations to any significant degree. So the response has been to argument thesis place ballot constitutional amendment initiatives on the ballot in the states that allow for that. To date, more than half of all states have passed such initiatives, and in every case, the initiative campaign was based on fear, disinformation and hatemongering. Hardly a surprise, when an appeal to logic is steganography report not available to them, so an appeal to emotion, especially fear, is their only alternative. An additional advantage to the constitutional amendment approach is essay book that it is court-proof. Audio Steganography Thesis Report! For all intents and purposes, an amendment to a state constitution is by ide f1 resume, definition, constitutional, and can't be overturned as unconstitutional by a state supreme court, at steganography thesis, least under most ordinary circumstances. Gay marriage is a hot-button issue. Thesis Statement! There is no doubt about that. And because it is, the strategy is often used to audio thesis put a gay-marriage initiative on the ballot when interest in an election important to the right is otherwise flagging. Funeral! It gets out the homophobe vote quite reliably, so when right-wing candidates are behind in steganography, the polls, a gay marriage ballot measure is often used as a way to also raise the participation and push a right-winger into office when he would otherwise have lost.
Conversely, when there is a hotly contested race between a liberal Democrat and a conservative Republican, interest in the race is often used to get out conservative votes for statement of education paper, a gay marriage ballot measure which may otherwise lose. Once on the ballot, the disinformation used in the campaign consists of nearly always variations on the same arguments regardless of where the campaign is taking place, nearly all of them lies, generally easily refuted and can be easily seen to be without merit: 1) that homosexual sex (and/or gay marriage) would be taught and promoted in the public schools; 2) that heterosexual marriage would be undermined; 3) that churches would be forced to sanctify gay marriages; 4) that the underpinnings of western civilization (presumed to audio thesis report be heterosexual marriage) would be threatened; 5) that gay married couples would recruit, recruiting especially any adopted children who would then grow up to be gay. It doesn't matter whether these claims are true or not for this disinformation campaign to succeed; as Adolf Hitler himself noted, all it takes for a lie to be believed is for it to be repeated often enough, especially if it is a big lie, and these campaigns repeat the same lies over and over and over again until they finally become conventional wisdom. But there is a looming problem for the anti-gay-marriage crowd. That is the United States constitution, whose 14th Amendment states that all persons are entitled to ide f1 resume equal protection of the law, and it makes no exceptions for gays, as the U.S. Audio Steganography Report! Supreme Court itself noted in its ruling striking down state sodomy laws.
So if straights are entitled to special treatment for being married, gays are, in theory at least, due those same treatments under the ide f1 resume 14th Amendment. So to deal with this pesky issue of equal protection of the audio report law that just won't seem to go away, the anti's have formulated a strategy. There is currently (as of this writing) a slim majority (of one vote) of conservative justices on the U.S. Supreme Court. It could easily tip back into w.h. a minority of conservatives, and so the forces of reaction have initiated a gay marriage lawsuit, ostensibly seeking the right to gay marriage, but deliberately calculated to fail before the Supreme Court, in a deliberate effort to take the steganography thesis issue to statement for philosophy of education paper the U.S. Supreme Court before a new justice is appointed who would shift the balance in favor of gay marriage. That would have the effect of nullifying any challenge to the heterosexual monopoly on marriage solely on the basis of audio steganography thesis report a violation of the 14th Amendment (equal protection of the law). If the lawsuit succeeds in thesis for philosophy of education, failing, as intended, it would prevent an equal-protection challenge to steganography report gay marriage prohibitions to the U.S. Supreme Court for at least a generation.
Which is precisely what happened in ide f1 resume, Hardwick vs. Bowers, the audio thesis notorious Supreme Court decision that upheld state sodomy laws until the court reversed itself in Lawrence vs. Texas only recently. Talk about essay, judicial activism! If our partners are arrested, we can be compelled to testify against them or provide evidence against them, which legally married couples are not forced to do. Is this fair? International married couples can usually pick which country in which to reside, with barely a thought about the law. Gay couples who are not married are not recognized in immigration law in steganography, most countries, and therefore cannot enter a partner's country to reside under family reunion immigration laws.
Is that fair? For married couples, it is auden funeral blues a given that one parent or both can simply get on an airplane and audio steganography take their child to another state if they wish. If you are gay, but unmarried, you cannot do so; you must get a written, notarized document of permission from the legal parent or gardian of the child before the child will be let on an airplane. Even if you are permanently parenting the child. Ide F1 Resume! Married heterosexuals are never asked for such a document. Is this fair? In most cases, even carefully drafted wills and durable powers of attorney have proven to not be enough if a family wishes to challenge a will, overturn a custody decision, or exclude us from a funeral or deny us the right to steganography visit a partner's grave.
As survivors, they can even sieze a real estate property that we may have been buying together for years, quickly sell it at thesis statement of education, a huge loss and stick us with the remaining debt on audio steganography, a property we no longer own. Rude Students! When these are presented to a homophobic probate judge, he will usually find some pretext to overturn them. Is this fair? These aren't just theoretical issues, either; they happen with surprising frequency. Almost any older gay couple can tell you horror stories of themselves or friends who have been victimized in steganography report, such ways and many others. These are all civil rights issues that have nothing whatever to do with the ecclesiastical origins of marriage; they are matters that have become enshrined in state and federal laws over the years in many ways that exclude us from the ide f1 resume rights that legally married couples enjoy and consider their constitutional right. Audio! This is why we say it is very much a civil rights issue; it has nothing to do with who performs the ceremony or whether an announcement is accepted for publication in the local paper. It is not a matter of special rights to ask for book, the same rights that other couples enjoy by law, even by constitutional mandate. How To Deal With Conservatives On This Issue.
What, then, to do? How to approach discussions with them? The most simple answer is to appeal to conservative values. Principal among these are a love of control, an often over-developed reverence for what they consider sacred, a respect for steganography thesis report, authority, a deep loyalty to and reverence for one's own group (especially family and church), a strong desire for law and order and social stability, and an abiding fear of lawlessness, social disorder and chaos, and/or loss of control. Conservatives themselves generally understand this. It is why, in argument thesis, September of 2011, David Cameron, the British Prime Minister, in addressing the convention of his Conservative Party, addressed these values in his announcement of his plans for a gay marriage law in Britain. He said, Yes, it's about equality, but it's also about something else: commitment. Conservatives believe in the ties that bind us. Report! So I don't support gay marriage despite being a Conservative.
I support gay marriage because I'm a Conservative. As you can see, arguments that can be readily framed to appeal to conservative values, such as those cited by Cameron. But they can include such arguments as these, also framed to for philosophy of education appeal to conservative values: Is it not better for gay couples to be encouraged to have the same commitment to each other within well-delineated responsibility as are heterosexual couples, rather than just hit-and-miss, kiss-and-gone, easily discarded relationships? When gays are not given the rights of marriage, are they not more likely to get involved in legal entanglements, court battles, family feuds, etc., than when they have legal, as well as emotional commitment to each other? Why encourage that? Marriage is strengthened, not demeaned by gay marriage, because people who do not love each other and cannot relate to each other are not being encouraged or even forced to marry in order to enjoy the many hundreds of benefits and rights that legal marriage offers. That can only mean fewer divorces and better, more wholesome family life.
Gay couples are going to audio thesis get together. It's been happening since ancient times. Legal prohibitions didn't, couldn't and would never stop it. Isn't it better that gays conduct their relationships within the context of a well-defined marriage law, same as heterosexual couples? You get the idea. Come to understand what values motivate conservatives, frame the argument within those values and show why it is consistent with conservative values, and the conservative can be won over, however reluctantly. So let's get on with it. Let's get over ide f1 resume, our aversion to what we oppose for silly, irrational reasons, based on ignorance and audio thesis faulty assumptions, and make ours a more just and honorable society, finally honoring that last phrase from the Pledge of Allegance; With liberty and justice for all. Resources for those researching the argument subject of gay marriage: The Case for Same-Sex Marriage : From Sexual Liberty to Civilized Commitment by William N. Eskridge, Jr. offers some compelling legal reasons why the arguments raised in this essay make sense, both from a legal and moral point of view. Audio Steganography Report! Highly recommended.
Created Equal: Why Gay Rights Matter To America by Michael Nava and Robert Dawidoff is essay a compelling argument on why the issue of gay marriage and gay rights are vitally important to all Americans, not just gays. A Place At The Table is Bruce Bawer's excellent treatise on how Americans have come to misunderstand homosexuality, and in the process, have failed to understand why gay marriage would benefit society as a whole. To get the current bibliography on audio steganography thesis, gay marriage from Amazon.com, type the statement phrase same-sex marriage (be sure to include the hyphen) in the form above and click the search button. Audio Thesis Report! Other suggested search phrases are gay couples and rude essay homosexuality+law . Of course, you can search any other phrase you wish, too. In any event, Amazon.com will then return to you a list of the currently available books on audio thesis, the subject, which if you wish, you can safely purchase online and have within a few days. Need to cite this article in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats: MLA format: Bidstrup, Scott. Gay Marriage, The Arguments And The Motives [today's date here] http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm. APA format: Bidstrup, Scott (2009, June 3). Plum! Gay Marriage, The Arguments And The Motives.
Retrieved [today's date here], from http://www.bidstrup.com/marriage.htm. Information on the author: Scott Bidstrup is a graduate of Brigham Young University, in Communications (BA, 1971). He is widely traveled and is a published author and has been a staunch human rights advocate for many years, especially in gay rights issues since coming out at the age 44 in the mid '90's. He is currently retired and living in exile in Costa Rica. Copyright © 1996, 1998, 2000, by audio steganography, Scott Bidstrup.
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Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Plum? Now seeking to audio steganography thesis report, get back into thesis statement of education the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize.
What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Steganography Thesis Report? Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is ide f1 resume our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on your project.
Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out steganography report, our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). Plum Book? https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by audio steganography thesis report professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in statement, your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on steganography thesis your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the thesis statement paper field. Audio Thesis Report? I understand that some regulations and rules change over ide f1 resume, the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for audio, sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Students? Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good.
Put your skills to the test, and steganography, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to essay on favorite book, Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman?
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Audio Steganography Thesis Report …
A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison. A NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF MRS. Audio Steganography Report. MARY JEMISON, Who was taken by the Indians, in the year 1755, when only about twelve years of age, and has continued to reside amongst them to the present time. An Account of the ide f1 resume Murder of her Father and audio thesis report his Family; her sufferings; her marriage to two Indians; her troubles with her Children; barbarities of the Indians in the French and Revolutionary Wars; the life of her last Husband, c.; and many Historical Facts never before published. Carefully taken from her own words, Nov. 29th, 1823.
TO WHICH IS ADDED, An APPENDIX, containing an account of the tragedy at the Devil's Hole, in 1783, and of Sullivan's Expedition; the Traditions, Manners, Customs, c. of the w.h. funeral essay Indians, as believed and practised at the present day, and since Mrs. Steganography. Jemison's captivity; together with some Anecdotes, and other entertaining matter. That to biographical writings we are indebted for ide f1 resume, the greatest and best field in which to audio steganography thesis study mankind, or human nature, is a fact duly appreciated by a well-informed community. In them we can trace the effects of mental operations to their proper sources; and by comparing our own composition with that of thesis, those who have excelled in virtue, or with that of audio report, those who have been sunk in the lowest depths of folly and vice, we are enabled to select a plan of life that will at least afford self-satisfaction, and guide us through the argument thesis statement world in paths of morality. Without a knowledge of the lives of the vile and abandoned, we should be wholly incompetent to set an appropriate value upon the charms, the excellence and the worth of those principles which have produced the finest traits in the character of the most virtuous. Biography is a telescope of life, through which we can see the extremes and steganography thesis report excesses of the varied properties of the ide f1 resume human heart. Wisdom and folly, refinement and vulgarity, love and hatred, tenderness and cruelty, happiness and misery, piety and infidelity, commingled with every other cardinal virtue or vice, are to be seen on the variegated pages of the steganography thesis history of human events, and rude essay are eminently deserving the attention of those who would learn to walk in thesis report, the “paths of peace.” The brazen statue and argument thesis the sculptured marble, can commemorate the greatness of heroes, statesmen, philosophers, and steganography thesis blood-stained conquerors, who have risen to on favorite book the zenith of human glory and steganography popularity, under the thesis paper influence of the mild sun of prosperity: but it is the faithful page of biography that transmits to future generations the poverty, pain, wrong, hunger, wretchedness and audio steganography thesis report torment, and every nameless misery that has been endured by those who have lived in obscurity, and groped their lonely way through a long series of rude essay, unpropitious events, with but little help besides the light of audio, nature. While the book gilded monument displays in brightest colors the vanity of pomp, and audio steganography thesis report the emptiness of nominal greatness, the biographical page, that lives in every line, is giving lessons of fortitude in time of danger, patience in suffering, hope in distress, invention in necessity, and resignation to unavoidable evils. Here also may be learned, pity for essay on favorite book, the bereaved, benevolence for the destitute, and compassion for the helpless; and at the same time all the sympathies of the audio thesis soul will be naturally excited to sigh at the unfavorable result, or to smile at the fortunate relief. In the great inexplicable chain which forms the circle of human events, each individual link is placed on a level with the others, and performs an equal task; but, as the world is auden, partial, it is the situation that attracts the steganography thesis attention of mankind, and argument statement excites the unfortunate vociferous eclat of elevation, that raises the pampered parasite to such an steganography thesis, immense height in the scale of personal vanity, as, generally, to deprive him of respect, before he can return to a state of equilibrium with his fellows, or to the place whence he started. Few great men have passed from the rude essay stage of action, who have not left in the history of their lives indelible marks of ambition or folly, which produced insurmountable reverses, and rendered the whole a mere caricature, that can be examined only with disgust and regret.
Such pictures, however, are profitable, for audio steganography thesis, “by others' faults wise men correct their own.” The following is a piece of biography, that shows what changes may be effected in thesis of education paper, the animal and mental constitution of man; what trials may be surmounted; what cruelties perpetrated, and steganography report what pain endured, when stern necessity holds the reins, and drives the car of fate. Thesis. As books of this kind are sought and steganography thesis read with avidity, especially by children, and are well calculated to book excite their attention, inform their understanding, and improve them in audio steganography, the art of reading, the greatest care has been observed to thesis render the style easy, the language comprehensive, and the description natural. Steganography. Prolixity has been studiously avoided. The line of distinction between virtue and rude students vice has been rendered distinctly visible; and chastity of expression and sentiment have received due attention. Strict fidelity has been observed in the composition: consequently, no circumstance has been intentionally exaggerated by the paintings of fancy, nor by audio steganography fine flashes of students essay, rhetoric: neither has the picture been rendered more dull than the audio thesis report original. Without the aid of fiction, what was received as matter of fact, only has been recorded. It will be observed that the subject of this narrative has arrived at least to the advanced age of students essay, eighty years; that she is destitute of education; and that her journey of life, throughout its texture, has been interwoven with troubles, which ordinarily are calculated to audio report impair the blues faculties of the mind; and it will be remembered, that there are but few old people who can recollect with precision the audio thesis report circumstances of their lives, (particularly those circumstances which transpired after middle age.) If, therefore, any error shall be discovered in the narration in respect to time, it will be overlooked by the kind reader, or charitably placed to the narrator's account, and not imputed to neglect, or to essay on favorite book the want of attention in the compiler. The appendix is principally taken from the words of Mrs. Jemison's statements. Those parts which were not derived from her, are deserving equal credit, having been obtained from authentic sources.
For the accommodation of the audio steganography reader, the work has been divided into chapters, and a copious table of plum book, contents affixed. The introduction will facilitate the understanding of audio report, what follows; and thesis statement as it contains matter that could not be inserted with propriety in any other place, will be read with interest and satisfaction. Having finished my undertaking, the subsequent pages are cheerfully submitted to audio thesis report the perusal and approbation or animadversion of a candid, generous and thesis paper indulgent public. At the same time it is fondly hoped that the lessons of thesis report, distress that are portrayed, may have a direct tendency to increase our love of liberty; to enlarge our views of the blessings that are derived from thesis statement our liberal institutions; and to thesis excite in our breasts sentiments of devotion and gratitude to essay the great Author and report finisher of our happiness. Pembroke, March 1, 1824. The Peace of 1783, and statement for philosophy paper the consequent cessation of Indian hostilities and thesis report barbarities, returned to their friends those prisoners, who had escaped the tomahawk, the gauntlet, and the savage fire, after their having spent many years in captivity, and restored harmony to society. The stories of Indian cruelties which were common in the new settlements, and were calamitous realities previous to that, propitious event; slumbered in the minds that had been constantly agitated by them, and were only roused occasionally, to ide f1 resume become the fearful topic of the fireside. It is presumed that at this time there are but few native Americans that have arrived to middle age, who cannot distinctly recollect of sitting in the chimney corner when children, all contracted with fear, and there listening to their parents or visitors, while they related stories of Indian conquests, and murders, that would make their flaxen hair nearly stand erect, and almost destroy the audio steganography report power of motion. At the close of the Revolutionary war; all that part of the State of New-York that lies west of Utica was uninhabited by white people, and few indeed had ever passed beyond Fort Stanwix, except when engaged in war against essay the Indians, who were numerous, and occupied a number of large towns Between the Mohawk river and audio steganography thesis report lake Erie.
Sometime elapsed after this event, before the country about the lakes and on the Genesee river was visited, save by an occasional land speculator, or by defaulters who wished by retreating to what in those days was deemed almost the end of the earth, to argument thesis escape the force of civil law. At length, the richness and fertility of the soil excited emigration, and here and there a family settled down and commenced improvements in the country which had recently been the audio steganography report property of the thesis aborigines. Those who settled near the Genesee river, soon became acquainted with “The White Woman,” as Mrs. Jemison is audio steganography report, called, whose history they anxiously sought, both as a matter of interest and curiosity. Frankness characterized her conduct, and without reserve she would readily gratify them by relating some of the most important periods of her life. Although her bosom companion was an ancient Indian warrior, and notwithstanding her children and associates were all Indians, yet it was found that she possessed an uncommon share of hospitality, and that her friendship was well worth courting and preserving. Her house was the stranger's home; from her table the on favorite book hungry were refreshed;she made the naked as comfortable as her means would admit of; and in all her actions, discovered so much natural goodness of heart, that her admirers increases in proportion to the extension of her acquaintance, and she became celebrated as the friend of the steganography report distressed. She was the protectress of the homeless fugitive, and made welcome the weary wanderer. Many still live to commemorate her benevolence towards them, when prisoners during the war, and to ascribe their deliverance to the mediation of “The White Woman.” The settlements increased, and the whole country around her was inhabited by a rich and respectable people, principally from New-England, as much distinguished for their spirit of inquisitiveness as for their habits of industry and honesty, who had all heard from one source and another a part of her life in detached pieces, and book had obtained an idea that the whole taken in connection would afford instruction and amusement. Many gentlemen of respectability, felt anxious that her narrative might be laid before the public, with a view not only to perpetuate the remembrance of the atrocities of the savages in former times, but to preserve some historical facts which they supposed to be intimately connected with her life, and which otherwise must be lost. Forty years had passed since the close of the Revolutionary war, and steganography almost seventy years had seen Mrs.
Jemison with the book Indians, when Daniel W. Banister, Esq. at the instance of steganography thesis, several gentlemen, and prompted by his own ambition to ide f1 resume add something to the accumulating fund of steganography thesis report, useful knowledge, resolved, in the autumn of 1823, to embrace that time, while she was capable of recollecting and reciting the scenes through which she had passed, to collect from ide f1 resume herself, and to publish to audio steganography an accurate account of her life. I was employed to collect the ide f1 resume materials, and prepare the work for the press; and accordingly went to the house of Mrs. Jennet Whaley in the town of report, Castile, Genesee co. N.Y. in company with the on favorite book publisher, who procured the interesting subject of the following narrative, to report come to that place (a distance of four miles) and there repeat the story of her eventful life. She came on foot in company with Mr.
Thomas Clute, whom she considers her protector, and tarried almost three days, which time was busily occupied in taking a sketch of statement, her narrative as she recited it. Steganography Report. Her appearance was well calculated to excite a great degree of sympathy in a stranger, who had been partially informed of her origin, when comparing her present situation with what it probably would have been, had she been permitted to thesis statement of education have remained with her friends, and to have enjoyed the blessings of civilization. In stature she is very short, and considerably under the middle size, and thesis report stands tolerably erect, with her head bent forward, apparently from thesis statement her having for a long time been accustomed to carrying heavy burdens in a strap placed across her forehead. Her complexion is very white for steganography, a woman of her age, and although the wrinkles of fourscore years are deeply indented in her cheeks, yet the crimson of w.h. auden essay, youth is distinctly visible. Her eyes are light blue, a little faded by age, and naturally brilliant and sparkling. Her sight is quite dim, though she is able to perform her necessary labor without the assistance of glasses.
Her cheek bones are high, and rather prominent, and her front teeth, in the lower jaw, are sound and good. When she looks up and is engaged in conversation her countenance is very expressive; but from her long residence with the Indians, she has acquired the report habit of peeping from under eye-brows as they do with the head inclined downwards. Formerly her hair was of students, a light chestnut brownit is now quite grey, a little curled, of middling length and tied in a bunch behind. She informed me that she had never worn a cap nor a comb. She speaks English plainly and distinctly, with a little of the Irish emphasis, and audio steganography thesis has the students essay use of words so well as to render herself intelligible on any subject with which she is acquainted. Her recollection and thesis memory exceeded my expectation. It cannot be reasonably supposed, that a person of her age has kept the thesis statement events of audio steganography report, seventy years in so complete a chain as to be able to assign to each its proper time and place; she, however, made her recital with as few obvious mistakes as might be found in that of a person of fifty.
She walks with a quick step without a staff, and thesis paper I was informed by Mr. Clute, that she could yet cross a stream on a log or pole as steadily as any other person. Her passions are easily excited. Thesis Report. At a number of periods in her narration, tears trickled down her grief worn cheek, and at the same time, a rising sigh would stop her utterance. Industry is a virtue which she has uniformly practised from the day of her adoption to the present.
She pounds her samp, cooks for w.h. funeral essay, herself, gathers and steganography thesis report chops wood, feeds her cattle and poultry, and argument statement performs other laborious services. Last season she planted, tended and gathered cornin short she is always busy. Her dress at the time I saw her, was made and worn after, the Indian fashion, and consisted of a shirt, short gown, petticoat, stockings, moccasins, a blanket and a bonnet. The shirt was of cotton and made at the top, as I was informed, like a man's without collar or sleeveswas open before and extended down about midway of the hips.The petticoat was a piece of broadcloth with the list at the top and bottom and the ends sewed together. This was tied on by a string that was passed over it and around the waist, in such a manner as to let the bottom of the petticoat down half way between the knee and ankle and leave one-fourth of a yard at the top to be turned down over the stringthe bottom of the shift coming a little below, and on the outside of the audio steganography thesis report top of the fold so as to leave the list and two or three inches of the cloth uncovered.
The stockings, were of blue broadcloth, tied, or pinned on, which reached from the knees, into plum the mouth of the moccasins.Around her toes only she had some rags, and over these her buckskin moccasins. Her gown was of undressed flannel, colored brown. It was made in old yankee style, with long sleeves, covered the top of the hips, and was tied before in two places with strings of deer skin. Over all this, she wore an Indian blanket. On her head she wore a piece of old brown woollen cloth made somewhat like a sun bonnet. Such was the dress that this woman was contented to wear, and audio steganography habit had rendered it convenient and comfortable. She wore it not as a matter of t necessity, but from choice, for it will be seen in the sequel, that her property is sufficient to enable her to dress in the best fashion, and to allow her every comfort of auden essay, life.
Her house, in which she lives, is 20 by 28 feet; built of square timber, with a shingled roof, and a framed stoop. Audio. In the centre of the book house is a chimney of stones and sticks, in which there are two fire places. Audio Steganography Report. She has a good framed barn, 26 by 36, well filled, and owns a fine stock of cattle and on favorite book horses. Besides the buildings above mentioned, she owns a number of houses that are occupied by tenants, who work her flats upon shares. Her dwelling, is about one hundred rods north of the Great Slide, a curiosity that, will be described in audio steganography thesis, its proper place, on the west side of the Genesee river. Mrs. Jemison, appeared sensible of her ignorance of the manners of the white people, and for that reason, was not familiar, except with those with whom she was intimately acquainted. In fact she was (to appearance) so jealous of her rights, or that she should say something that would be injurious to herself or family, that if Mr. Clute had not been present, we should have been unable to statement for philosophy of education have obtained her history. She, however, soon became free and unembarrassed in her conversation, and audio steganography spoke with degree of essay book, mildness, candor and simplicity, that is calculated to remove all doubts as to the veracity of the speaker.
The vices of the Indians, she appeared disposed not to aggravate, and seemed to take pride in extoling their virtues. A kind of family pride inclined her to audio withhold whatever would blot the character of her descendants, and thesis perhaps induced her to keep back many things that would have been interesting. Thesis Report. For the life of essay on favorite, her last husband, we are indebted to her cousin, Mr. George Jemison, to audio steganography whom she referred us for information on that subject generally. The thoughts of his deeds, probably chilled her old heart, and made her dread to rehearse them, and at the same time she well knew they were no secret, for she had frequently heard him relate the whole, not only to her cousin, but to others. Before she left us she was very sociable, and she resumed her naturally pleasant countenance, enlivened with a smile.
Her neighbors speak of her as possessing one of the happiest tempers and disposition, and give her the name of auden funeral essay, never having done a censurable act to their knowledge. Her habits, are those of the Indiansshe sleeps on skins without a bedstead, sits upon audio steganography thesis the floor or on a bench, and holds her victuals on her lap, or in her hands. Her ideas of religion, correspond in book resume, every respect with those of the great mass of the Senecas. She applauds virtue, and audio report despises vice. She believes in a future state, in which the rude students good will be happy, and the bad miserable; and that the acquisition of thesis, that happiness, depends primarily upon rude students human volition, and thesis the consequent good deeds of the happy recipient of blessedness. The doctrines taught in the Christian religion, she is a stranger to.
Her daughters are said to students essay be active and enterprizing women, and audio report her grandsons, who arrived to manhood, are considered able, decent and respectable men in their tribe. Having in this cursory manner, introduced the subject of the following pages, I proceed to the narration of a life that has been viewed with attention, for a great number of years by a few, and which will be read by the public the mixed sensations of pleasure and pain, and with interest, anxiety and satisfaction. LIFE OF MARY JEMISON. Nativity of resume, her Parents.Their removal to report America.Her Birth.Parents settle in Pennsylvania.Omen of her Captivity. Although I may have frequently heard the history of my ancestry, my recollection is too imperfect to enable me to trace it further back than my father and mother, whom I have often heard mention the families from whence they originated, as having possessed wealth and honorable stations under the government of the country in which they resided. On the account of the great length of time that has elapsed since I was separated from my parents and friends, and having heard the story of their nativity only in the days of my childhood, I am not able to state positively, which of the two countries, Ireland or Scotland, was the land of my parents birth and thesis statement paper education. It, however, is my impression, that they were born and brought up in Ireland. My Father's name was Thomas Jemison, and my mother's before her marriage with him, was Jane Erwin.
Their affection for audio steganography thesis, each other was mutual, and of that happy kind which tends directly to sweeten the cup of life; to render connubial sorrows lighter; to assuage every discontentment and to promote not only argument thesis their own comfort, but that of all who come within the circle of their acquaintance. Of their happiness I recollect to have heard them speak; and the remembrance I yet retain of their mildness and perfect agreement in the government of their children, together with their mutual attention to audio our common education, manners, religious instruction and wants, renders it a fact in my mind, that they were ornaments to argument thesis statement the married state, and examples of connubial love, worthy of imitation. After my remembrance they were strict observers of religious duties; for steganography report, it was the daily practice of my father, morning and evening, to attend, in his family, to the worship of God. Resolved to leave the land of their nativity they removed from their residence to argument thesis statement a port in Ireland, where they lived but a short time before they set sail for this country, in the year 1742 or 3 on board the ship Mary William, bound to Philadelphia, in the state of Pennsylvania. The intestine divisions, civil wars, and ecclesiastical rigidity and domination that prevailed those days, were the causes of their leaving their mother country and a home in the American wilderness, under the mild and temperate government of the descendants of William Penn; where without fear they might worship God, and perform their usual avocations. In Europe my parents had two sons and audio one daughter, whose names were John, Thomas and Betsey; with whom, after having put their effects on board, they embarked, leaving a large connexion of relatives and friends, under all those painful sensations, which are only felt when kindred souls give the parting hand and last farewell to those to ide f1 resume whom they are endeared by every friendly tie. In the course of their voyage I was born, to be the sport of fortune and almost an audio steganography thesis, outcast to civil society; to stem the current of adversity through a long chain of vicissitudes, unsupported by the advice of thesis, tender parents, or the hand of an affectionate friend; and even without the enjoyment from others, of any of those tender sympathies that are adapted to audio steganography thesis report the sweetening of society, except such as naturally flow from uncultivated minds, that have been calloused by ferocity. Argument. Excepting my birth, nothing remarkable occurred to thesis my parents on their passage, and they were safely landed at Philadelphia. My father being fond of rural life, and having been bred to agricultural pursuits, soon left the city, and removed his family to the then frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, to a tract of excellent land lying on Marsh creek. At that place he cleared a large farm, and for seven or eight years enjoyed the fruits of his industry.
Peace attended their labors; and ide f1 resume they had nothing to alarm them, save the midnight howl of the prowling wolf, or the terrifying shriek of the ferocious panther, as they occasionally visited their improvements, to take a lamb or a calf to satisfy their hunger. During this period my mother had two sons, between whose ages there was a difference of steganography thesis, about three years: the oldest was named Matthew, and the other Robert. Health presided on every countenance, and vigor and strength characterized every exertion. Our mansion was a little paradise. The morning of my childish, happy days, will ever stand fresh in argument thesis, my remembrance, notwithstanding the many severe trials through which I have passed, in arriving at my present situation, at so advanced an age. Even at this remote period, the recollection of my pleasant home at my father's, of my parents, of my brothers and sister, and of the manner in which I was deprived of them all at audio steganography thesis once, affects me so powerfully, that I am almost overwhelmed with grief, that is seemingly insupportable. Frequently I dream of those happy days: but, alas! they are gone; they have left me to be carried through a long life, dependent for the little pleasures of nearly seventy years, upon ide f1 resume the tender mercies of the Indians! In the spring of audio thesis, 1752, and w.h. blues essay through the succeeding seasons, the stories of Indian barbarities inflicted upon the whites in those days, frequently excited in my parents the most serious alarm for our safety. Audio Steganography Thesis. The next year the storm gathered faster; many murders were committed; and many captives were exposed to book meet death in its most frightful form, by having their bodies stuck full of pine splinters, which were immediately set on fire, while their tormentors, exulting in their distress, would rejoice at their agony! In 1754, an army for the protection of the settlers, and to audio thesis report drive back the French and Indians, was raised from the militia of the colonial governments, and placed (secondarily) under the w.h. auden funeral essay command of steganography thesis report, Col.
George Washington. In that army I had an uncle, whose name was John Jemison who was killed at the battle at w.h. auden funeral the Great Meadow or Fort Necessity. His wife had died some time before this, and audio thesis left a young child, which my mother nursed in the most tender manner, till its mother's sister took it away, a few months after my uncle's death. The French and Indians, after the surrender of Fort Necessity by thesis Col. Washington, (which happened the same season, and steganography soon after his victory over them at that place,) grew more and more terrible. Argument Thesis. The death of the whites, and plundering and burning their property, was apparently their only object: But as yet we had not heard the death-yell, nor seen the smoke of a dwelling that had been lit by report an Indian's hand. The return of for philosophy of education paper, a new-year's day found us unmolested; and though we knew that the enemy was at no great distance from us, my father concluded that he would continue to occupy his land another season: expecting (probably from the great exertions which the government was then making) that as soon as the troops could commence their operations in the spring, the enemy would be conquered and compelled to steganography report agree to a treaty of peace. In the preceding autumn my father either moved to another part of his farm, or to another neighborhood, a short distance from w.h. funeral blues essay our former abode. I well recollect moving, and that the barn that was on thesis report the place we moved to was built of logs, though the house was a good one.
The winter of 1754-5 was as mild as a common fall season, and the spring presented a pleasant seed time, and indicated a plenteous harvest. My father, with the assistance of his oldest sons, repaired his farm as usual, and was daily preparing the soil for the reception of the seed. On Favorite. His cattle and sheep were numerous, and according to the best idea of steganography thesis report, wealth that I can now form, he was wealthy. But alas! how transitory are all human affairs! how fleeting are riches! how brittle the invisible thread on resume which all earthly comforts are suspended! Peace in thesis, a moment can take an immeasurable flight; health can lose its rosy cheeks; and life will vanish like a vapor at the appearance of the sun! In one fatal day our prospects were all blasted; and death, by argument thesis statement cruel hands, inflicted upon almost the whole of the family. On a pleasant day in the spring of 1755, when my father was sowing flax-seed, and my brothers driving the teams, I was sent to audio steganography a neighbor's house, a distance of perhaps a mile, to procure a horse and return with it the essay on favorite book next morning.
I went as I was directed. I was out of the audio house in the beginning of the evening, and saw a sheet wide spread approaching towards me, in which I was caught (as I have ever since believed) and deprived of rude students, my senses! The family soon found me on the ground, almost lifeless, (as they said,) took me in, and made use of every remedy in their power for my recovery, but without effect till day-break, when my senses returned, and I soon found myself in good health, so that I went home with the horse very early in the morning. The appearance of that sheet, I have ever considered as a forerunner of the melancholy catastrophe that so soon afterwards happened to our family: and my being caught in steganography thesis report, it I believe, was ominous of my preservation from death at the time we were captured. Her Education.Captivity.Journey to Fort Pitt.Mother's Farewell Address.Murder of of education paper, her Family.Preparation of the Scalps.Indian Precautions.Arrival at Fort Pitt, c. My education had received as much attention from my parents, as their situation in a new country would admit. I had been at school some, where I learned to read in a book that was about half as large as a Bible; and in the Bible I had read a little.
I had also learned the Catechism, which I used frequently to repeat to my parents, and every night, before I went to bed, I was obliged to stand up before my mother and repeat some words that I suppose was a prayer. My reading, Catechism and prayers, I have long since forgotten; though for a number of the steganography thesis first years that I lived with the Indians, I repeated the prayers as often as I had an opportunity. After the revolutionary war, I remembered the names of some of the letters when I saw them; but have never read a word since I was taken prisoner. It is but a few years since a Missionary kindly gave me a Bible, which I am very fond of ide f1 resume, hearing my neighbors read to me, and should be pleased to steganography report learn to read it myself; but my sight has been for a number of years, so dim that I have not been able to distinguish one letter from another. As I before observed, I got home with the thesis for philosophy of education horse very early in the morning, where I found a man that lived in report, our neighborhood, and his sister-in-law who had three children, one son and two daughters. I soon learned that they had come there to live a short time; but for on favorite, what purpose I cannot say. The woman's husband, however, was at that time in audio steganography report, Washington's army, fighting, for rude students, his country; and audio steganography thesis as her brother-in-law had a house she had lived with him in his absence. Argument. Their names I have forgotten. Immediately after I got home, the man took the horse to audio steganography report go to his house after a bag of grain, and took his gun in his hand for the purpose of killing game, if he should chance to see any.Our family, as usual, was busily employed about their common business. Father was shaving an axe-helve at the side of the house; mother was making preparations for students, breakfast;my two oldest brothers were at work near the barn; and the little ones, with myself, and the woman and her three children, were in the house.
Breakfast was not yet ready, when we were alarmed by the discharge of audio report, a number of guns, that seemed to be near. Mother and resume the women before mentioned, almost fainted at report the report, and every one trembled with fear. On opening the door, the man and horse lay dead near the house, having just been shot by the Indians. Ide F1 Resume. I was afterwards informed, that the Indians discovered him at his own house with his gun, and pursued him to father's, where they shot him as I have related. They first secured my father, and then rushed into the house, and audio thesis report without the book least resistance made prisoners of my mother, Robert, Matthew, Betsey, the woman and her three children, and myself, and then commenced plundering. My two brothers, Thomas and audio John, being at thesis statement the barn, escaped and audio report went to Virginia, where my grandfather Erwin then lived, as I was informed by argument statement a Mr. Fields, who was at my house about the close of the revolutionary war. The party that took us consisted of six Indians and four Frenchmen, who immediately commenced plundering, as I just observed, and took what they considered most valuable; consisting principally of audio thesis report, bread, meal and w.h. auden funeral meat.
Having taken as much provision as they could carry, they set out with their prisoners in great haste, for audio thesis report, fear of detection, and soon entered the students essay woods. On our march that day, an Indian went behind us with a whip, with which he frequently lashed the children to make them keep up. In this manner we travelled till dark without a mouthful of food or a drop of water; although we had not eaten since the night before. Whenever the little children cried for water, the Indians would make them drink urine or go thirsty. At night they encamped in the woods without fire and without shelter, where we were watched with the greatest vigilance. Extremely fatigued, and very hungry, we were compelled to lie upon audio the ground supperless and without a drop of water to satisfy the cravings of our appetites. As in the day time, so the little ones were made to drink urine in the night if they cried for water. Fatigue alone brought us a little sleep for the refreshment of thesis statement paper, our weary limbs; and at audio steganography the dawn of day we were again started on our march in the same order that we had proceeded on the day before.
About sunrise we were halted, and the Indians gave us a full breakfast of provision that they had brought from my father's house. Each of us being very hungry, partook of this bounty of the essay Indians, except father, who was so much overcome with his situationso much exhausted by anxiety and grief, that silent despair seemed fastened upon his countenance, and he could not be prevailed upon to refresh his sinking nature by the use of a morsel of food. Our repast being finished, we again resumed our march, and, before noon passed a small fort that I heard my father say was called Fort Canagojigge. That was the audio steganography report only time that I heard him speak from the time we were taken till we were finally separated the following night. Towards evening we arrived at the border of a dark and dismal swamp, which was covered with small hemlocks, or some other evergreen, and other bushes, into which we were conducted; and having gone a short distance we stopped to encamp for the night. Here we had some bread and meat for supper: but the dreariness of our situation, together with the uncertainty under which we all labored, as to argument our future destiny, almost deprived us of the sense of hunger, and destroyed our relish for food. Mother, from the steganography thesis report time we were taken, had manifested a great degree of fortitude, and encouraged us to support our troubles without complaining; and by resume her conversation seemed to make the distance and time shorter, and the way more smooth. But father lost all his ambition in steganography thesis, the beginning of our trouble, and continued apparently lost to every careabsorbed in melancholy.
Here, as before, she insisted on the necessity of our eating; and we obeyed her, but it was done with heavy hearts. As soon as I had finished my supper, an Indian took off my shoes and stockings and put a pair of moccasins on argument my feet, which my mother observed; and believing that they would spare my life, even if they should destroy the other captives, addressed me as near as I can remember in the following words: “My dear little Mary, I fear that the time has arrived when we must be parted forever. Your life, my child, I think will be spared; but we shall probably be tomahawked here in steganography, this lonesome place by the Indians. O! how can I part with you my darling? What will become of my sweet little Mary? Oh! how can I think of your being continued in captivity without a hope of your being rescued?
O that death had snatched you from my embraces in your infancy; the pain of parting then would have been pleasing to what it now is; and I should have seen the end of your troubles!Alas, my dear! my heart bleeds at the thoughts of what awaits you; but, if you leave us, remember my child your own name, and the name of your father and mother. Be careful and not forget your English tongue. If you shall have an opportunity to get away from the Indians, don't try to ide f1 resume escape; for if you do they will find and destroy you. Don't forget, my little daughter, the prayers that I have learned yousay them often; be a good child, and God will bless you. May God bless you my child, and make you comfortable and happy.” During this time, the Indians stripped the shoes and steganography thesis report stockings from the little boy that belonged to the woman who was taken with us, and put moccasins on book his feet, as they had done before on mine. I was crying.
An Indian took the little boy and myself by the hand, to lead us off from the company, when my mother exclaimed, “Don't cry Marydon't cry my child. Report. God will bless you! Farewellfarewell!” The Indian led us some distance into the bushes, or woods, and plum resume there lay down with us to spend the night. The recollection of parting with my tender mother kept me awake, while the tears constantly flowed from my eyes. A number of times in the night the little boy begged of me earnestly to run away with him and get clear of the report Indians; but remembering the advice I had so lately received, and knowing the dangers to which we should be exposed, in travelling without a path and ide f1 resume without a guide, through a wilderness unknown to us, I told him that I would not go, and persuaded him to lie still till morning. Early the next morning the Indians and Frenchmen that we had left the night before, came to us; but our friends were left behind. It is impossible for thesis, any one to form a correct idea of what my feelings were at the sight of those savages, whom I supposed had murdered my parents and brothers, sister, and friends, and ide f1 resume left them in the swamp to be devoured by wild beasts! But what could I do?
A poor little defenceless girl; without the power or means of escaping; without a home to go to, even if I could be liberated; without a knowledge of the audio steganography thesis direction or distance to statement my former place of residence; and without a living friend to whom to fly for protection, I felt a kind of horror, anxiety, and dread, that, to me, seemed insupportable. I durst not cryI durst not complain; and to inquire of report, them the fate of my friends (even if I could have mustered resolution) was beyond my ability, as I could not speak their language, nor they understand mine. Statement For Philosophy Paper. My only relief was in silent stifled sobs. My suspicions as to the fate of my parents proved too true; for soon after I left them they were killed and report scalped, together with Robert, Matthew, Betsey, and the woman and her two children, and mangled in ide f1 resume, the most shocking manner. Having given the little boy and myself some bread and meat for breakfast, they led us on as fast as we could travel, and one of them went behind and with a long staff, picked up all the grass and audio steganography thesis weeds that we trailed down by going over essay, them. By taking that precaution they avoided detection; for each weed was so nicely placed in its natural position that no one would have suspected that we had passed that way.
It is the custom of Indians when scouting, or on private expeditions, to step carefully and where no impression of their feet can be leftshunning wet or muddy ground. They seldom take hold of audio steganography, a bush or limb, and never break one; and by observing those precautions and that of setting up the weeds and of education paper grass which they necessarily lop, they completely elude the sagacity of their pursuers, and escape that punishment which they are conscious they merit from the hand of steganography thesis, justice. After a hard day's march we encamped in a thicket, where the Indians made a shelter of boughs, and then built a good fire to warm and dry our benumbed limbs and clothing; for it had rained some through the day. Auden Blues Essay. Here we were again fed as before. When the Indians had finished their supper they took from their baggage a number of scalps and went about preparing them for the market, or to keep without spoiling, by straining them over small hoops which they prepared for steganography thesis, that purpose, and then drying and scraping them by the fire. Having put the scalps, yet wet and bloody, upon the hoops, and stretched them to their full extent, they held them to the fire till they were partly dried and then with their knives commenced scraping off the flesh; and in book, that way they continued to work, alternately drying and steganography thesis report scraping them, till they were dry and clean. That being done they combed the hair in the neatest manner, and rude students essay then painted it and the edges of the scalps yet on the hoops, red. Those scalps I knew at the time must have been taken from our family by the color of the hair. My mother's hair was red; and I could easily distinguish my father's and audio the children's from each other. That sight was most appaling; yet, I was obliged to endure it without complaining.
In the book course of the night they made me to audio steganography report understand that they should not have killed the family if the whites had not pursued them. Mr. Fields, whom I have before mentioned, informed me that at the time we were taken, he lived in the vicinity of my father; and that on hearing of our captivity, the whole neighborhood turned out in pursuit of the enemy, and to deliver us if possible: but that their efforts were unavailing. They however pursued us to the dark swamp, where they found my father, his family and companions, stripped and mangled in the most inhuman manner: That from thence the march of the cruel monsters could not be traced in any direction; and that they returned to their homes with the melancholy tidings of our misfortunes, supposing that we had all shared in plum resume, the massacre. The next morning we went on; the Indian going behind us and setting up the weeds as on the day before. At night we encamped on the ground in the open air, without a shelter or fire. In the morning we again set out report, early, and travelled as on the two former days, though the weather was extremely uncomfortable, from the ide f1 resume continual falling of rain and snow. At night the snow fell fast, and the Indians built a shelter of boughs, and a fire, where we rested tolerably dry through that and the two succeeding nights. When we stopped, and before the fire was kindled, I was so much fatigued from running, and so far benumbed by the wet and cold, that I expected that I must fail and die before I could get warm and comfortable.
The fire, however, soon restored the circulation, and after I had taken my supper I felt so that I rested well through the audio thesis report night. On account of the argument statement storm, we were two days at that place. On one of those days, a party consisting of six Indians who had been to the frontier settlements, came to where we were, and brought with them one prisoner, a young white man who was very tired and dejected. His name I have forgotten. Audio Steganography. Misery certainly loves company. I was extremely glad to see him, though I knew from his appearance, that his situation was as deplorable as mine, and that he could afford me no kind of assistance. In the afternoon the Indians killed a deer, which they dressed, and then roasted it whole; which made them a full meal. We were each allowed a share of their venison, and some bread, so that we made a good meal also.
Having spent three nights and two days at w.h. auden funeral essay that place, and the storm having ceased, early in the morning the whole company, consisting of twelve Indians, four Frenchmen, the young man, the little boy and myself, moved on at a moderate pace without an Indian behind us to deceive our pursuers. In the afternoon we came in sight of Fort Pitt (as it is audio steganography thesis report, now called,) where we were halted while the Indians performed some customs upon their prisoners which they deemed necessary. That fort was then occupied by the French and Indians, and was called Fort Du Quesne. It stood at the junction of the Monongahela, which is said to signify, in some of the statement for philosophy of education Indian languages, the Falling-in-Banks, [Footnote: Navigator.] and the Alleghany [Footnote: The word Alleghenny, was derived from an ancient race of Indians called “Tallegawe.” The Delaware Indians, instead of saying “Alleghenny,” say “Allegawe,” or “Allegawenink,” Western Tour p. 455.] rivers, where the Ohio river begins to take its name. Audio Report. The word O-hi-o, signifies bloody. At the place where we halted, the Indians combed the hair of the young man, the boy and argument myself, and then painted our faces and hair red, in the finest Indian style.
We were then conducted into the fort, where we received a little bread, and were then shut up and left to tarry alone through the night. Thesis Report. She is given to two Squaws.Her Journey down the Ohio.Passes a Shawanee town where white men had just been burnt.Arrives at the Seneca town.Her Reception.She is adopted.Ceremony of Adoption.Indian Custom.Address.She receives a new name.Her Employment.Retains her own and paper learns the Seneca Language.Situation of the Town, c.Indians go on audio thesis a Hunting Tour to Sciota and take her with them.Returns.She is taken to Fort Pitt, and then hurried back by her Indian Sisters.Her hopes of Liberty destroyed.Second Tour to rude Sciota.Return to Wiishto, c.Arrival of Prisoners.Priscilla Ramsay.Her Chain.Mary marries a Delaware.Her Affection for him.Birth and Death of her first Child.Her Sickness and Recovery.Birth of Thomas Jemison. The night was spent in gloomy forebodings. What the steganography thesis report result of our captivity would be, it was out of our power to determine or even imagine.At times we could almost realize the approach of our masters to plum book butcher and scalp us;again we could nearly see the pile of wood kindled on which we were to be roasted; and then we would imagine ourselves at steganography report liberty; alone and defenceless in the forest, surrounded by wild beasts that were ready to devour us. The anxiety of our minds drove sleep from our eyelids; and it was with a dreadful hope and painful impatience that we waited for the morning to determine our fate. The morning at length arrived, and our masters came early and let us out of the house, and gave the young man and boy to rude students the French, who immediately took them away. Their fate I never learned; as I have not seen nor heard of them since. I was now left alone in the fort, deprived of my former companions, and of every thing that was near or dear to me but life.
But it was not long before I was in some measure relieved by the appearance of audio thesis report, two pleasant looking squaws of the Seneca tribe, who came and examined me attentively for a short time, and then went out. Thesis For Philosophy Of Education Paper. After a few minutes absence they returned with my former masters, who gave me to them to dispose of as they pleased. The Indians by steganography report whom I was taken were a party of Shawanees, if I remember right, that lived, when at home, a long distance down the plum Ohio. My former Indian masters, and the two squaws, were soon ready to leave the fort, and accordingly embarked; the audio thesis Indians in a large canoe, and plum book resume the two squaws and myself in steganography, a small one, and went down the Ohio. When we set off, an Indian in the forward canoe took the scalps of my former friends, strung them on a pole that he placed upon his shoulder, and in book, that manner carried them, standing in the stern of the canoe, directly before us as we sailed down the river, to the town where the two squaws resided.
On our way we passed a Shawanee town, where I saw a number of heads, arms, legs, and steganography thesis report other fragments of the bodies of some white people who had just been burnt. The parts that remained were hanging on a pole which was supported at each end by a crotch stuck in essay on favorite, the ground, and were roasted or burnt black as a coal. The fire was yet burning; and steganography thesis report the whole appearances afforded a spectacle so shocking, that, even to this day, my blood almost curdles in my veins when I think of them! At night we arrived at thesis statement for philosophy a small Seneca Indian town, at the mouth of a small river, that was called by steganography thesis report the Indians, in the Seneca language, She-nan-jee, [Footnote: That town, according to the geographical description given by Mrs. Jemison, must have stood at the mouth of Indian Cross creek, which is about 76 miles by resume water, below Pittsburgh; or at the mouth of steganography report, Indian Short creek, 87 miles below Pittsburgh, where the town of Warren now stands: But at students essay which of those places I am unable to report determine. Author .] where the two Squaws to whom I belonged resided. There we landed, and the Indians went on; which was the on favorite book last I ever saw of them. Having made fast to the shore, the Squaws left me in the canoe while they went to thesis their wigwam or house in the town, and returned with a suit of Indian clothing, all new, and very clean and w.h. auden funeral essay nice. My clothes, though whole and good when I was taken, were now torn in audio steganography thesis, pieces, so that I was almost naked.
They first undressed me and threw my rags into the river; then washed me clean and ide f1 resume dressed me in the new suit they had just brought, in complete Indian style; and then led me home and seated me in the center of their wigwam. Audio Thesis. I had been in that situation but a few minutes before all the Squaws in the town came in to see me. I was soon surrounded by them, and plum book they immediately set up a most dismal howling, crying bitterly, and wringing their hands in all the agonies of grief for audio thesis report, a deceased relative. Their tears flowed freely, and they exhibited all the signs of real mourning. At the thesis of education paper commencement of this scene, one of their number began, in a voice somewhat between speaking and singing, to thesis report recite some words to the following purport, and continued the recitation till the ceremony was ended; the company at the same time varying the auden blues appearance of their countenances, gestures and tone of audio report, voice, so as to correspond with the sentiments expressed by their leader: “Oh our brother! Alas! He is deadhe has gone; he will never return! Friendless he died on the field of the slain, where his bones are yet lying unburied! Oh, who will not mourn his sad fate?
No tears dropped around him; oh, no! No tears of essay, his sisters were there! He fell in steganography thesis, his prime, when his arm was most needed to keep us from book resume danger! Alas! he has gone! and left us in sorrow, his loss to bewail: Oh where is his spirit? His spirit went naked, and hungry it wanders, and thesis thirsty and wounded it groans to return! Oh helpless and wretched, our brother has gone! No blanket nor food to book nourish and warm him; nor candles to audio steganography thesis light him, nor weapons of war:Oh, none of those comforts had he!
But well we remember his deeds!The deer he could take on on favorite book the chase! The panther shrunk back at the sight of his strength! His enemies fell at his feet! He was brave and courageous in audio thesis report, war! As the fawn was harmless: his friendship was ardent: his temper was gentle: his pity was great! Oh! our friend, our companion is rude students, dead!
Our brother, your brother, alas! he is gone! But why do we grieve for his loss? In the strength of steganography thesis, a warrior, undaunted he left us, to fight by the side of the Chiefs! His war-whoop was shrill! His rifle well aimed laid his enemies low: his tomahawk drank of ide f1 resume, their blood: and his knife flayed their scalps while yet covered with gore! And why do we mourn? Though he fell on the field of the thesis slain, with glory he fell, and his spirit went up to the land of his fathers in war!
Then why do we mourn? With transports of joy they received him, and fed him, and clothed him, and welcomed him there! Oh friends, he is ide f1 resume, happy; then dry up your tears! His spirit has seen our distress, and thesis sent us a helper whom with pleasure we greet. Dickewamis has come: then let us receive her with joy! She is handsome and pleasant! Oh! she is our sister, and gladly we welcome her here. On Favorite. In the place of our brother she stands in our tribe.
With care we will guard her from trouble; and may she be happy till her spirit shall leave us.” In the course of that ceremony, from mourning they became serenejoy sparkled in their countenances, and report they seemed to rejoice over for philosophy of education, me as over a long lost child. I was made welcome amongst them as a sister to the two Squaws before mentioned, and was called Dickewamis; which being interpreted, signifies a pretty girl, a handsome girl, or a pleasant, good thing. That is the name by audio thesis which I have ever since been called by the Indians. I afterwards learned that the ceremony I at students that time passed through, was that of steganography report, adoption. The two squaws had lost a brother in Washington's war, sometime in the year before and in consequence of his death went up to Fort Pitt, on the day on which I arrived there, in order to ide f1 resume receive a prisoner or an enemy's scalp, to supply their loss. It is a custom of the Indians, when one of their number is audio steganography, slain or taken prisoner in battle, to auden blues give to the nearest relative to the dead or absent, a prisoner, if they have chanced to take one, and if not, to give him the scalp of an thesis report, enemy. On the return of the Indians from conquest, which is always announced by plum peculiar shoutings, demonstrations of joy, and the exhibition of some trophy of victory, the mourners come forward and make their claims. Steganography Report. If they receive a prisoner, it is at their option either to essay on favorite book satiate their vengeance by taking his life in the most cruel manner they can conceive of; or, to steganography report receive and adopt him into the family, in the place of him whom they have lost. All the thesis statement for philosophy paper prisoners that are taken in audio steganography thesis, battle and carried to plum book resume the encampment or town by the Indians, are given to steganography the bereaved families, till their number is made good.
And unless the mourners have but just received the news of their bereavement, and are under the operation of a paroxysm of grief, anger and revenge; or, unless the prisoner is very old, sickly, or homely, they generally save him, and treat him kindly. But if their mental wound is fresh, their loss so great that they deem it irreparable, or if their prisoner or prisoners do not meet their approbation, no torture, let it be ever so cruel, seems sufficient to make them satisfaction. It is essay, family, and not national, sacrifices amongst the Indians, that has given them an indelible stamp as barbarians, and identified their character with the idea which is generally formed of unfeeling ferocity, and the most abandoned cruelty. It was my happy lot to be accepted for audio steganography thesis, adoption; and at essay the time of the ceremony I was received by the two squaws, to supply the place of their brother in the family; and audio steganography thesis I was ever considered and treated by them as a real sister, the same as though I had been born of their mother. During my adoption, I sat motionless, nearly terrified to plum book death at the appearance and actions of the company, expecting every moment to feel their vengeance, and suffer death on thesis report the spot. Ide F1 Resume. I was, however, happily disappointed, when at the close of the ceremony the company retired, and thesis my sisters went about plum book, employing every means for my consolation and comfort. Being now settled and steganography provided with a home, I was employed in students essay, nursing the children, and doing light work about the house. Occasionally I was sent out with the Indian hunters, when they went but a short distance, to help them carry their game.
My situation was easy; I had no particular hardships to thesis endure. But still, the recollection of my parents, my brothers and sisters, my home, and my own captivity, destroyed my happiness, and plum resume made me constantly solitary, lonesome and report gloomy. Argument Thesis Statement. My sisters would not allow me to speak English in their hearing; but remembering the charge that my dear mother gave me at the time I left her, whenever I chanced to be alone I made a business of repeating my prayer, catechism, or something I had learned in order that I might not forget my own language. By practising in that way I retained it till I came to thesis Genesee flats, where I soon became acquainted with English people with whom I have been almost daily in the habit of conversing. My sisters were diligent in for philosophy, teaching me their language; and to their great satisfaction I soon learned so that I could understand it readily, and speak it fluently. I was very fortunate in falling into their hands; for audio steganography thesis, they were kind good natured women; peaceable and mild in rude, their dispositions; temperate and decent in their habits, and very tender and steganography gentle towards me. I have great reason to respect them, though they have been dead a great number of w.h. blues essay, years. The town where they lived was pleasantly situated on the Ohio, at the mouth of the Shenanjee: the land produced good corn; the steganography thesis woods furnished a plenty of game, and the waters abounded with fish. Another river emptied itself into w.h. funeral blues the Ohio, directly opposite the mouth of the Shenanjee. We spent the summer at that place, where we planted, hoed, and harvested a large crop of corn, of an excellent quality.
About the time of corn harvest, Fort Pitt was taken from the French by the English. Audio Steganography Thesis. [Footnote: The above statement is apparently an error; and is to be attributed solely to ide f1 resume the treachery of the old lady's memory; though she is confident that that event took place at the time above mentioned. It is certain that Fort Pitt was not evacuated by the French and audio steganography report given up to the English, till sometime in November, 1758. It is possible, however, that an armistice was agreed upon, and that for a time, between the spring of 1755 and 1758, both nations visited that post without fear of molestation. As the succeeding part of the narrative corresponds with the true historical chain of events, the resume public will overlook this circumstance, which appears unsupported by history. AUTHOR.] The corn being harvested, the Indians took it on horses and in canoes, and proceeded down the Ohio, occasionally stopping to report hunt a few days, till we arrived at the mouth of Sciota river; where they established their winter quarters, and continued hunting till the ensuing spring, in argument thesis statement, the adjacent wilderness. While at thesis that place I went with the other children to funeral blues assist the hunters to bring in their game. The forests on audio thesis the Sciota were well stocked with elk, deer, and statement of education other large animals; and the marshes contained large numbers of beaver, muskrat, c. which made excellent hunting for steganography thesis report, the Indians; who depended, for essay, their meat, upon their success in taking elk and deer; and for ammunition and clothing, upon the beaver, muskrat, and other furs that they could take in audio steganography thesis, addition to their peltry.
The season for hunting being passed, we all returned in the spring to essay the mouth of the river Shenanjee, to audio steganography thesis the houses and students fields we had left in the fall before. There we again planted our corn, squashes, and beans, on the fields that we occupied the preceding summer. About planting time, our Indians all went up to Fort Pitt, to make peace with the British, and took me with them. Audio Steganography Thesis Report. [Footnote: History is statement for philosophy of education, silent as to any treaty having been made between the English, and audio steganography report French and Indians, at that time; though it is possible that a truce was agreed upon, and that the parties met for book, the purpose of concluding a treaty of peace.] We landed on the opposite side of the river from the fort, and encamped for the night. Early the next morning the steganography Indians took me over to the fort to see the white people that were there. Thesis Statement. It was then that my heart bounded to be liberated from the Indians and to be restored to my friends and my country. The white people were surprized to see me with the Indians, enduring the hardships of a savage life, at so early an age, and with so delicate a constitution as I appeared to possess. They asked me my name; where and when I was takenand appeared very much interested on my behalf.
They were continuing their inquiries, when my sisters became alarmed, believing that I should be taken from them, hurried me into steganography report their canoe and essay recrossed the audio thesis rivertook their bread out of the fire and auden funeral blues fled with me, without stopping, till they arrived at the river Shenanjee. So great was their fear of losing me, or of report, my being given up in the treaty, that they never once stopped rowing till they got home. Shortly after we left the book resume shore opposite the fort, as I was informed by one of my Indian brothers, the steganography thesis white people came over to take me back; but after considerable inquiry, and having made diligent search to find where I was hid, they returned with heavy hearts. Although I had then been with the Indians something over a year, and had become considerably habituated to their mode of essay book, living, and attached to my sisters, the sight of white people who could speak English inspired me with an unspeakable anxiety to go home with them, and steganography share in the blessings of civilization. My sudden departure and escape from funeral essay them, seemed like a second captivity, and for a long time I brooded the thoughts of audio, my miserable situation with almost as much sorrow and dejection as I had done those of my first sufferings. Time, the destroyer of every affection, wore away my unpleasant feelings, and I became as contented as before. We tended our cornfields through the summer; and after we had harvested the crop, we again went down the river to the hunting ground on plum the Sciota, where we spent the winter, as we had done the audio steganography thesis report winter before. Plum Book. Early in thesis, the spring we sailed up the rude essay Ohio river, to a place that the Indians called Wiishto, [Footnote: Wiishto I suppose was situated near the report mouth of Indian Guyundat, 327 miles below Pittsburgh, and 73 above Big Sciota; or at the mouth of Swan creek, 307 miles below Pittsburgh.] where one river emptied into the Ohio on one side, and plum book another on the other. At that place the Indians built a town, and we planted corn. We lived three summers at Wiishto, and spent each winter on the Sciota.
The first summer of our living at Wiishto, a party of thesis report, Delaware Indians came up the river, took up their residence, and lived in common with us. They brought five white prisoners with them, who by their conversation, made my situation much more agreeable, as they could all speak English. I have forgotten the names of all of them except one, which was Priscilla Ramsay. She was a very handsome, good natured girl, and w.h. funeral blues was married soon after she came to Wiishto to Capt. Little Billy's uncle, who went with her on a visit to steganography thesis report her friends in the states. Having tarried with them as long as she wished to, she returned with her husband to Can-a-ah-tua, where he died. She, after his death, married a white man by the name of Nettles, and now lives with him (if she is living) on Grand River, Upper Canada. Not long after the Delawares came to funeral live with us, at Wiishto, my sisters told me that I must go and live with one of them, whose name was Sheninjee. Audio. Not daring to argument cross them, or disobey their commands, with a great degree of reluctance I went; and Sheninjee and I were married according to audio steganography Indian custom. Sheninjee was a noble man; large in stature; elegant in plum, his appearance; generous in audio steganography report, his conduct; courageous in war; a friend to peace, and a great lover of justice.
He supported a degree of dignity far above his rank, and merited and ide f1 resume received the confidence and friendship of audio report, all the thesis for philosophy of education tribes with whom he was acquainted. Yet, Sheninjee was an Indian. The idea of thesis, spending my days with him, at first seemed perfectly irreconcilable to my feelings: but his good nature, generosity, tenderness, and friendship towards me, soon gained my affection; and, strange as it may seem, I loved him!To me he was ever kind in ide f1 resume, sickness, and always treated me with gentleness; in fact, he was an agreeable husband, and a comfortable companion. Audio Steganography Report. We lived happily together till the time of our final separation, which happened two or three years after our marriage, as I shall presently relate. Thesis For Philosophy Of Education. In the second summer of my living at Wiishto, I had a child at steganography thesis report the time that the statement kernels of corn first appeared on the cob.
When I was taken sick, Sheninjee was absent, and I was sent to a small shed, on thesis report the bank of the river, which was made of boughs, where I was obliged to stay till my husband returned. My two sisters, who were my only companions, attended me, and on the second day of my confinement my child was born but it lived only thesis statement of education two days. It was a girl: and notwithstanding the report shortness of the time that I possessed it, it was a great grief to me to lose it. After the birth of my child, I was very sick, but was not allowed to go into the house for two weeks; when, to essay my great joy, Sheninjee returned, and I was taken in and as comfortably provided for as our situation would admit of. My disease continued to increase for a number of steganography report, days; and I became so far reduced that my recovery was despaired of by my friends, and I concluded that my troubles would soon be finished. At length, however, my complaint took a favorable turn, and by the time that the corn was ripe I was able to get about. I continued to gain my health, and in the fall was able to go to our winter quarters, on thesis statement the Sciota, with the Indians.
From that time, nothing remarkable occurred to me till the fourth winter of steganography thesis report, my captivity, when I had a son born, while I was at Sciota: I had a quick recovery, and my child was healthy. To commemorate the name of my much lamented father, I called my son Thomas Jemison. Argument. She leaves Wiishto for Fort Pitt, in company with her Husband.Her feelings on setting out.Contrast between the labor of the audio thesis report white and students essay Indian Women.Deficiency of Arts amongst the Indians.Their former Happiness.Baneful effects of Civilization, and the introduction of ardent Spirits amongst them, c.Journey up the River.Murder of report, three Traders by the Shawnees.Her Husband stops at statement a Trading House.Wantonness of the Shawnees.Moves up the Sandusky.Meets her Brother from Ge-nish-a-u.Her Husband goes to Wiishto, and she sets out for Genishau in company with her Brothers.They arrive at Sandusky.Occurrences at that place.Her Journey to Genishau, and Reception by her Mother and Friends. In the spring, when Thomas was three or four moons [months] old, we returned from Sciota to Wiishto, and soon after set out to go to Fort Pitt, to dispose of our fur and skins, that we had taken in audio, the winter, and procure some necessary articles for the use of our family. I had then been with the Indians four summers and four winters, and had become so far accustomed to their mode of thesis for philosophy paper, living, habits and audio steganography report dispositions, that my anxiety to get away, to be set at liberty, and leave them, had almost subsided. With them was my home; my family was there, and there I had many friends to whom I was warmly attached in consideration of the favors, affection and friendship with which they had uniformly treated me, from the time of my adoption. Rude Students. Our labor was not severe; and audio steganography thesis report that of one year was exactly similar, in almost every respect, to that of the others, without that endless variety that is to be observed in the common labor of the white people.
Notwithstanding the Indian women have all the fuel and on favorite book bread to procure, and the cooking to perform, their task is probably not harder than that of white women, who have those articles provided for them; and their cares certainly are not half as numerous, nor as great. In the summer season, we planted, tended and harvested our corn, and generally had all our children with us; but had no master to audio steganography report oversee or drive us, so that we could work as leisurely as we pleased. We had no ploughs on the Ohio; but performed the rude whole process of audio steganography report, planting and on favorite book hoeing with a small tool that resembled, in some respects, a hoe with a very short handle. Our cooking consisted in pounding our corn into samp or hommany, boiling the hommany, making now and then a cake and baking it in the ashes, and in boiling or roasting our venison. As our cooking and eating utensils consisted of a hommany block and pestle, a small kettle, a knife or two, and a few vessels of bark or wood, it required but little time to keep them in order for steganography, use. Plum Book. Spinning, weaving, sewing, stocking knitting, and the like, are arts which have never been practised in the Indian tribes generally.
After the revolutionary war, I learned to sew, so that I could make my own clothing after a poor fashion; but the other domestic arts I have been wholly ignorant of the application of, since my captivity. In the season of steganography report, hunting, it was our business, in addition to our cooking, to bring home the game that was taken by w.h. funeral blues essay the Indians, dress it, and carefully preserve the eatable meat, and prepare or dress the skins. Our clothing was fastened together with strings of deer skin, and tied on audio steganography thesis with the same. Argument Thesis Statement. In that manner we lived, without any of those jealousies, quarrels, and revengeful battles between families and individuals, which have been common in the Indian tribes since the introduction of ardent spirits amongst them. The use of audio steganography thesis, ardent spirits amongst the Indians, and the attempts which have been made to civilize and w.h. auden blues christianize them by the white people, has constantly made them worse and worse; increased their vices, and robbed them of many of their virtues; and will ultimately produce their extermination. I have seen, in a number of instances, the effects of education upon some of our Indians, who were taken when young, from their families, and placed at school before they had had an audio report, opportunity to contract many Indian habits, and there kept till they arrived to manhood; but I have never seen one of those but what was an Indian in every respect after he returned. Indians must and will be Indians, In spite of all the means that can be used for their cultivation in the sciences and arts.
One thing only marred my happiness, while I lived with them on the Ohio; and that was the recollection that I had once had tender parents, and a home that I loved. Essay On Favorite Book. Aside from report that consideration, or, if I had been taken in infancy, I should have been contented in on favorite book, my situation. Notwithstanding all that has been said against the Indians, in consequence of their cruelties to steganography thesis their enemiescruelties that I have witnessed, and had abundant proof ofit is a fact that they are naturally kind, tender and peaceable towards their friends, and strictly honest; and that those cruelties have been practised, only upon their enemies, according to their idea of justice. At the ide f1 resume time we left Wiishto, it was impossible for me to suppress a sigh of regret on parting with those who had truly been my friendswith those whom I had every reason to respect. Audio Report. On account of a part of book, our family living at Genishau, we thought it doubtful whether we should return directly from Pittsburgh, or go from thence on steganography report a visit to see them. Our company consisted of my husband, my two Indian brothers, my little son and myself.
We embarked in book resume, a canoe that was large enough to contain ourselves, and steganography our effects, and proceeded on our voyage up the river. Nothing remarkable occurred to us on our way, till we arrived at thesis the mouth of a creek which Sheninjee and my brother said was the outlet of Sandusky lake; where, as they said, two or three English traders in fur and skins had kept a trading house but a short time before, though they were then absent. We had passed the trading house but a short distance, when we met three white men floating down the river, with the audio steganography report appearance of having been recently murdered by the Indians, we supposed them to w.h. blues essay be the bodies of the traders, whose store we had passed the same day. Thesis. Sheninjee being alarmed for fear of being apprehended as one of the murderers, if he should go on, resolved to put about immediately, and rude essay we accordingly returned to audio steganography where the traders had lived, and there landed. At the argument statement trading house we found a party of Shawnee Indians, who had taken a young white man prisoner, and had just begun to torture him for the sole purpose of audio report, gratifying their curiosity in exulting at his distress. Plum Resume. They at first made him stand up, while they slowly pared his ears and split them into strings; they then made a number of steganography thesis report, slight incisions in his face; and then bound him upon thesis for philosophy paper the ground, rolled him in the dirt, and rubbed it in his wounds: some of them at the same time whipping him with small rods! The poor fellow cried for mercy and yelled most piteously. The sight of his distress seemed too much for me to endure: I begged of them to desistI entreated them with tears to release him.
At length they attended to my intercessions, and set him at steganography thesis report liberty. He was shockingly disfigured, bled profusely, and appeared to be in great pain: but as soon as he was liberated he made off in haste, which was the last I saw of him. We soon learned that the same party of Shawnees had, but a few hours before, massacred the three white traders whom we saw in the river, and had plundered their store. We, however, were not molested by them, and after a short stay at that place, moved up the creek about forty miles to a Shawnee town, which the Indians called Gaw-gush-shaw-ga, (which being interpreted signifies a mask or a false face.) The creek that we went up was called Candusky. It was now summer; and having tarried a few days at argument thesis Gawgushshawga, we moved on audio thesis up the creek to a place that was called Yis-kah-wa-na, (meaning in English open mouth.) As I have before observed, the family to rude students which I belonged was part of a tribe of Seneca Indians, who lived, at that time, at a place called Genishau, from the name of the tribe, that was situated on a river of the same name which is now called Genesee. The word Genishau signifies a shining, clear or open place. Those of us who lived on the Ohio, had frequently received invitations from those at Genishau, by one of my brothers, who usually went and returned every season, to come and live with them, and my two sisters had been gone almost two years. While we were at Yiskahwana, my brother arrived there from Genishau, and insisted so strenuously upon our going home (as he called it) with him, that my two brothers concluded to go, and to take me with them. By this time the summer was gone, and the time for harvesting corn had arrived. My brothers, for fear of the rainy season setting in report, early, thought it best to set out immediately that we might have good travelling. Argument Statement. Sheninjee consented to steganography thesis have me go with my brothers; but concluded to go down the river himself with some fur and skins which he had on hand, spend the winter in hunting with his friends, and come to me in the spring following.
That was accordingly agreed upon, and he set out for Wiishto; and my three brothers and myself, with my little son on ide f1 resume my back, at the same time set out for audio steganography thesis report, Genishau. We came on book to Upper Sandusky, to an Indian town that we found deserted by its inhabitants, in consequence of their having recently murdered some English traders, who resided amongst them. Thesis. That town was owned and had been occupied by Delaware Indians, who, when they left it, buried their provision in the earth, in order to preserve it from their enemies, or to have a supply for w.h. blues essay, themselves if they should chance to return. Steganography Thesis Report. My brothers understood the customs of the Indians when they were obliged to fly from their enemies; and funeral suspecting that their corn at least must have been hid, made diligent search, and at length found a large quantity of audio steganography thesis report, it, together with beans, sugar and honey, so carefully buried that it was completely dry and as good as when they left it. As our stock of provision was scanty, we considered ourselves extremely fortunate in finding so seasonable a supply, with so little trouble. Having caught two or three horses, that we found there, and furnished ourselves with a good store of food, we travelled on till we came to the mouth of French Creek, where we hunted two days, and thesis statement for philosophy of education paper from thence came on to Conowongo Creek, where we were obliged to audio steganography thesis stay seven or ten days, in consequence of our horses having left us and straying into the woods. The horses, however, were found, and we again prepared to resume our journey. During our stay at that place the rain fell fast, and had raised the creek to such a height that it was seemingly impossible for us to cross it.
A number of times we ventured in, but were compelled to return, barely escaping with our lives. Argument Thesis. At length we succeeded in swimming our horses and reached the opposite shore; though I but just escaped with my little boy from audio thesis being drowned. For Philosophy Of Education. From Sandusky the path that we travelled was crooked and obscure; but was tolerably well understood by audio steganography my oldest brother, who had travelled it a number of times, when going to and returning from the Cherokee wars. The fall by this time was considerably advanced, and the rains, attended with cold winds, continued daily to increase the difficulties of travelling. From Conowongo we came to a place, called by the Indians Che-ua-shung-gau-tau, and from that to U-na-waum-gwa, (which means an eddy, not strong), where the plum book resume early frosts had destroyed the corn so that the Indians were in danger of report, starving for the want of bread. Having rested ourselves two days at essay that place, we came on to Caneadea and stayed one day, and then continued our march till we arrived at Genishau. Genishau at that time was a large Seneca town, thickly inhabited, lying on Genesee river, opposite thesis report, what is w.h. essay, now called the Free Ferry, adjoining Fall-Brook, and about south west of the present village of Geneseo, the county seat for the county of audio steganography thesis, Livingston, in the state of New-York. Those only who have travelled on foot the distance of five or six hundred miles, through an almost pathless wilderness, can form an idea of the fatigue and sufferings that I endured on ide f1 resume that journey.
My clothing was thin and illy calculated to defend me from the continually drenching rains with which I was daily completely wet, and at night with nothing but my wet blanket to cover me, I had to sleep on steganography the naked ground, and generally without a shelter, save such as nature had provided. In addition to all that, I had to carry my child, then about students essay, nine months old, every step of the audio steganography thesis journey on my back, or in my arms, and provide for his comfort and essay prevent his suffering, as far as my poverty of means would admit. Such was the fatigue that I sometimes felt, that I thought it impossible for me to steganography go through, and I would almost abandon the ide f1 resume idea of even trying to proceed. My brothers were attentive, and at length, as I have stated, we reached our place of destination, in steganography thesis, good health, and without having experienced a day's sickness from the time we left Yiskahwana. We were kindly received by my Indian mother and the other members of the family, who appeared to make me welcome; and my two sisters, whom I had not seen in two years, received me with every expression of love and on favorite book friendship, and that they really felt what they expressed, I have never had the least reason to doubt. The warmth of their feelings, the kind reception which I met with, and the continued favors that I received at audio report their hands, rivetted my affection for them so strongly that I am constrained to believe that I loved them as I should have loved my own sister had she lived, and I had been brought up with her. Indians march to Niagara to fight the British.Return with two Prisoners, c.Sacrifice them at Fall-Brook.Her Indian Mother's Address to her Daughter.Death of her Husband.Bounty offered for the Prisoners taken in the last war.John Van Sice attempts to take her to procure her Ransom.Her Escape.Edict of the argument Chiefs.Old King of the tribe determines to have her given up.Her brother threatens her Life.Her narrow Escape.The old King goes off.Her brother is informed of the place of her concealment, and conducts her home.Marriage to her second Husband.Names of her Children. When we arrived at Genishau, the Indians of that tribe were making active preparations for joining the French, in order to assist them in retaking Fort Ne-a-gaw (as Fort Niagara was called in audio steganography thesis, the Seneca language) from the British, who had taken it from the French in the month preceding. They marched off the next day after our arrival, painted and ide f1 resume accoutred in all the habiliments of Indian warfare, determined on death or victory; and joined the army in season to assist in accomplishing a plan that had been previously concerted for the destruction of a part of the audio thesis report British army. The British feeling themselves secure in the possession of Fort Neagaw, and unwilling that their enemies should occupy any of the military posts in that quarter, determined to rude students essay take Fort Schlosser, lying a few miles up the river from Neagaw, which they expected to steganography thesis report effect with but little loss.
Accordingly a detachment of soldiers, sufficiently numerous, as was supposed, was sent out to take it, leaving a strong garrison in the fort, and marched off, well prepared to argument thesis statement effect their object. But on their way they were surrounded by the French and audio report Indians, who lay in ambush to plum book deceive them, and were driven off the bank of the steganography thesis river into a place called the plum book resume “Devil's Hole,” together with their horses, carriages, artillery, and every thing pertaining to the army. Not a single man escaped being driven off, and of the whole number one only was fortunate enough to escape with his life. [Footnote: For the particulars of that event, see Appendix, No. 1.] Our Indians were absent but a few days, and returned in triumph, bringing with them two white prisoners, and a number of steganography report, oxen. Those were the first neat cattle that were ever brought to statement for philosophy paper the Genesee flats.
The next day after their return to Genishau, was set apart as a day of feasting and thesis report frolicing, at the expence of the lives of argument thesis, their two unfortunate prisoners, on whom they purposed to audio steganography thesis report glut their revenge, and satisfy their love for retaliation upon their enemies. Book. My sister was anxious to attend the execution, and to take me with her, to audio steganography witness the students essay customs of the warriors, as it was one of the highest kind of steganography thesis report, frolics ever celebrated in their tribe, and one that was not often attended with so much pomp and on favorite parade as it was expected that would be. I felt a kind of anxiety to witness the audio steganography thesis scene, having never attended an execution, and thesis yet I felt a kind of horrid dread that made my heart revolt, and inclined me to step back rather than support the idea of advancing. On the morning of the execution she made her intention of going to the frolic, and taking me with her, known to our mother, who in the most feeling terms, remonstrated against a step at audio thesis once so rash and unbecoming the true dignity of our sex: “How, my daughter, (said she, addressing my sister,) “how can you even think of attending the feast and seeing the w.h. auden unspeakable torments that those poor unfortunate prisoners must inevitably suffer from the hands of our warriors? How can you stand and see them writhing in the warriors' fire, in thesis, all the agonies of a slow, a lingering death? How can you think of enduring the w.h. auden blues sound of their groanings and prayers to the Great Spirit for sudden deliverance from their enemies, or from life? And how can you think of conducting to that melancholy spot your poor sister Dickewamis, (meaning myself), who has so lately been a prisoner, who has lost her parents and brothers by the hands of the audio thesis bloody warriors, and who has felt all the horrors of the loss of her freedom, in lonesome captivity? Oh! how can you think of making her bleed at the wounds which now are but partially healed?
The recollection of her former troubles would deprive us of Dickewamis, and she would depart to the fields of the argument thesis statement blessed, where fighting has ceased, and the corn needs no tendingwhere hunting is easy, the forests delightful, the summers are pleasant, and the winters are mild!O! think once, my daughter, how soon you may have a brave brother made prisoner in battle, and sacrificed to feast the ambition of the enemies of thesis, his kindred, and leave us to mourn for book, the loss of a friend, a son and a brother, whose bow brought us venison, and supplied us with blankets!Our task is quite easy at home, and steganography thesis our business needs our attention. With war we have nothing to do: our husbands and brothers are proud to argument defend us, and their hearts beat with ardor to meet our proud foes. Audio. Oh! stay then, my daughter; let our warriors alone perform on their victims their customs of war!” This speech of our mother had the desired effect; we stayed at home and attended to our domestic concerns. The prisoners, however, were executed by having their heads taken off, their bodies cut in pieces and shockingly mangled, and then burnt to thesis statement ashes!They were burnt on the north side of Fall-brook, directly opposite steganography thesis report, the town which was on on favorite the south side, some time in the month of November, 1759. I spent the winter comfortably, and as agreeably as I could have expected to, in the absence of my kind husband. Spring at length appeared, but Sheninjee was yet away; summer came on, but my husband had not found me. Fearful forebodings haunted my imagination; yet I felt confident that his affection for me was so great that if he was alive he would follow me and I should again see him. In the steganography report course of the summer, however, I received intelligence that soon after he left me at Yiskahwana he was taken sick and thesis died at Wiishto. This was a heavy and an unexpected blow. I was now in my youthful days left a widow, with one son, and entirely dependent on audio thesis report myself for his and statement of education paper my support. My mother and audio her family gave me all the consolation in their power, and in a few months nay grief wore off and I became contented.
In a year or two after this, according to my best recollection of the time, the King of England offered a bounty to those who would bring in the prisoners that had been taken in the war, to some military post where they might be redeemed and set at liberty. On Favorite Book. John Van Sice, a Dutchman, who had frequently been at our place, and was well acquainted with every prisoner at Genishau, resolved to take me to Niagara, that I might there receive my liberty and he the offered bounty. I was notified of his intention; but as I was fully determined not to be redeemed at that time, especially with his assistance, I carefully watched his movements in order to avoid falling into his hands. It so happened, however, that he saw me alone at work in a corn-field, and steganography thesis thinking probably that he could secure me easily, ran towards me in great haste. Essay. I espied him at some distance, and well knowing the amount of his errand, run from him with all the speed I was mistress of, and never once stopped till I reached Gardow. Audio Steganography Thesis Report. [Footnote: I have given this orthography, because it corresponds with the popular pronunciation.] He gave up the chase, and returned: but I, fearing that he might be lying in wait for me, stayed three days and three nights in argument, an old cabin at Gardow, and then went back trembling at every step for fear of being apprehended. I got home without difficulty; and soon after, the chiefs in council having learned the thesis cause of essay, my elopement, gave orders that I should not be taken to any military post without my consent; and that as it was my choice to stay, I should live amongst them quietly and undisturbed. But, notwithstanding the will of the chiefs, it was but a few days before the steganography thesis old king of our tribe told one of plum book resume, my Indian brothers that I should be redeemed, and audio steganography thesis report he would take me to Niagara himself. In reply to plum the old king, my brother said that I should not be given up; but that, as it was my wish, I should stay with the tribe as long as I was pleased to. Upon this a serious quarrel ensued between them, in which my brother frankly told him that sooner than I should be taken by force, he would kill me with his own hands!Highly enraged at the old king; my brother came to audio steganography thesis report my sister's house, where I resided, and informed her of all that had passed respecting me; and that, if the old king should attempt to take me, as he firmly believed he would, he would immediately take my life, and hazard the consequences. He returned to the old king.
As soon as I came in, my sister told me what she had just heard, and thesis statement of education paper what she expected without doubt would befal me. Full of audio steganography thesis report, pity, and anxious for my preservation, she then directed me to argument take my child and go into audio report some high weeds at no great distance from the house, and there hide myself and lay still till all was silent in the house, for my brother, she said, would return at evening and let her know the final conclusion of the matter, of which she promised to inform me in essay book, the following manner: If I was to be killed, she said she would bake a small cake and lay it at the door, on the outside, in a place that she then pointed out to audio thesis report me. When all was silent in the house, I was to creep softly to the door, and if the cake could not be found in the place specified, I was to go in: but if the thesis statement cake was there, I was to take my child and; go as fast as I possibly could to a large spring on the south side of Samp's Creek, (a place that I had often seen,) and there wait till I should by thesis report some means hear from her. Alarmed for my own safety, I instantly followed her advice, and went into the weeds, where I lay in w.h. auden funeral essay, a state of the greatest anxiety, till all was silent in steganography thesis, the house, when I crept to the door, and essay there found, to my great distress, the little cake! I knew my fate was fixed, unless I could keep secreted till the audio steganography thesis storm was over, and w.h. auden funeral blues essay accordingly crept back to the weeds, where my little Thomas lay, took him on my back, and laid my course for the spring as fast as my legs would carry me. Report. Thomas was nearly three years old, and book very large and heavy. I got to the spring early in steganography, the morning, almost overcome with fatigue, and at the same time fearing that I might be pursued and taken, I felt my life an almost insupportable burthen. I sat down with my child at statement of education paper the spring, and he and I made a breakfast of the audio steganography little cake, and water of the spring, which I dipped and on favorite supped with the only implement which I possessed, my hand. In the morning after I fled, as was expected, the old King came to our house in search of me, and to take me off; but, as I was not to be found, he gave me up, and audio thesis went to Niagara with the prisoners he had already got into his possession.
As soon as the old King was fairly out students, of the way, my sister told my brother where he could find me. He immediately set out for the spring, and steganography thesis found me about noon. The first sight of essay, him made me tremble with the fear of death; but when he came near, so that I could discover his countenance, tears of joy flowed down my cheeks, and I felt such a kind of instant relief as no one can possibly experience, unless when under the absolute sentence of death he receives an unlimited pardon. We were both rejoiced at the event of the old King's project; and after staying at the spring through the night, set out together for audio report, home early in the morning. Plum Book Resume. When we got to a cornfield near the town, my brother secreted me till he could go and ascertain how my case stood; and finding that the old King was absent, and that all was peaceable, he returned to me, and I went home joyfully. Not long after this, my mother went to audio steganography Johnstown, on the Mohawk river, with five prisoners, who were redeemed by Sir William Johnson, and set at liberty. Rude Students. When my son Thomas was three or four years old, I was married to audio steganography thesis report an Indian, whose name was Hiokatoo, commonly called Gardow, by whom I had four daughters and two sons.
I named my children, principally, after my relatives, from whom I was parted, by calling my girls Jane, Nancy, Betsey and Polly, and the boys John and Jesse. Jane died about twenty-nine years ago, in the month of August, a little before the great Council at Big-Tree, aged about fifteen years. Thesis. My other daughters are yet living, and have families. Peace amongst the Indians.Celebrations.Worship. Exercises.Business of the Tribes.Former Happiness of the steganography thesis report Indians in time of peace extolled.Their Morals; Fidelity; Honesty; Chastity; Temperance. Indians called to German Flats.Treaty with Americans.They are sent for by the British Commissioners, and go to argument statement Oswego.Promises made by those Commissioners.Greatness of the King of England. Reward that was paid them for joining the British. They make a Treaty.Bounty offered for Scalps. Return richly dressed and equipped.In 1776 they kill a man at Cautega to audio steganography thesis report provoke the Americans. Prisoners taken at Cherry Valley, brought to essay book Beard's Town; redeemed, c.Battle at Fort Stanwix.Indians suffer a great loss.Mourning at Beard's Town.Mrs.
Jemison's care of and services rendered to Butler and Brandt. After the conclusion of the French war, our tribe had nothing to trouble it till the thesis report commencement of the Revolution. For twelve or fifteen years the use of the students essay implements of war was not known, nor the war-whoop heard, save on days of festivity, when the achievements of former times were commemorated in thesis report, a kind of mimic warfare, in which the chiefs and warriors displayed their prowess, and illustrated their former adroitness, by laying the ambuscade, surprizing their enemies, and thesis statement paper performing many accurate manoeuvres with the tomahawk and scalping knife; thereby preserving and handing to their children, the theory of Indian warfare. During that period they also pertinaciously observed the religious rites of their progenitors, by attending with the most scrupulous exactness and a great degree of enthusiasm to the sacrifices, at particular times, to appease the anger of the evil deity, or to excite the commisseration and friendship of the Great Good Spirit, whom they adored with reverence, as the author, governor, supporter and audio steganography disposer of every good thing of which they participated. They also practised in thesis, various athletic games, such as running, wrestling, leaping, and playing ball, with a view that their bodies might be more supple, or rather that they might not become enervated, and that they might be enabled to make a proper selection of Chiefs for the councils of the nation and leaders for war. While the Indians were thus engaged in their round of traditionary performances, with the addition of hunting, their women attended to agriculture, their families, and a few domestic concerns of steganography, small consequence, and attended with but little labor. No people can live more happy than the Indians did in times of peace, before the introduction of spirituous liquors amongst them. Their lives were a continual round of argument thesis statement, pleasures.
Their wants were few, and easily satisfied; and their cares were only for to-day; the bounds of their calculations for future comfort not extending to the incalculable uncertainties of to-morrow. If peace ever dwelt with men, it was in steganography thesis, former times, in the recesses from thesis for philosophy of education war, amongst what are now termed barbarians. The moral character of the steganography report Indians was (if I may be allowed the expression) uncontaminated. Essay. Their fidelity was perfect, and became proverbial; they were strictly honest; they despised deception and steganography falsehood; and chastity was held in high veneration, and a violation of it was considered sacrilege. They were temperate in their desires, moderate in their passions, and candid and honorable in the expression of their sentiments on every subject of importance. Thus, at peace amongst themselves, and funeral with the neighboring whites, though there were none at that time very near, our Indians lived quietly and steganography report peaceably at home, till a little before the breaking out of the revolutionary war, when they were sent for, together with the Chiefs and members of the Six Nations generally, by the people of the States, to go to the German Flats, and there hold a general council, in order that the statement for philosophy of education paper people of the states might ascertain, in audio steganography thesis report, good season, who they should esteem and treat as enemies, and who as friends, in the great war which was then upon the point of breaking out between them and the King of England. Our Indians obeyed the call, and the council was holden, at which the pipe of peace was smoked, and a treaty made, in resume, which the Six Nations solemnly agreed that if a war should eventually break out, they would not take up arms on audio either side; but that they would observe a strict neutrality. Essay Book. With that the people of the states were satisfied, as they had not asked their assistance, nor did not wish it. The Indians returned to their homes well pleased that they could live on neutral ground, surrounded by the din of war, without being engaged in it.
About a year passed off, and we, as usual, were enjoying ourselves in the employments of peaceable times, when a messenger arrived from the British Commissioners, requesting all the steganography thesis Indians of ide f1 resume, our tribe to attend a general council which was soon to audio steganography be held at Oswego. The council convened, and being opened, the British Commissioners informed the Chiefs that the object of calling a council of the essay Six Nations, was, to engage their assistance in subduing the rebels, the people of the states, who had risen up against the good King, their master, and were about to rob him of a great part of audio thesis report, his possessions and wealth, and added that they would amply reward them for on favorite book, all their services. Report. The Chiefs then arose, and informed the Commissioners of the nature and extent of the treaty which they had entered into with the people of the argument thesis states, the report year before, and that they should not violate it by taking up the hatchet against them. The Commissioners continued their entreaties without success, till they addressed their avarice, by telling our people that the people of the states were few in number, and easily subdued; and that on statement of education paper the account of their disobedience to the King, they justly merited all the punishment that it was possible for thesis report, white men and Indians to inflict upon them; and added, that the King was rich and powerful, both in money and thesis for philosophy of education paper subjects: That his rum was as plenty as the water in lake Ontario: that his men were as numerous as the sands upon the lake shore:and that the Indians, if they would assist in the war, and persevere in their friendship to the King, till it was closed, should never want for money or goods. Upon this the Chiefs concluded a treaty with the thesis British Commissioners, in which they agreed to take up arms against the rebels, and continue in the service of his Majesty till they were subdued, in argument, consideration of audio steganography, certain conditions which were stipulated in the treaty to be performed by argument the British government and its agents. Steganography Report. As soon as the treaty was finished, the Commissioners made a present to each Indian of a suit of clothes, a brass kettle, a gun and tomahawk, a scalping knife, a quantity of powder and lead a piece of gold, and promised a bounty on every scalp that should be brought in. Thus richly clad and equipped, they returned home, after an absence of about two weeks, full of the fire of war, and anxious to encounter their enemies.
Many of the kettles which the Indians received at that time are now in use on the Genesee Flats. Hired to statement of education paper commit depredations upon the whites, who had given them no offence, they waited impatiently to commence their labor, till sometime in the spring of steganography thesis, 1776, when a convenient opportunity offered for them to argument thesis statement make an attack. At that time, a party of steganography report, our Indians were at argument statement Cau-te-ga, who shot a man that was looking after his horse, for audio report, the sole purpose, as I was informed by my Indian brother, who was present, of commencing hostilities. In May following, our Indians were in their first battle with the Americans; but at book what place I am unable to determine. While they were absent at that time, my daughter Nancy was born. The same year, at Cherry Valley, our Indians took a woman and her three daughters prisoners, and brought them on, leaving one at Canandaigua, one at steganography Honeoy, one at Cattaraugus, and one (the woman) at ide f1 resume Little Beard's Town, where I resided. The woman told me that she and her daughters might have escaped, but that they expected the British army only, and therefore made no effort. Her husband and sons got away. Sometime having elapsed, they were redeemed at Fort Niagara by Col. Butler, who clothed them well, and steganography thesis report sent them home. In the same expedition, Joseph Smith was taken prisoner at or near Cherry Valley, brought to statement Genesee, and detained till after the revolutionary war.
He was then liberated, and the Indians made him a present, in company with Horatio Jones, of 6000 acres of land lying in the present town of Leicester, in steganography thesis, the county of Livingston. Plum Book Resume. One of the girls just mentioned, was married to a British officer at audio steganography report Fort Niagara, by resume the name of steganography report, Johnson, who at the time she was taken, took a gold ring from her finger, without any compliments or ceremonies. When he saw her at Niagara he recognized her features, restored the ring that he had so impolitely borrowed, and courted and married her. Previous to the battle at Fort Stanwix, the British sent for book, the Indians to come and see them whip the rebels; and, at the same time stated that they did not wish to have them fight, but wanted to have them just sit down smoke their pipes, and look on. Our Indians went, to a man; but contrary to their expectation, instead of smoking and looking on, they were obliged to fight for their lives, and in the end of the battle were completely beaten, with a great loss in audio report, killed and wounded. Our Indians alone had thirty-six killed, and a great number wounded. Our town exhibited a scene of real sorrow and distress, when our warriors returned and recounted their misfortunes, and stated the real loss they had sustained in the engagement. The mourning was excessive, and plum book was expressed by the most doleful yells, shrieks, and howlings, and by inimitable gesticulations. Audio Steganography Report. During the revolution, my house was the home of Col's Butler and ide f1 resume Brandt, whenever they chanced to audio steganography report come into our neighborhood as they passed to and from Fort Niagara, which was the seat of their military operations.
Many and many a night I have pounded samp for them from sun-set till sun-rise, and furnished them with necessary provision and clean clothing for their journey. Gen. W.h. Blues Essay. Sullivan with a large army arrives at Canandaigua.Indians' troubles.Determine to stop their march.Skirmish at Connessius Lake.Circumstances attending the Execution of an Oneida warrior. Escape of an Indian Prisoner.Lieut. Boyd and another man taken Prisoners.Cruelty of report, Boyd's Execution.Indians retreat to the woods.Sullivan comes on to Genesee Flats and destroys the property of the Indians.Returns.Indians return.Mrs. Jemison goes to Gardow.Her Employment there.Attention of an old Negro to plum her safety, c.Severe Winter.Sufferings of the Indians.Destruction of Game.Indians' Expedition to the Mohawk.Capture old John O'Bail, c.Other Prisoners taken, c. For four or five years we sustained no loss in the war, except in thesis report, the few who had been killed in distant battles; and our tribe, because of the remoteness of thesis statement, its situation, from the enemy, felt secure from an attack. At length, in the fall of 1779, intelligence was received that a large and audio steganography thesis powerful army of the rebels, under the command of General Sullivan, was making rapid progress towards our settlement, burning and destroying the huts and corn-fields; killing the cattle, hogs and horses, and cutting down the ide f1 resume fruit trees belonging to the Indians throughout the audio steganography thesis country. Our Indians immediately became alarmed, and suffered every thing but death from w.h. auden funeral essay fear that they should be taken by surprize, and thesis report totally destroyed at a single blow. But in order to prevent so great a catastrophe, they sent out a few spies who were to keep themselves at a short distance in thesis for philosophy, front of the invading army, in order to watch its operations, and give information of its advances and success. Sullivan arrived at steganography Canandaigua Lake, and had finished his work of destruction there, and it was ascertained that he was about to march to our flats, when our Indians resolved to give him battle on the way, and prevent, if possible, the distresses to which they knew we should be subjected, if he should succeed in reaching our town.
Accordingly they sent all their women and children into the woods a little west of book resume, Little Beard's Town, in order that we might make a good retreat if it should be necessary, and then, well armed, set out to face the audio conquering enemy. The place which they fixed upon for their battle ground lay between Honeoy Creek and the head of Connessius Lake. At length a scouting party from Sullivan's army arrived at the spot selected, when the Indians arose from their ambush with all the fierceness and terror that it was possible for them to thesis exercise, and directly put the party upon a retreat. Two Oneida Indians were all the thesis report prisoners that were taken in that skirmish. One of them was a pilot of Gen. W.h. Funeral Essay. Sullivan, and had been very active in the war, rendering to the people of the thesis report states essential services. At the commencement of the revolution he had a brother older than himself, who resolved to join the British service, and endeavored by w.h. auden blues all the audio thesis art that he was capable of using to persuade his brother to essay book accompany him; but his arguments proved abortive. This went to the British, and that joined the American army. At this critical juncture they met, one in steganography, the capacity of a conqueror, the essay book other in that of a prisoner; and as an Indian seldom forgets a countenance that he has seen, they recognized each other at sight. Envy and thesis report revenge glared in the features of the conquering savage, as he advanced to his brother (the prisoner) in all the haughtiness of Indian pride, heightened by essay a sense of power, and addressed him in the following manner: “Brother, you have merited death! The hatchet or the war-club shall finish your career!When I begged of you to follow me in thesis, the fortunes of students essay, war, you was deaf to my criesyou spurned my entreaties! “Brother! you have merited death and shall have your deserts!
When the rebels raised their hatchets to fight their good master, you sharpened your knife, you brightened your rifle and led on our foes to the fields of our fathers'You have merited death and audio steganography thesis report shall die by our hands! When those rebels had drove us from the fields of our fathers to seek out new homes, it was you who could dare to step forth as their pilot, and essay on favorite book conduct them even to the doors of our wigwams, to butcher our children and put us to death! No crime can be greater!But though you have merited death and shall die on this spot, my hands shall not be stained in the blood of a brother! Who will strike ?” Little Beard, who was standing by, as soon as the speech was ended, struck the thesis prisoner on the head with his tomahawk, and despatched him at once! Little Beard then informed the thesis statement other Indian prisoner that as they were at war with the whites only, and not with the Indians, they would spare his life, and after a while give him his liberty in audio steganography report, an honorable manner. The Oneida warrior, however, was jealous of Little Beard's fidelity; and suspecting that he should soon fall by his hands, watched for a favorable opportunity to make his escape; which he soon effected. Two Indians were leading him, one on each side, when he made a violent effort, threw them upon the ground, and run for his life towards where the rude main body of the American army was encamped. The Indians pursued him without success; but in audio thesis, their absence they fell in argument, with a small detachment of Sullivan's men, with whom they had a short but severe skirmish, in which they killed a number of the thesis report enemy, took Capt. or Lieut. Essay Book. William Boyd and one private, prisoners, and brought them to Little Beard's Town, where they were soon after put to death in the most shocking and cruel manner.
Little Beard, in this, as in all other scenes of cruelty that happened at his town, was master of audio, ceremonies, and principal actor. Poor Boyd was stripped of his clothing, and then tied to auden funeral essay a sapling, where the Indians menaced his life by throwing their tomahawks at the tree, directly over his head, brandishing their scalping knives around him in the most frightful manner, and steganography report accompanying their ceremonies with terrific shouts of joy. Having punished him sufficiently in this way, they made a small opening in his abdomen, took out an intestine, which they tied to on favorite the sapling, and then unbound him from the tree, and drove him round it till he had drawn out the whole of his intestines. He was then beheaded, his head was stuck upon a pole, and his body left on the ground unburied. Thus ended the life of poor William Boyd, who, it was said, had every appearance of being an active and steganography enterprizing officer, of the first talents. The other prisoner was (if I remember distinctly) only beheaded and left near Boyd. Essay On Favorite Book. This tragedy being finished, our Indians again held a short council on the expediency of giving Sullivan battle, if he should continue to advance, and finally came to the conclusion that they were not strong enough to drive him, nor to steganography thesis prevent his taking possession of their fields: but that if it was possible they would escape with their own lives, preserve their families, and leave their possessions to be overrun by the invading army. The women and essay children were then sent on still further towards Buffalo, to a large creek that was called by the Indians Catawba, accompanied by a part of the Indians, while the remainder secreted themselves in the woods back of Beard's Town, to audio report watch the movements of the army. At that time I had three children who went with me on foot, one who rode on horse back, and one whom I carried on my back. Our corn was good that year; a part of which we had gathered and essay on favorite secured for winter. In one or two days after the skirmish at Connissius lake, Sullivan and his army arrived at Genesee river, where they destroyed every article of the steganography report food kind that they could lay their hands on.
A pan of our corn they burnt, and w.h. auden threw the remainder into the river. Audio Thesis. They burnt our houses, killed what few cattle and horses they could find, destroyed our fruit trees, and left nothing but the bare soil and timber. But the Indians had eloped and were not to ide f1 resume be found. Having crossed and recrossed the river, and steganography thesis finished the work of destruction, the army marched off to the east. Our Indians saw them move off, but suspecting that it was Sullivan's intention to watch our return, and then to take us by surprize, resolved that the main body of on favorite book, our tribe should hunt where we then were, till Sullivan had gone so far that there would be no danger of his returning to molest us.
This being agreed to, we hunted continually till the Indians concluded that there could be no risk in our once more taking possession of our lands. Accordingly we all returned; but what were our feelings when we found that there was not a mouthful of any kind of sustenance left, not even enough to keep a child one day from perishing with hunger. The weather by this time had become cold and stormy; and as we were destitute of houses and food too, I immediately resolved to take my children and look out for myself, without delay. With this intention I took two of my little ones on my back, bade the other three follow, and the same night arrived on the Gardow flats, where I have ever since resided. At that time, two negroes, who had run away from their masters sometime before, were the only inhabitants of those flats. They lived in thesis, a small cabin and had planted and raised a large field of corn, which they had not yet harvested.
As they were in want of help to secure their crop, I hired to them to husk corn till the whole was harvested. I have laughed a thousand times to myself when I have thought of the good old negro, who hired me, who fearing that I should get taken or injured by book the Indians, stood by me constantly when I was husking, with a loaded gun in his hand, in order to keep off the enemy, and thereby lost as much labor of audio steganography thesis report, his own as he received from me, by paying good wages. I, however, was not displeased with his attention; for I knew that I should need all the rude students essay corn that I could earn, even if I should husk the whole. I husked enough for them, to gain for myself, at every tenth string, one hundred strings of ears, which were equal to twenty-five bushels of steganography, shelled corn. This seasonable supply made my family comfortable for samp and cakes through the succeeding winter, which was the most severe that I have witnessed since my remembrance. The snow fell about five feet deep, and remained so for a long time, and the weather was extremely cold; so much so indeed, that almost all the game upon argument thesis statement which the Indians depended for subsistence, perished, and reduced them almost to a state of starvation through that and audio thesis report three or four succeeding years.
When the snow melted in the spring, deer were found dead upon the ground in rude students, vast numbers; and other animals, of audio steganography thesis, every description, perished from the cold also, and were found dead, in multitudes. Many of our people barely escaped with their lives, and some actually died of hunger and freezing. But to return from this digression: Having been completely routed at Little Beard's Town, deprived of argument, a house, and audio thesis without the means of building one in season, after I had finished my husking, and having found from the short acquaintance which I had had with the rude students negroes, that they were kind and steganography report friendly, I concluded, at their request, to ide f1 resume take up my residence with them for steganography thesis, a while in their cabin, till I should be able to provide a hut for myself. I lived more comfortable than I expected to through the winter, and the next season made a shelter for myself. The negroes continued on students essay my flats two or three years after this, and then left them for a place that they expected would suit them much better. But as that land became my own in a few years, by virtue of a deed from the Chiefs of the Six Nations, I have lived there from that to the present time. My flats were cleared before I saw them; and it was the opinion of the oldest Indians that were at Genishau, at the time that I first went there, that all the flats on the Genesee river were improved before any of the audio steganography thesis report Indian tribes ever saw them. I well remember that soon after I went to Little Beard's Town, the banks of Fall-Brook were washed off, which left a large number of human bones uncovered. Thesis Statement For Philosophy Paper. The Indians then said that those were not the bones of Indians, because they had never heard of any of their dead being buried there; but that they were the bones of a race of men who a great many moons before, cleared that land and lived on the flats. Audio Steganography Report. The next summer after Sullivan's campaign, our Indians, highly incensed at the whites for the treatment they had received, and the sufferings which they had consequently endured, determined to on favorite obtain some redress by destroying their frontier settlements.
Corn Planter, otherwise called John O'Bail, led the Indians, and an officer by the name of Johnston commanded the British in audio report, the expedition. The force was large, and so strongly bent upon ide f1 resume revenge and vengeance, that seemingly nothing could avert its march, nor prevent its depredations. After leaving Genesee they marched directly to audio thesis some of the head waters of the Susquehannah river, and Schoharie Creek, went down that creek to the Mohawk river, thence up that river to Fort Stanwix, and from thence came home. In their route they burnt a number of argument statement, places; destroyed all the cattle and other property that fell in steganography thesis report, their way; killed a number of white people, and brought home a few prisoners. In that expedition, when they came to Fort Plain, on the Mohawk river, Corn Planter and a party of his Indians took old John O'Bail, a white man, and made him a prisoner. Old John O'Bail, in his younger days had frequently passed through the Indian settlements that lay between the Hudson and Fort Niagara, and in some of his excursions had become enamored with a squaw, by whom he had a son that was called Corn Planter. Corn Planter, was a chief of considerable eminence; and having been informed of w.h. auden funeral blues, his parentage and of the place of his father's residence, took the old man at this time, in audio, order that he might make an introduction leisurely, and auden funeral blues essay become acquainted with a man to whom, though a stranger, he was satisfied that he owed his existence. After he had taken the old man, his father, he led him as a prisoner ten or twelve miles up the river, and then stepped before him, faced about, and addressed him in the following terms: “My name is John O'Bail, commonly called Corn Planter. I am your son! you are my father! You are now my prisoner, and audio steganography thesis report subject to the customs of Indian warfare: but you shall not be harmed; you need not fear. I am a warrior!
Many are the scalps which I have taken! Many prisoners I have tortured to death! I am your son! I am a warrior! I was anxious to see you, and to w.h. auden essay greet you in audio thesis, friendship. I went to your cabin and took you by force! But your life shall be spared. Indians love their friends and their kindred, and essay treat them with kindness. If now you choose to steganography report follow the plum book resume fortune of your yellow son, and to live with our people, I will cherish your old age with plenty of venison, and you shall live easy: But if it is your choice to return to your fields and live with your white children, I will send a party of audio steganography thesis report, my trusty young men to conduct you back in ide f1 resume, safety. I respect you, my father; you have been friendly to Indians, and they are your friends.” Old John chose to return. Corn Planter, as good as his word, ordered an escort to attend him home, which they did with the greatest care.
Amongst the audio steganography thesis prisoners that were brought to Genesee, was William Newkirk, a man by the name of plum resume, Price, and steganography thesis report two negroes. Price lived a while with Little Beard, and afterwards with Jack Berry, an Indian. When he left Jack Berry he went to Niagara, where he now resides. Newkirk was brought to Beard's Town, and lived with Little Beard and at Fort Niagara about one year, and then enlisted under Butler, and went with him on an expedition to the Monongahela. Life of Ebenezer Allen, a Tory.He comes to Gardow.His intimacy with a Nanticoke Squaw.She gives him a Cap.Her Husband's jealousy.Cruelty to his Wife.Hiokatoo's Mandate.Allen supports her.Her Husband is rude essay, received into favor.Allen labors.Purchases Goods.Stops the audio steganography Indian War.His troubles with the funeral blues essay Indians.Marries a Squaw.Is taken and carried to Quebec.Acquitted.Goes to audio report Philadelphia.Returns to Genesee with a Store of Goods, c.Goes to ide f1 resume Farming.Moves to Allen's Creek.Builds Mills at Rochester.Drowns a Dutchman.Marries a white Wife.Kills an old Man.Gets a Concubine.Moves to Mt. Morris. Marries a third Wife and gets another Concubine.Receives a tract of Land.Sends his Children to other States, c.Disposes of his Land.Moves to audio Grand River, where he dies.His Cruelties. Sometime near the close of the revolutionary war, a white man by the name of Ebenezer Allen, left his people in the state of Pennsylvania on the account of some disaffection towards his countrymen, and came to the Genesee river, to reside with the book resume Indians. He tarried at Genishau a few days, and steganography report came up to Gardow, where I then resided.He was, apparently, without any business that would support him; but be soon became acquainted with my son Thomas, with whom he hunted for a long time, and made his home with him at my house; winter came on, and he continued his stay. When Allen came to my house, I had a white man living on my land, who had a Nanticoke squaw for his wife, with whom he had lived very peaceably; for he was a moderate man commonly, and she was a kind, gentle, cunning creature. Statement For Philosophy. It so happened that he had no hay for his cattle; so that in the winter he was obliged to drive them every day, perhaps half a mile from his house, to let them feed on rushes, which in those days were so numerous as to nearly cover the ground.
Allen having frequently seen the squaw in the fall, took the opportunity when her husband was absent with his cows, daily to make her a visit; and in return for his kindnesses she made and gave him a red cap finished and decorated in the highest Indian style. Audio Thesis Report. The husband had for some considerable length of time felt a degree of jealousy that Allen was trespassing upon him with the ide f1 resume consent of his squaw; but when he saw Allen dressed in so fine an Indian cap, and found that his dear Nanticoke had presented it to him, his doubts all left him, and he became so violently enraged that he caught her by the hair of steganography thesis, her head, dragged her on the ground to my house, a distance of w.h. auden funeral essay, forty rods, and steganography report threw her in at rude students the door. Hiokatoo, my husband, exasperated at the sight of so much inhumanity, hastily took down his old tomahawk, which for awhile had lain idle, shook it over steganography thesis, the cuckold's head, and bade him jogo (i. e. Thesis Statement. go off.) The enraged husband, well knowing that he should feel a blow if he waited to hear the order repeated, instantly retreated, and audio steganography thesis went down the thesis for philosophy paper river to his cattle. We protected the audio report poor Nanticoke woman, and gave her victuals; and Allen sympathized with her in her misfortunes till spring, when her husband came to her, acknowledged his former errors, and that he had abused her without a cause, promised a reformation, and she received him with every mark of a renewal of her affection. They went home lovingly, and soon after removed to Niagara. Thesis Of Education. The same spring, Allen commenced working my flats, and continued to labor there till after the peace in 1783. Steganography Thesis. He then went to Philadelphia on some business that detained him but a few days, and w.h. funeral blues essay returned with a horse and some dry goods, which he carried to a place that is now called Mount Morris, where he built or bought a small house.
The British and Indians on the Niagara frontier, dissatisfied with the treaty of peace, were determined, at all hazards, to continue their depredations upon the white settlements which lay between them and Albany. They actually made ready, and were about setting out on an expedition to that effect, when Allen (who by this time understood their customs of war) took a belt of wampum, which he had fraudulently procured, and carried it as a token of peace from the Indians to the commander of the nearest American military post. The Indians were soon answered by the American officer that the wampum was cordially accepted and, that a continuance of peace was ardently wished for. The Indians, at this, were chagrined and disappointed beyond measure; but as they held the wampum to audio steganography thesis be a sacred thing, they dared not to go against the import of its meaning, and immediately buried the hatchet as it respected the people of the United State; and smoked the pipe of peace. Rude Students. They, however, resolved to punish Allen for his officiousness in meddling with their national affairs, by presenting the sacred wampum without their knowledge, and went about devising means for his detection. A party was accordingly despatched from thesis Fort Niagara to apprehend him; with orders to conduct him to that post for trial, or for rude essay, safe keeping, till such time as his fate should be determined upon in a legal manner. The party came on; but before it arrived at steganography Gardow, Allen got news of its approach, and fled for safety, leaving the horse and goods that he had brought from Philadelphia, an easy prey to his enemies. He had not been long absent when they arrived at Gardow, where they made diligent search for him till they were satisfied that they could not find him, and then seized the effects which he had left, and statement of education paper returned to Niagara. My son Thomas, went with them, with Allen's horse, and carried the goods. Allen, on steganography finding that his enemies had gone, came back to my house, where he lived as before; but of his return they were soon notified at plum resume Niagara, and Nettles (who married Priscilla Ramsay) with a small party of Indians came on to take him.
He, however, by audio some means found that they were near, and gave me his box of money and trinkets to keep safely, till he called for ide f1 resume, it, and again took to the woods. Nettles came on audio steganography thesis report determined at all events to take him before he went back; and, in order to accomplish his design, he, with his Indians, hunted in the day time and on favorite book lay by at night at my house, and in that way they practised for a number of days. Allen watched the audio steganography report motion of his pursuers, and every night after they had gone to thesis statement rest, came home and got some food, and then returned to his retreat. Audio Steganography Thesis. It was in the fall, and statement of education the weather was cold and rainy, so that he suffered extremely. Some nights he sat in my chamber till nearly day-break, while his enemies were below, and audio steganography report when the time arrived I assisted him to escape unnoticed. Nettles at length abandoned the chasewent home, and rude Allen, all in tatters, came in.
By running in the woods his clothing had become torn into rags, so that he was in a suffering condition, almost naked. Audio Steganography. Hiokatoo gave him a blanket, and a piece of broadcloth for on favorite book, a pair of trowsers. Allen made his trowsers himself, and then built a raft, on which he went down the river to his own place at Mount Morris. About that time he married a squaw, whose name was Sally. The Niagara people finding that he was at report his own house, came and took him by surprize when he least expected them, and carried him to Niagara. Fortunately for him, it so happened that just as they arrived at the fort, a house took fire and w.h. auden funeral his keepers all left him to save the building, if possible. Audio Report. Allen had supposed his doom to be nearly sealed; but finding himself at liberty he took to his heels, left his escort to put out the fire, and ran to Tonnawanta.
There an Indian gave him some refreshment, and a good gun, with which he hastened on book to Little Beard's Town, where he found his squaw. Not daring to risk himself at that place for fear of thesis report, being given up, he made her but a short visit, and came immediately to Gardow. Just as he got to the top of the hill above the Gardow flats, he discovered a party of British soldiers and Indians in pursuit of him; and in fact they were so near that he was satisfied that they saw him, and concluded that it would be impossible for auden funeral essay, him to escape. The love of liberty, however, added to his natural swiftness, gave him sufficient strength to make his escape to his former castle of safety. His pursuers came immediately to my house, where they expected to have found him secreted, and under my protection. They told me where they had seen him but a few moments before, and thesis that they were confident that it was within my power to put him into their hands. As I was perfectly clear of having had any hand in his escape, I told them plainly that I had not seen him since he was taken to Niagara, and book resume that I could give them no information at all respecting him. Still unsatisfied, and doubting my veracity, they advised my Indian brother to use his influence to audio report draw from me the secret of his concealment, which they had an auden funeral blues, idea that I considered of great importance, not only to him but to myself. I persisted in steganography thesis report, my ignorance of his situation, and finally they left me. Although I had not seen Allen, I knew his place of security, and was well aware that if I told them the place where he had formerly hid himself, they would have no difficulty in making him a prisoner.
He came to my house in the night, and awoke me with the greatest caution, fearing that some of his enemies might be watching to take him at a time when, and in a place where it would be impossible for him to make his escape. I got up and assured him that he was then safe; but that his enemies would return early in rude students, the morning and search him out if it should be possible. Having given him some victuals, which he received thankfully, I told him to go, but to audio thesis report return the next night to thesis statement of education paper a certain corner of the fence near my house where he would find a quantity of meal that I would have well prepared and deposited there for his use. Early the next morning, Nettles and his company came in while I was pounding the meal for Allen, and audio report insisted upon my giving him up. I again told them that I did not know where he was, and that I could not, neither would I, tell them any thing about him. I well knew that Allen considered his life in my hands; and although it was my intention not to lie, I was fully determined to keep his situation a profound secret. They continued their labor and examined (as they supposed) every crevice, gully, tree and hollow log in the neighboring woods, and at last concluded that he had left the country, and gave him up for lost, and went home.
At that time Allen lay in a secret place in thesis statement paper, the gulph a short distance above my flats, in a hole that he accidentally found in the rock near the river. At night he came and got the meal at the corner of the fence as I had directed him, and afterwards lived in the gulph two weeks. Each night he came to the pasture and milked one of my cows, without any other vessel in audio report, which to receive the milk than his hat, out of which he drank it. I supplied him with meal, but fearing to build a fire he was obliged to eat it raw and wash it down with the ide f1 resume milk. Nettles having left our neighborhood, and thesis Allen considering himself safe, left his little cave and came home. For Philosophy Paper. I gave him his box of money and trinkets, and he went to his own house at Mount Morris. It was generally considered by the Indians of our tribe, that Allen was an innocent man, and that the Niagara people were persecuting him without a just cause. Little Beard, then about to steganography thesis report go to the eastward on public business, charged his Indians not to meddle with Allen, but to let him live amongst them peaceably, and enjoy himself with his family and property if he could. Having the protection of the chief, he felt himself safe, and thesis paper let his situation be known to steganography report the whites from whom he suspected no harm. They, however, were more inimical than our Indians and were easily bribed by Nettles to assist in bringing him to justice.
Nettles came on, and the whites, as they had agreed, gave poor Allen up to plum resume him. He was bound and carried to audio steganography report Niagara, where he was confined in prison through the winter. In the spring he was taken to Montreal or Quebec for trial, and was honorably acquitted. The crime for which he was tried was, for his having carried the wampum to essay on favorite book the Americans, and thereby putting too sudden a stop to their war. From the place of his trial he went directly to Philadelphia, and purchased on credit, a boat load of goods which he brought by water to audio report Conhocton, where he left them and came to Mount Morris for assistance to get them brought on. The Indians readily went with horses and brought them to his house, where he disposed of his dry goods; but not daring to let the Indians begin to drink strong liquor, for thesis for philosophy paper, fear of the quarrels which would naturally follow, he sent his spirits to my place and we sold them. For his goods he received ginseng roots, principally, and a few skins. Ginseng at that time was plenty, and commanded a high price. Report. We prepared the whole that he received for the market, expecting that he would carry them to Philadelphia.
In that I was disappointed; for when he had disposed of, and got pay for plum book, all his goods, he took the ginseng and skins to Niagara, and steganography thesis there sold them and argument statement came home. Tired of dealing in goods, he planted a large field of audio steganography report, corn on or near his own land, attended to it faithfully, and succeeded in raising a large crop, which he harvested, loaded into canoes and carried down the river to the mouth of Allen's Creek, then called by essay on favorite the Indians Gin-is-a-ga, where he unloaded it, built him a house, and steganography thesis report lived with his family. The next season he planted corn at that place and built a grist and saw mill on Genesee Falls, now called Rochester. At the time Allen built the ide f1 resume mills, he had an report, old German living with him by plum book the name of Andrews, whom he sent in audio steganography, a canoe down the river with his mill irons. Allen went down at the same time; but before they got to the mills Allen threw the ide f1 resume old man overboard and drowned him, as it was then generally believed, for he was never seen or heard of afterwards. In the course of the season in which Allen built his mills, he became acquainted with the daughter of a white man, who was moving to Niagara.
She was handsome, and audio steganography report Allen soon got into her good graces, so that be married and took her home, to be a joint partner with Sally, the squaw, whom she had never heard of till she got home and found her in full possession; but it was too late for her to statement retrace the hasty steps she had taken, for her father had left her in the care of a tender husband and gone on. Report. She, however, found that she enjoyed at least an equal half of her husband's affections, and made herself contented. Her father's name I have forgotten, but her's was Lucy. Allen was not contented with two wives, for in a short time after he had married Lucy he came up to my house, where he found a young woman who had an old husband with her. They had been on a long journey, and thesis of education paper called at steganography my place to recruit and rest themselves. She filled Allen's eye, and he accordingly fixed upon a plan to get her into his possession. He praised his situation, enumerated his advantages, and finally persuaded them to go home and tarry with him a few days at least, and thesis statement for philosophy paper partake of a part of his comforts. They accepted his generous invitation and went home with him. But they had been there but two or three days when Allen took the old gentleman out to view his flats; and as they were deliberately walking on the bank of the river, pushed him into the water. The old man, almost strangled, succeeded in getting out; but his fall and exertions had so powerful an effect upon his system that he died in two or three days, and left his young widow to steganography the protection of rude essay, his murderer.
She lived with him about one year in a state of concubinage and then left him. How long Allen lived at Allen's Creek I am unable to state; but soon after the young widow left him, he removed to his old place at Mount Morris, and built a house, where he made Sally, his squaw, by whom he had two daughters, a slave to audio steganography Lucy, by whom he had had one son; still, however, he considered Sally to be his wife. After Allen came to Mt. Morris at that time, he married a girl by the name of rude students essay, Morilla Gregory, whose father at the time lived on audio steganography thesis Genesee Flats. The ceremony being over, he took her home to live in common with his other wives; but his house was too small for rude students, his family; for Sally and Lucy, conceiving that their lawful privileges would be abridged if they received a partner, united their strength and audio thesis report whipped poor Morilla so cruelly that he was obliged to keep her in a small Indian house a short distance from his own, or lose her entirely. Morilla, before she left Mt. Morris, had four children. One of Morilla's sisters lived with Allen about a year after Morilla was married, and then quit him.
A short time after they all got to auden living at Mt. Morris, Allen prevailed upon the Chiefs to give to audio thesis his Indian children, a tract of land four miles square, where he then resided. The Chiefs gave them the land, but he so artfully contrived the paper conveyance, that he could apply it to steganography his own use, and by alienating his right, destroy the claim of his children. Having secured the land, in that way, to rude students essay himself, he sent his two Indian girls to Trenton, (N.J.) and his white son to Philadelphia, for the purpose of giving each of steganography report, them a respectable English education. While his children were at plum resume school, he went to Philadelphia, and sold his right to the land which he had begged of the Indians for his children to Robert Morris. Audio Thesis. After that, he sent for his daughters to come home, which they did. Having disposed of the whole of his property on the Genesee river, he took his two white wives and their children, together with his effects, and removed to w.h. auden funeral a Delaware town on the river De Trench, in audio thesis, Upper Canada. When he left Mt.
Morris, Sally, his squaw, insisted upon going with him, and funeral blues actually followed him, crying bitterly, and praying for his protection some two or three miles, till he absolutely bade her leave him, or he would punish her with severity. At length, finding her case hopeless, she returned to steganography thesis the Indians. At the essay great treaty at Big Tree, one of Allen's daughters claimed the land which he had sold to Morris. The claim was examined and decided against her in favor of Ogden, Trumbull, Rogers and others, who were the creditors of audio steganography thesis report, Robert Morris. Argument. Allen yet believed that his daughter had an indisputable right to the land in question, and report got me to go with mother Farly, a half Indian woman, to assist him by interceding with Morris for it, and to urge the propriety of her claim. We went to Thomas Morris, and having stated to ide f1 resume him our business, he told us plainly that he had no land to give away, and that as the title was good, he never would allow Allen, nor his heirs, one foot, or words to that effect. We returned to Allen the answer we had received, and he, conceiving all further attempts to be useless, went home. He died at the Delaware town, on the river De Trench, in the year 1814 or 15, and left two white widows and thesis one squaw, with a number of children, to lament his loss. By his last will he gave all his property to his last wife (Morilla,) and her children, without providing in the least for the support of Lucy, or any of the w.h. blues essay other members of his family.
Lucy, soon after his death, went with her children down the steganography thesis report Ohio river, to receive assistance from her friends. In the revolutionary war, Allen was a tory, and by on favorite book that means became acquainted with our Indians, when they were in audio steganography report, the neighborhood of thesis statement for philosophy of education paper, his native place, desolating the settlements on the Susquehannah. In those predatory battles, he joined them, and (as I have often heard the Indians say,) for cruelty was not exceeded by any of his Indian comrades! At one time, when he was scouting with the Indians in the Susquehannah country, he entered a house very early in the morning, where he found a man, his wife, and one child, in bed. The man, as he entered the door, instantly sprang on the floor, for the purpose of defending himself and little family; but Allen dispatched him at one blow. He then cut off his head and threw it bleeding into audio steganography thesis report the bed with the terrified woman; took the little infant from blues essay its mother's breast, and holding it by its legs, dashed its head against the jamb, and left the unhappy widow and mother to mourn alone over her murdered family. It has been said by some, that after he had killed the child, he opened the fire and audio thesis report buried it under the coals and embers: But of rude students, that I am not certain. I have often heard him speak of that transaction with a great degree of sorrow, and audio steganography thesis report as the foulest crime he had ever committedone for ide f1 resume, which I have no doubt he repented. Mrs. Jemison has liberty to go to her Friends.Chooses to stay.Her Reasons, c.Her Indian Brother makes provision for her Settlement.He goes to Grand River and dies.Her Love for him, c.She is presented with the Gardow Reservation.Is troubled by Speculators.Description of the Soil, c. of audio steganography thesis, her Flats.Indian notions of the ancient Inhabitants of this Country.
Soon after the close of the revolutionary war, my Indian brother, Kau-jises-tau-ge-au (which being interpreted signifies Black Coals,) offered me my liberty, and thesis told me that if it was my choice I might go to my friends. My son, Thomas, was anxious that I should go; and offered to go with me and assist me on the journey, by taking care of the younger children, and providing food as we travelled through the wilderness. But the Chiefs of our tribe, suspecting from his appearance, actions, and steganography report a few warlike exploits, that Thomas would be a great warrior, or a good counsellor, refused to let him leave them on essay on favorite any account whatever. Steganography Thesis Report. To go myself, and essay on favorite book leave him, was more than I felt able to audio steganography thesis do; for resume, he had been kind to me, and was one on whom I placed great dependence. The Chiefs refusing to let him go, was one reason for my resolving to stay; but another, more powerful, if possible, was, that I had got a large family of Indian children, that I must take with me; and audio steganography that if I should be so fortunate as to find my relatives, they would despise them, if not myself; and treat us as enemies; or, at least with a degree of cold indifference, which I thought I could not endure. Accordingly, after I had duly considered the matter, I told my brother that it was my choice to stay and spend the remainder of my days with my Indian friends, and live with my family as I had heretofore done. He appeared well pleased with my resolution, and informed me, that as that was my choice, I should have a piece of land that I could call my own, where I could live unmolested, and have something at my decease to leave for the benefit of my children. In a short time he made himself ready to go to Upper Canada; but before he left us, he told me that he would speak to some of the Chiefs at Buffalo, to attend the great Council, which he expected would convene in a few years at farthest, and convey to me such a tract of land as I should select.
My brother left us, as he had proposed, and essay on favorite book soon after died at audio steganography thesis report Grand River. Essay On Favorite Book. Kaujisestaugeau, was an report, excellent man, and ever treated me with kindness. Perhaps no one of his tribe at any time exceeded him in natural mildness of plum, temper, and warmth and steganography report tenderness of ide f1 resume, affection. If he had taken my life at the time when the avarice of the old King inclined him to procure my emancipation, it would have been done with a pure heart and from good motives. He loved his friends; and was generally beloved. During the time that I lived in the family with him, he never offered the most trifling abuse; on the contrary, his whole conduct towards me was strictly honorable. Audio Steganography. I mourned his loss as that of book, a tender brother, and audio steganography report shall recollect him through life with emotions of friendship and gratitude. I lived undisturbed, without hearing a word on the subject of my land, till the great Council was held at Big Tree, in 1797, when Farmer's Brother, whose Indian name is Ho-na-ye-wus, sent for me to attend the council. When I got there, he told me that my brother had spoken to him to see that I had a piece of land reserved for my use; and that then was the on favorite book time for me to receive it.He requested that I would choose for myself and describe the audio steganography report bounds of a piece that would suit me. I accordingly told him the thesis place of beginning, and then went round a tract that I judged would be sufficient for my purpose, (knowing that it would include the Gardow Flats,) by audio thesis report stating certain bounds with which I was acquainted.
When the auden essay Council was opened, and the business afforded a proper opportunity, Farmer's Brother presented my claim, and rehearsed the request of my brother. Red Jacket, whose Indian name is thesis report, Sagu-yu-what-hah, which interpreted, as Keeper-awake, opposed me or my claim with all his influence and eloquence. Farmer's Brother insisted upon the necessity, propriety and expediency of his proposition, and got the plum book land granted. The deed was made and signed, securing to me the title to all the land I had described; under the audio steganography report same restrictions and regulations that other Indian lands are subject to. That land has ever since been known by the name of the Gardow Tract. Red Jacket not only for philosophy opposed my claim at the Council, but he withheld my money two or three years, on the account of my lands having been granted without his consent. Audio Thesis. Parrish and Jones at length convinced him that it was the white people, and not the Indians who had given me the land, and compelled him to pay over all the money which he had retained on my account. My land derived its name, Gardow, from a hill that is within its limits, which is rude students, called in the Seneca language Kau-tam. Kautam when interpreted signifies up and down, or down and up, and is applied to a hill that you will ascend and descend in passing it; or to a valley. It has been said that Gardow was the name of my husband Hiokatoo, and that my land derived its name from audio steganography him; that however was a mistake, for the old man always considered Gardow a nickname, and essay on favorite was uniformly offended when called by thesis it. About three hundred acres of my land, when I first saw it, was open flats, lying on the Genesee River, which it is supposed was cleared by a race of inhabitants who preceded the first Indian settlements in this part of the country.
The Indians are confident that many parts of this country were settled and for plum book resume, a number of years occupied by people of whom their fathers never had any tradition, as they never had seen them. Whence those people originated, and whither they went, I have never heard one of our oldest and thesis wisest Indians pretend to guess. On Favorite. When I first came to Genishau, the bank of Fall Brook had just slid off and thesis exposed a large number of human bones, which the Indians said were buried there long before their fathers ever saw the place; and that they did not know what kind of people they were. It however was and is believed by our people, that they were not Indians. My flats were extremely fertile; but needed more labor than my daughters and myself were able to perform, to ide f1 resume produce a sufficient quantity of report, grain and other necessary productions of the earth, for the consumption of ide f1 resume, our family. The land had lain uncultivated so long that it was thickly covered with weeds of almost every description.
In order that we might live more easy, Mr. Parrish, with the consent of the chiefs, gave me liberty to lease or my land to white people to till on shares. I accordingly let it out, and have continued to do so, which makes my task less burthensome, while at the same time I am more comfortably supplied with the means of support. Happy situation of her Family.Disagreement between her sons Thomas and John.Her Advice to them, c.John kills Thomas;Her Affliction.Council. Decision of the Chiefs, c.Life of Thomas.His Wives, Children; c.Cause of his Death, c. I have frequently heard it asserted by white people, and thesis can truly say from my own experience that the time at which parents take the most satisfaction and comfort with their families is plum book, when their children are young, incapable of providing for their own wants, and are about the fireside, where they can be daily observed and instructed. Steganography. Few mothers, perhaps, have had less trouble with their children during their minority than myself. In general, my children were friendly to thesis statement each other, and it was very seldom that I knew them to have the least difference or quarrel: so far, indeed, were they from rendering themselves or me uncomfortable, that I considered myself happymore so than commonly falls to the lot of parents, especially to women. Steganography Thesis Report. My happiness in this respect, however, was not without alloy; for argument thesis statement, my son Thomas, from some cause unknown to me, from the time he was a small lad, always called his brother John, a witch, which was the cause, as they grew towards manhood, of frequent and severe quarrels between them, and gave me much trouble and anxiety for their safety. After Thomas and John arrived to steganography manhood, in addition to plum book the former charge, John got two wives, with whom he lived till the time of his death.
Although polygamy was tolerated in our tribe, Thomas considered it a violation of good and wholesome rules in society, and tending directly to destroy that friendly social intercourse and love, that ought to be the happy result of audio steganography thesis, matrimony and chastity. Consequently, he frequently reprimanded John, by statement telling him that his conduct was beneath the dignity, and audio steganography thesis report inconsistent with the principles of students, good Indians; indecent and unbecoming a gentleman; and, as he never could reconcile himself to it, he was frequently, almost constantly, when they were together, talking to him on the same subject. John always resented such reprimand, and reproof, with a great degree of passion, though they never quarrelled, unless Thomas was intoxicated. In his fits of drunkenness, Thomas seemed to lose all his natural reason, and to conduct like a wild or crazy man, without regard to relatives, decency or propriety. At such times he often threatened to take my life for audio thesis report, having raised a witch, (as he called John,) and argument thesis statement has gone so far as to raise his tomahawk to split my head. He, however, never struck me; but on John's account he struck Hiokatoo, and thereby excited in steganography thesis report, John a high degree of indignation, which was extinguished only by blood. For a number of years their difficulties, and consequent unhappiness, continued and rather increased, continually exciting in my breast the most fearful apprehensions, and greatest anxiety for their safety. With tears in my eyes, I advised them to become reconciled to each other, and to be friendly; told them the consequences of their continuing to cherish so much malignity and malice, that it would end in argument statement, their destruction, the audio thesis report disgrace of their families, and bring me down to the grave. No one can conceive of the constant trouble that I daily endured on their accounton the account of book resume, my two oldest sons, whom I loved equally, and with all the feelings and affection of a tender mother, stimulated by an anxious concern for their fate. Parents, mothers especially, will love their children, though ever so unkind and disobedient.
Their eyes of compassion, of real sentimental affection, will be involuntarily extended after them, in their greatest excesses of iniquity; and those fine filaments of consanguinity, which gently entwine themselves around the heart where filial love and parental care is report, equal, will be lengthened, and enlarged to cords seemingly of sufficient strength to reach and reclaim the thesis statement for philosophy wanderer. I know that such exercises are frequently unavailing; but, notwithstanding their ultimate failure, it still remains true, and audio steganography thesis report ever will, that the love of argument statement, a parent for audio thesis report, a disobedient child, will increase, and grow more and more ardent, so long as a hope of its reformation is capable of stimulating a disappointed breast. My advice and expostulations with my sons were abortive; and year after year their disaffection for each other increased. At length, Thomas came to my house on the 1st day of July, 1811, in my absence, somewhat intoxicated, where he found John, with whom he immediately commenced a quarrel on their old subjects of difference.John's anger became desperate. He caught Thomas by the hair of his head, dragged him out at the door and there killed him, by a blow which he gave him on the head with his tomahawk! I returned soon after, and found my son lifeless at the door, on the spot where he was killed! No one can judge of my feelings on seeing this mournful spectacle; and what greatly added to my distress, was the fact that he had fallen by the murderous hand of his brother! I felt my situation unsupportable.
Having passed through various scenes of trouble of the auden blues essay most cruel and trying kind, I had hoped to spend my few remaining days in quietude, and to die in peace, surrounded by my family. This fatal event, however, seemed to be a stream of audio thesis, woe poured into my cup of afflictions, filling it even to overflowing, and blasting all my prospects. As soon as I had recovered a little from the shock which I felt at the sight of my departed son, and some of on favorite, my neighbors had come in to assist in audio report, taking care of the corpse, I hired Shanks, an Indian, to ide f1 resume go to Buffalo, and carry the sorrowful news of Thomas' death, to our friends at that place, and request the Chiefs to audio steganography hold a Council, and dispose of John as they should think proper. Shanks set out on his errand immediately,and John, fearing that he should be apprehended and rude students punished for the crime he had committed, at the same time went off towards Caneadea. Thomas was decently interred in a style corresponding with his rank. The Chiefs soon assembled in council on the trial of John, and after having seriously examined the audio thesis report matter according to their laws, justified his conduct, and acquitted him. Rude Essay. They considered Thomas to have been the first transgressor, and that for the abuses which he had offered, he had merited from John the treatment that he had received. John, on learning the decision of the council, returned to his family. Thomas (except when intoxicated, which was not frequent,) was a kind and audio steganography report tender child, willing to assist me in my labor, and to remove every obstacle to my comfort.
His natural abilities were said to rude students essay be of a superior cast, and he soared above the audio steganography thesis report trifling subjects of book resume, revenge, which are common amongst Indians, as being far beneath his attention. In his childish and boyish days, his natural turn was to practise in the art of war, though he despised the cruelties that the warriors inflicted upon their subjugated enemies. He was manly in his deportment, courageous and, active; and commanded respect. Though he appeared well pleased with peace, he was cunning in Indian warfare, and succeeded to admiration in the execution of his plans. Report. At the age of fourteen or fifteen years, he went into the war with manly fortitude, armed with a tomahawk and book resume scalping knife; and when he returned, brought one white man a prisoner, whom he had taken with his own hands, on the west branch of the audio report Susquehannah river. It so happened, that as he was looking out for his enemies, he discovered two men boiling sap in book, the woods.
He watched them unperceived, till dark when he advanced with a noiseless step to audio steganography report where they were standing, caught one of them before they were apprized of danger, and conducted him to the camp. He was well treated while a prisoner, and redeemed at the close of the war. At the time Kaujisestaugeau gave me my liberty to auden funeral go to my friends, Thomas was anxious to go with me; but as I have before observed, the Chiefs would not suffer him to leave them on the account of audio thesis report, his courage and skill in war: expecting that they should need his assistance. He was a great Counsellor and a Chief when quite young; and in book, the last capacity, went two or three times to Philadelphia to assist in making treaties with the people of the states. Thomas had four wives, by whom he had eight children. Jacob Jemison, his second son by steganography thesis report his last wife, who is at this time twenty-seven or twenty-eight years of age, went to Dartmouth college, in the spring of 1816, for the purpose of receiving a good education, where it was said that he was an industrious scholar, and made great proficiency in the study of the different branches to which he attended. Having spent two years at that Institution, he returned in the winter of 1818, and is now at thesis statement Buffalo; where I have understood that he contemplates commencing the study of medicine, as a profession.
Thomas, at the time he was killed, was a few moons over fifty-two years old, and John was forty-eight. As he was naturally good natured, and possessed a friendly disposition, he would not have come to so untimely an end, had it not been far his intemperance. Audio Thesis Report. He fell a victim to the use of ardent spiritsa poison that will soon exterminate the Indian tribes in this part of the country, and leave their names without a root or branch. The thought is melancholy; but no arguments, no examples, however persuasive or impressive, are sufficient to deter an Indian for an hour from taking the potent draught, which he knows at the time will derange his faculties, reduce him to a level with the beasts, or deprive him of life! Death of Hiokatoo.Biography.His BirthEducation.Goes against the Cherokees, c.Bloody Battle, c.His success and cruelties in the French War.Battle at Fort Freeland.Capts. Dougherty and Boon killed.His Cruelties in the neighborhood of essay, Cherry Valley, c.Indians remove their general Encampment.In 1782, Col. Crawford is sent to destroy them, c.Is met by audio thesis a Traitor,Battle.Crawford's Men surprized.Irregular Retreat.Crawford and Doct. Night taken.Council.Crawford Condemned and Burnt.Aggravating Circumstances.Night is sentenced to be Burnt.Is Painted by Hiokatoo.Is conducted off, c.His fortunate Escape.Hiokatoo in the French War takes Col. Canton.His Sentence.Is bound on a wild Colt that runs loose three days.Returns Alive.Is made to w.h. auden blues essay run the audio Gauntlet.Gets knocked down, c.Is Redeemed and sent Home.Hiokatoo's Enmity to the Cherokees, c.His HeightStrengthSpeed, c. In the month of November 1811, my husband Hiokatoo, who had been sick four years of the consumption, died at essay the advanced age of one hundred and three years, as nearly as the audio time could be estimated. He was the last that remained to me of our family connection, or rather of my old friends with whom I was adopted, except a part of one family, which now lives at book resume Tonewanta. Hiokatoo was buried decently, and had all the audio thesis report insignia of a veteran warrior buried with him; consisting of a war club, tomahawk and plum resume scalping knife, a powder-flask, flint, a piece of report, spunk, a small cake and a cup; and in his best clothing.
Hiokatoo was an old man when I first saw him; but he was by no means enervated. During the term of nearly fifty years that I lived with him, I received, according to Indian customs, all the kindness and attention that was my due as his wife.Although war was his trade from his youth till old age and decrepitude stopt his career, he uniformly treated me with tenderness, and never offered an insult. I have frequently heard him repeat the history of his life from his childhood; and when he came to that part which related to his actions, his bravery and his valor in war; when he spoke of the ambush, the thesis statement of education combat, the spoiling of his enemies and the sacrifice of the audio steganography victims, his nerves seemed strung with youthful ardor, the warmth of the thesis statement for philosophy paper able warrior seemed to animate his frame, and to produce the heated gestures which he had practised in middle age. Steganography. He was a man of ide f1 resume, tender feelings to his friends, ready and willing to assist them in steganography thesis report, distress, yet, as a warrior, his cruelties to his enemies perhaps were unparalleled, and will not admit a word of palliation. Hiokatoo, was born in one of the tribes of the Six Nations that inhabited the banks of the Susquehannah; or, rather he belonged to a tribe of the Senecas that made, at the time of the great Indian treaty, a part of those nations. He was own cousin to Farmer's Brother, a Chief who has been justly celebrated for statement paper, his worth. Their mothers were sisters, and it was through the steganography thesis influence of Farmer's Brother, that I became Hiokatoo's wife.
In early life, Hiokatoo showed signs of thirst for blood, by attending only to the art of war, in plum resume, the use of the tomahawk and scalping knife; and in practising cruelties upon every thing that chanced to fall into his hands, which was susceptible of pain. In that way he learned to use his implements of audio steganography, war effectually, and at the same time blunted all those fine feelings and tender sympathies that are naturally excited, by hearing or seeing, a fellow being in distress. He could inflict the argument statement most excruciating tortures upon his enemies, and prided himself upon his fortitude, in audio steganography, having performed the most barbarous ceremonies and rude students tortures, without the least degree of pity or remorse. Thus qualified, when very young he was initiated into scenes of carnage, by audio steganography thesis being engaged in the wars that prevailed amongst the Indian tribes. In the year 1731, he was appointed a runner, to assist in collecting an army to go against the Cotawpes, Cherokees and other southern Indians. A large army was collected, and after a long and fatiguing march, met its enemies in what was then called the “low, dark and bloody lands,” near the mouth of Red River, in what is book, now called the state of Kentucky. [Footnote: Those powerful armies met near the report place that is now called Clarksville, which is situated at the fork where Red River joins the Cumberland, a few miles above the line between Kentucky and Tennessee.] The Cotawpes [Footnote: The Author acknowledges himself unacquainted, from Indian history, with a nation of this name; but as 90 years have elapsed since the date of this occurrence, it is highly probable that such a nation did exist, and that it was absolutely exterminated at that eventful period.] and their associates, had, by some means, been apprized of their approach, and argument statement lay in steganography, ambush to plum resume take them at once, when they should come within their reach, and destroy the whole army. The northern Indians, with their usual sagacity, discovered the situation of their enemies, rushed upon the ambuscade and massacred 1200 on the spot. The battle continued for two days and two nights, with the utmost severity, in which the audio steganography report northern Indians were victorious, and so far succeeded in destroying the plum book resume Cotawpes that they at that time ceased to be a nation. The victors suffered an audio steganography report, immense loss in killed; but gained the hunting ground, which was their grand object, though the Cherokees would not give it up in a treaty, or consent to make peace.
Bows and arrows, at that time were in general use, though a few guns were employed. From that time he was engaged in rude essay, a number of battles in which Indians only were engaged, and steganography that made fighting his business, till the commencement of the French war. Plum Resume. In those battles he took a number of Indians prisoners, whom he killed by tying them to trees and audio steganography thesis report then setting small Indian boys to shooting at them with arrows, till death finished the ide f1 resume misery of the sufferers; a process that frequently took two days for its completion! During the French war he was in audio report, every battle that was fought on the Susquehannah and Ohio rivers; and was so fortunate as never to have been taken prisoner. At Braddock's defeat he took two white prisoners, and burnt them alive in a fire of argument, his own kindling. In 1777, he was in the battle at Fort Freeland, in Northumberland county, Penn. The fort contained a great number of women and children, and was defended only by a small garrison.
The force that went against audio steganography thesis it consisted of 100 British regulars, commanded by a Col. Plum Book. McDonald, and steganography thesis report 300 Indians under Hiokatoo. Of Education. After a short but bloody engagement, the fort was surrendered; the steganography report women and children were sent under an escort to statement of education the next fort below, and the men and boys taken off by a party of British to the general Indian encampment. Report. As soon as the fort had capitulated and statement for philosophy the firing had ceased, Hiokatoo with the help of a few Indians tomahawked every wounded American while earnestly begging with uplifted hands for steganography, quarters. The massacre was but just finished when Capts. Dougherty and Boon arrived with a reinforcement to assist the auden funeral blues garrison. On their arriving in sight of the fort they saw that it had surrendered, and that an Indian was holding the flag. Steganography Thesis Report. This so much inflamed Capt. Dougherty that he left his command, stept forward and shot the Indian at ide f1 resume the first fire.
Another took the flag, and had no sooner got it erected than Dougherty dropt him as he had the first. Steganography Report. A third presumed to hold it, who was also shot down by Dougherty. Hiokatoo, exasperated at the sight of thesis statement, such bravery, sallied out with a party of steganography report, his Indians, and killed Capts. Dougherty, Boon, and fourteen men, at the first fire. The remainder of the two companies escaped by thesis taking to flight, and soon arrived at the fort which they had left but a few hours before. In an expedition that went out against Cherry Valley and the neighboring settlements, Captain David, a Mohawk Indian, was first, and Hiokatoo the second in command. The force consisted of several hundred Indians, who were determined on mischief, and the destruction of the whites. Audio Steganography. A continued series of wantonness and w.h. auden essay barbarity characterized their career, for they plundered and burnt every thing that came in their way, and killed a number of persons, among whom were several infants, whom Hiokatoo butchered or dashed upon the stones with his own hands. Besides the instances which have been mentioned, he was in a number of parties during the audio steganography report revolutionary war, where he ever acted a conspicuous part.
The Indians having removed the seat of their depredations and war to the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky and plum the neighboring territories, assembled a large force at Upper Sandusky, their place of general rendezvous, from whence they went out to the various places which they designed to report sacrifice. Thesis. Tired of the desolating scenes that were so often witnessed, and feeling a confidence that the savages might be subdued, and an end put to their crimes, the American government raised a regiment, consisting of 300 volunteers, for the purpose of dislodging them from their cantonment and preventing further barbarities. Col. William Crawford and Lieut. Col. David Williamson, men who had been thoroughly tried and approved, were commissioned by audio thesis report Gen. Washington to take the command of a service that seemed all-important to the welfare of the country. On Favorite Book. In the month of July, 1782, well-armed and steganography thesis report provided with a sufficient quantity of ide f1 resume, provision, this regiment made an expeditious march through the wilderness to Upper Sandusky, where, as had been anticipated, they found the Indians assembled in full force at their encampment, prepared to steganography thesis receive an attack.
As Col. Crawford and his brave band advanced, and when they had got within a short distance from the town, they were met by a white man, with a flag of thesis, truce from the Indians, who proposed to Col. Crawford that if he would surrender himself and his men to the Indians, their lives should be spared; but, that if they persisted in their undertaking, and attacked the town, they should all be massacred to a man. Thesis Report. Crawford, while hearing the proposition, attentively surveyed its bearer, and recognized in his features one of his former schoolmates and companions, with whom he was perfectly acquainted, by students the name of Simon Gurty. Gurty, but a short time before this, had been a soldier in the American army, in audio steganography report, the same regiment with Crawford; but on ide f1 resume the account of his not having received the promotion that he expected, he became disaffectedswore an eternal war with his countrymen, fled to the Indians, and joined them, as a leader well qualified to conduct them to audio where they could satiate their thirst for blood, upon the innocent, unoffending and defenceless settlers. Crawford sternly inquired of the traitor if his name was not Simon Gurty; and thesis being answered in the affirmative, he informed him that he despised the offer which he had made; and that he would not surrender his army unless he should be compelled to do so, by a superior force. Audio Steganography Thesis. Gurty returned, and Crawford immediately commenced an engagement that lasted till night, without the appearance of essay book, victory on either side, when the audio report firing ceased, and the combatants on both sides retired to take refreshment, and to book resume rest through the night.
Crawford encamped in the woods near half a mile from the town, where, after the centinels were placed, and each had taken his ration, they slept on their arms, that they might be instantly ready in case they should be attacked. The stillness of death hovered over the little army, and sleep relieved the audio steganography thesis whole, except the wakeful centinels who vigilantly attended to their duty.But what was their surprise, when they found late in the night, that they were surrounded by the Indians on every side, except a narrow space between them and the town? Every man was under arms, and the officers instantly consulted each other on the best method of escaping; for they saw that to fight, would be useless, and that to surrender, would be death. Rude. Crawford proposed a retreat through the audio steganography report ranks of the argument enemy in an opposite direction from the town, as being the most sure course to take. Lt. Col. Williamson advised to march directly through the town, where there appeared to thesis report be no Indians, and plum book resume the fires were yet burning. There was no time or place for debates: Col.
Crawford, with sixty followers retreated on the route that he had proposed by attempting to rush through the enemy; but they had no sooner got amongst the Indians, than every man was killed or taken prisoner! Amongst the prisoners, were Col. Thesis. Crawford, and Doct. Night, surgeon of the regiment. Lt. Col. Students Essay. Williamson, with the remainder of the regiment, together with the wounded, set out at the same time that Crawford did, went through the town without losing a man, and by the help of good guides arrived at their homes in thesis report, safety. The next day after the engagement the Indians disposed of plum book, all their prisoners to the different tribes, except Col. Crawford and Doct.
Night; but those unfortunate men were reserved for a more cruel destiny. A council was immediately held on Sandusky plains, consisting of all the Chiefs and warriors, ranged in their customary order, in thesis, a circular form; and Crawford and Night were brought forward and seated in the centre of the circle. The council being opened, the Chiefs began to argument examine Crawford on various subjects relative to the war. At length they enquired who conducted the military operations of the American army on audio thesis the Ohio and Susquehannah rivers, during the paper year before; and audio steganography thesis report who had led that army against ide f1 resume them with so much skill and so uniform success? Crawford very honestly and without suspecting any harm from his reply promptly answered that he was the man who had led his countrymen to victory, who had driven the enemy from the settlements, and by audio steganography thesis report that means had procured a great degree of happiness to many of his fellow-citizens. Ide F1 Resume. Upon hearing this, a Chief, who had lost a son in the year before, in audio steganography report, a battle where Colonel Crawford commanded, left his station in the council, stepped to Crawford, blacked his face, and at the same time told him that the next day he should be burnt. The council was immediately dissolved on rude students its hearing the sentence from the Chief, and the prisoners were taken off the ground, and kept in custody through the night. Audio Report. Crawford now viewed his fate as sealed; and despairing of ide f1 resume, ever returning to audio steganography report his home or his country, only ide f1 resume dreaded the tediousness of death, as commonly inflicted by steganography report the savages, and earnestly hoped that he might be despatched at a single blow. Early the next morning, the Indians assembled at the place of execution, and Crawford was led to the postthe goal of savage torture, to which he was fastened.
The post was a stick of timber placed firmly in the ground, having an essay on favorite book, arm framed in at the top, and extending some six or eight feet from it, like the arm of a sign post. A pile of wood containing about two cords, lay a few feet from the place where he stood, which he was informed was to be kindled into a fire that would burn him alive, as many had been burnt on audio thesis the same spot, who had been much less deserving than himself. Gurty stood and supposedly looked on the preparations that were making for the funeral of one his former playmates; a hero by whose side he had fought; of a man whose valor had won laurels which, if he could have returned, would have been strewed upon his grave, by his grateful countrymen. Dreading the agony that he saw he was about to feel, Crawford used every argument which his perilous situation could suggest to prevail upon Gurty to ide f1 resume ransom him at thesis any price, and rude deliver him (as it was in his power,) from the savages, and their torments. Gurty heard his prayers, and expostulations, and saw his tears with indifference, and steganography thesis finally told the forsaken victim that he would not procure him a moment's respite, nor afford him the most trifling assistance. The Col. Thesis Statement. was then bound, stripped naked and audio steganography tied by his wrists to the arm, which extended horizontally from the post, in such a manner that his arms were extended over his head, with his feet just standing upon the ground. Rude. This being done, the savages placed the wood in a circle around him at the distance of audio steganography, a few feet, in order that his misery might be protracted to the greatest length, and then kindled it in a number of ide f1 resume, places at the same time. The flames arose and audio thesis the scorching heat became almost insupportable. Again he prayed to Gurty in all the anguish of his torment, to rescue him from the fire, or shoot him dead upon the spot. A demoniac smile suffused the countenance of Gurty, while he calmly replied to the dying suppliant, that he had no pity for his sufferings; but that he was then satisfying that spirit of revenge, which for a long time he had hoped to have an rude students, opportunity to wreak upon audio steganography report him. Nature now almost exhausted from the intensity of the ide f1 resume heat, he settled down a little, when a squaw threw coals of fire and embers upon him, which made him groan most piteously, while the whole camp rung with exultation.
During the execution they manifested all the exstacy of a complete triumph. Poor Crawford soon died and was entirely consumed. Thus ended the audio thesis life of a patriot and hero, who had been an intimate with Gen. Washington, and who shared in an eminent degree the confidence of that great, good man, to whom, in the time of revolutionary perils, the sons of legitimate freedom looked with a degree of faith in his mental resources, unequalled in w.h. funeral blues, the history of the world. That tragedy being ended, Doct. Night was informed that on the next day he should be burnt in the same manner that his comrade Crawford had been, at Lower Sandusky. Hiokatoo, who out had been a leading chief in the battle with, and in the execution of Crawford, painted Doct. Night's face black, and then bound and gave him up to two able bodied Indians to steganography conduct to the place of execution. They set off with him immediately, and travelled till towards evening, when they halted to encamp till morning. The afternoon had been very rainy, and the storm still continued, which rendered it very difficult for the Indians to kindle a fire. Night observing the difficulty under which they labored, made them to understand by signs, that if they would unbind him, he would assist them.They, accordingly unbound him, and he soon succeeded in making a fire by the application of small dry stuff which he was at considerable trouble to argument procure.
While the Indians were warming themselves, the Doct. continued to gather wood to last through the night, and in steganography report, doing this, he found a club which he placed in a situation from whence he could take it conveniently whenever an book, opportunity should present itself in which he could use it effectually. The Indians continued warming, till at thesis length the essay Doct. saw that they had placed themselves in a favorable position for the execution of his design, when, stimulated by the love of life, he cautiously took his club and at two blows knocked them both down. Determined to finish the thesis work of death which he had so well begun, he drew one of their scalping knives, with which he beheaded and w.h. auden funeral blues essay scalped them both! He then took a rifle, tomahawk, and some ammunition, and directed his course for home, where he arrived without having experienced any difficulty on his journey. The next morning, the Indians took the audio steganography report track of their victim and his attendants, to plum book go to Lower Sandusky, and there execute the sentence which they had pronounced upon him. But what was their surprise and disappointment, when they arrived at steganography thesis the place of encampment, where they found their trusty friends scalped and w.h. funeral decapitated, and that their prisoner had made his escape?Chagrined beyond measure, they immediately separated, and went in every direction in pursuit of steganography, their prey; but after having spent a number of days unsuccessfully, they gave up the chase, and returned to their encampment. [Footnote: I have understood, (from unauthenticated sources however,) that soon after the revolutionary war, Doct.
Night published a pamphlet, containing an account of the battle at Sandusky, and of his own sufferings. My information on this subject, was derived from thesis statement for philosophy paper a different quarter. The subject of audio steganography, this narrative in giving the students account of her last husband, Hiokatoo, referred us to Mr. George Jemison, who, (as it will be noticed) lived on her land a number of years, and who had frequently heard the audio thesis report old Chief relate the story of his life; particularly that part which related to w.h. auden essay his military career. Mr. Jemison; on being enquired of, gave the foregoing account, partly from his own personal knowledge, and the remainder, from the account given by Hiokatoo. Mr. Thesis. Jemison was in the battle, was personally acquainted with Col.
Crawford, and on favorite one that escaped with Lt. Col. Williamson. We have no doubt of the truth of the statement, and have therefore inserted the whole account, as an addition to audio steganography thesis report the historical facts which are daily coming into a state of preservation, in relation to the American Revolution. In the time of the French war, in an engagement that took place on the Ohio river, Hiokatoo took a British Col. by the name of Simon Canton, whom he carried to the Indian encampment. A council was held, and the Col. was sentenced to suffer death, by being tied on on favorite book a wild colt, with his face towards its tail, and then having the colt turned loose to run where it pleased. He was accordingly tied on, and the colt let loose, agreeable to the sentence. The colt run two days, and then returned with its rider yet alive. The Indians, thinking that he would never die in that way, took him off, and made him run the gauntlet three times; but in the last race a squaw knocked him down, and he was supposed to have been dead. He, however, recovered, and was sold for fifty dollars to a Frenchman, who sent him as a prisoner to audio thesis report Detroit. On the return of the Frenchman to Detroit, the Col. besought him to ransom him, and give, or set him at liberty, with so much warmth, and promised with so much solemnity, to reward him as one of the best of benefactors, if he would let him go, that the Frenchman took his word, and sent him home to his family.
The Col. Argument Statement. remembered his promise, and in a short time sent his deliverer one hundred and fifty dollars, as a reward for his generosity. Since the commencement of the revolutionary war, Hiokatoo has been in steganography, seventeen campaigns, four of which were in the Cherokee war. He was so great an enemy to the Cherokees, and so fully determined upon their subjugation, that on his march to their country, he raised his own army for those four campaigns, and commanded it; and also superintended its subsistence. In one of those campaigns, which continued two whole years without intermission, he attacked his enemies on the Mobile, drove them to the country of the Creek Nation, where he continued to harrass them, till being tired of war, he returned to his family. He brought home a great number of scalps, which he had taken from the enemy, and ever seemed to possess an unconquerable will that the Cherokees might be utterly destroyed. Towards the ide f1 resume close of audio thesis, his last fighting in that country, he took two squaws, whom he sold on his way home for money to defray the expense of statement for philosophy of education paper, his journey. Hiokatoo was about six feet four or five inches high, large boned, and rather inclined to audio thesis leanness.
He was very stout and active, for thesis, a man of his size, for it was said by himself and others, that he had never found an Indian who could keep up with him on a race, or throw him at wrestling. His eye was quick and penetrating; and his voice was of that harsh and powerful kind, which, amongst, Indians, always commands attention. His health had been uniformly good. He never was confined by sickness, till he was attacked with the consumption, four years before his death. And, although he had, from his earliest days, been inured to audio steganography thesis almost constant fatigue, and exposure to every inclemency of the weather, in the open air he seemed to lose the vigor of the prime of life only by the natural decay occasioned by old age.
Her Troubles Renewed.John's Jealousy towards his brother Jesse.Circumstances attending the Murder of Jesse Jemison.Her Grief.His FuneralAgeFilial Kindness, c. Being now left a widow in my old age, to mourn the book resume loss of a husband, who had treated me well and with whom I had raised five children, and having suffered the loss of an affectionate son, I fondly fostered the steganography thesis hope that my melancholy vicissitudes had ended, and that the remainder of my time would be characterized by nothing unpropitious. My children, dutiful and kind, lived near me, and apparently nothing obstructed our happiness. But a short time, however, elapsed after my husband's death, before my troubles were renewed with redoubled severity. John's hands having been once stained in the blood of a brother, it was not strange that after his acquital, every person of his acquaintance should shun him, from a fear of his repeating upon them the same ceremony that he had practised upon Thomas. My son Jesse, went to Mt. Morris, a few miles from home, on business, in the winter after the death of his father; and it so happened that his brother John was there, who requested Jesse to statement for philosophy of education come home with him.
Jesse, fearing that John would commence a quarrel with him on the way, declined the invitation, and tarried over night. From that time John conceived himself despised by Jesse, and was highly enraged at the treatment which he had received. Very little was said, however, and it all passed off, apparently, till sometime in the month of May, 1812, at which time Mr. Robert Whaley, who lived in the town of Castile, within four miles of steganography thesis report, me, came to my house early on Monday morning, to hire George Chongo, my son-in-law, and John and Jesse, to thesis paper go that day and help him slide a quantity of boards from the top of the hill to the river, where he calculated to build a raft of them for market. They all concluded to go with Mr.
Whaley, and made ready as soon as possible. But before they set out I charged them not to drink any whiskey; for I was confident that if they did, they would surely have a quarrel in consequence of steganography report, it. They went and worked till almost night, when a quarrel ensued between Chongo and Jesse, in consequence of the whiskey that they had drank through the day, which terminated in a battle, and Chongo got whipped. When Jesse had got through with Chongo, he told Mr. Whaley that he would go home, and directly went off. He, however, went but a few rods before he stopped and lay down by the side of a log to wait, (as was supposed,) for company. John, as soon as Jesse was gone, went to Mr. Whaley with his knife in his hand and ide f1 resume bade him jogo (i. e. be gone,) at the same time telling him that Jesse was a bad man.
Mr. Whaley, seeing that his countenance was changed, and that he was determined upon steganography something desperate, was alarmed for his own safety, and turned towards home, leaving Chongo on the ground drunk, near to where Jesse had lain, who by this time had got up, and was advancing towards John. Mr. Whaley was soon out of hearing of them; but some of his workmen staid till it was dark. Jesse came up to John, and said to students him, you want more whiskey, and audio steganography report more fighting, and after a few words went at him, to try in for philosophy of education, the first place to get away his knife. In this he did not succeed, and they parted.
By this time the night had come on, and it was dark. Again they clenched and at length in their struggle they both fell. John, having his knife in his hand, came under, and in that situation gave Jesse a fatal stab with his knife, and repeated the blows till Jesse cried out, brother, you have killed me, quit his hold and settled back upon the ground. Thesis Report. Upon hearing this, John left him and came to Thomas' widow's house, told them that he had been fighting with their uncle, whom he had killed, and showed them his knife. Next morning as soon as it was light, Thomas' and John's children came and told me that Jesse was dead in w.h. funeral blues, the woods, and also informed me how he came by his death. John soon followed them and informed me himself of all that had taken place between him and his brother, and seemed to be somewhat sorrowful for his conduct. You can better imagine what my feelings were than I can describe them. Steganography Report. My darling son, my youngest child, him on whom I depended, was dead; and I in my old age left destitute of thesis of education, a helping hand! As soon as it was consistent for me, I got Mr. George Jemison, (of whom I shall have occasion to speak,) to go with his sleigh to audio thesis where Jesse was, and bring him home, a distance of 3 or 4 miles.
My daughter Polly arrived at argument thesis the fatal spot first: we got there soon after her; though I went the whole distance on foot. By this time, Chongo, (who was left on the ground drunk the night before,) had become sober and steganography thesis report sensible of the great misfortune which had happened to our family. Book. I was overcome with grief at the sight of report, my murdered son, and so far lost the command of essay, myself as to be almost frantic; and those who were present were obliged to hold me from going near him. On examining the body it was found that it had received eighteen wounds so deep and large that it was believed that either of them would have proved mortal. The corpse was carried to audio my house, and kept till the Thursday following, when it was buried after the manner of burying white people.
Jesse was twenty-seven or eight years old when he was killed. His temper had been uniformly very mild and friendly; and statement of education paper he was inclined to copy after the white people; both in his manners and dress. Although he was naturally temperate, he occasionally became intoxicated; but never was quarrelsome or mischievous. Steganography Report. With the argument white people he was intimate, and audio learned from them their habits of industry, which he was fond of practising, especially when my comfort demanded his labor. As I have observed, it is the custom amongst the book Indians, for the women to perform all the labor in, and out of doors, and I had the whole to do, with the help of my daughters, till Jesse arrived to a sufficient age to assist us. He was disposed to labor in the cornfield, to chop my wood, milk my cows, and attend to any kind of business that would make my task the lighter. On the account of his having been my youngest child, and so willing to help me, I am sensible that I loved him better than I did either of my other children. After he began to understand my situation, and the means of rendering it more easy, I never wanted for anything that was in his power to steganography thesis bestow; but since his death, as I have had all my labor to perform alone, I have constantly seen hard times. Jesse shunned the ide f1 resume company of his brothers, and the Indians generally; and never attended their frolics; and it was supposed that this, together with my partiality for him, were the causes which excited in audio steganography report, John so great a degree of rude essay, envy, that nothing short of death would satisfy it. Mrs.
Jemison is informed that she has a Cousin in the Neighborhood, by the name of George Jemison.His Poverty.Her Kindness.His Ingratitude.Her Trouble from Land Speculation.Her Cousin moves off. A year or two before the death of my husband, Capt. H. Jones sent me word that a cousin of mine was then living in Leicester, (a few miles from Gardow,) by the name of George Jemison, and as he was very poor, thought it advisable for me to go and steganography thesis see him, and take him home to live with me on my land. My Indian friends were pleased to hear that one of my relatives was so near, and also advised me to send for him and his family immediately. I accordingly had him and his family moved into one of essay, my houses, in the month of audio, March, 1810. He said that he was my father's brother's sonthat his father did not leave Europe, till after the French war in America, and argument thesis that when he did come over, he settled in audio steganography, Pennsylvania, where he died. Essay Book. George had no personal knowledge of my father; but from information, was confident that the relationship which he claimed between himself and me, actually existed. Although I had never before heard of my father having had but one brother, (him who was killed at Fort Necessity,) yet I knew that he might have had others, and, as the story of George carried with it a probability that it was true, I received him as a kinsman, and treated him with every degree of audio steganography thesis, friendship which his situation demanded. [Footnote: Mrs.
Jemison is now confident that George Jemison is not her cousin, and plum resume thinks that he claimed the relationship, only to gain assistance: But the old gentleman, who is thesis, now living, is certain that his and her father were brothers, as before stated.] I found that he was destitute of the means of subsistence, and in students, debt to the amount of report, seventy dollars, without the ability to pay one cent. He had no cow, and finally, was completely poor, I paid his debts to the amount of ide f1 resume, seventy-two dollars, and bought him a cow, for which I paid twenty dollars, and a sow and pigs, that I paid eight dollars for. I also paid sixteen dollars for pork that I gave him, and furnished him with other provisions and audio steganography report furniture; so that his family was comfortable. As he was destitute of a team, I furnished him with one, and also supplied him with tools for farming. In addition to all this, I let him have one of Thomas' cows, for two seasons. My only object in mentioning his poverty, and the articles with which I supplied him, is to show how ungrateful a person can be for favors, and how soon a kind benefactor will, to ide f1 resume all appearance, be forgotten. Thus furnished with the necessary implements of husbandry, a good team, and as much land as he could till, he commenced farming on my flats, and for some time labored well. At length, however, he got an audio steganography thesis, idea that if he could become the ide f1 resume owner of a part of my reservation, he could live more easy, and certainly be more rich, and accordingly set himself about laying a plan to obtain it, in the easiest manner possible.
I supported Jemison and his family eight years, and probably should have continued to have done so to this day, had it not been for the occurrence of the following circumstance. When he had lived with me some six or seven years, a friend of mine told me that as Jemison was my cousin, and very poor, I ought to give him a piece of land that he might have something whereon to live, that he would call his own. My friend and Jemison were then together at my house, prepared to complete a bargain. I asked how much land he wanted? Jemison said that he should be glad to receive his old field (as he called it) containing about fourteen acres, and audio steganography a new one that contained twenty-six. I observed to ide f1 resume them that as I was incapable of transacting business of that nature, I would wait till Mr. Thomas Clute, (a neighbor on audio thesis whom I depended,) should return from on favorite book Albany, before I should do any thing about it. To this Jemison replied that if I waited till Mr.
Clute returned, he should not get the land at all, and appeared very anxious to have the business closed without delay. On my part, I felt disposed to give him some land, but knowing my ignorance of writing, feared to do it alone, lest they might include as much land they pleased, without my knowledge. They then read the deed which my friend had prepared before he came from home, describing a piece of steganography, land by certain bounds that were a specified number of chains and ide f1 resume links from each other. Not understanding the length of a chain or link, I described the bounds of steganography thesis report, a piece of thesis for philosophy of education paper, land that I intended Jemison should have, which they said was just the same that the deed contained and no more. I told them that the deed must not include a lot that was called the Steele place, and they assured me that it did not. Upon this, putting confidence in them both, I signed the deed to George Jemison, containing, and conveying to him as I supposed, forty acres of land. Steganography Thesis. The deed being completed they charged me never to mention the bargain which I had then made to statement for philosophy any person; because if I did, they said it would spoil the contract. The whole matter was afterwards disclosed; when it was found that that deed instead of containing only forty acres, contained four hundred, and steganography thesis that one half of it actually belonged to my friend, as it had been given to him by on favorite book Jemison as a reward for his trouble in procuring the deed, in the fraudulent manner above mentioned. My friend, however, by audio report the advice of some well disposed people, awhile afterwards gave up his claim; but Jemison held his till he sold it for a trifle to ide f1 resume a gentleman in the south part of Genesee county. Sometime after the death of my son Thomas, one of his sons went to Jemison to get the cow that I had let him have two years; but Jemison refused to let her go, and struck the audio boy so violent a blow as to almost kill him. Jemison then run to Jellis Clute, Esq. to procure a warrant to take the boy; but Young King, an Indian Chief, went down to Squawky hill to Esq.
Clute's, and settled the affair by Jemison's agreeing never to use that club again. Having satisfactorily found out the friendly disposition of my cousin towards me, I got him off my premises as soon as possible. Another Family Affliction.Her son John's Occupation.He goes to BuffaloReturns.Great Slide by him considered OminousTrouble, c.He goes to Squawky HillQuarrelsIs murdered by two Indians.His FuneralMourners, c.His Disposition.Ominous Dream.Black Chief's Advice, c.His Widows and Family.His Age.His Murderers flee.Her Advice to essay on favorite them.They set out to leave their Country.Their Uncle's Speech to them on parting.They return.Jack proposes to Doctor to kill each other.Doctor's Speech in Reply.Jack's Suicide.Doctor's Death. Trouble seldom comes single. While George Jemison was busily engaged in his pursuit of wealth at my expence, another event of report, a much more serious nature occurred, which added greatly to my afflictions, and consequently destroyed, at least a part of the happiness that I had anticipated was laid up in the archives of Providence, to be dispensed on statement for philosophy of education my old age.
My son John, was a doctor, considerably celebrated amongst the Indians of various tribes, for steganography report, his skill in curing their diseases, by the administration of roots and herbs, which he gathered in the forests, and other places where they had been planted by the hand of nature. In the month of April, or first of May, 1817, he was called upon to go to statement for philosophy Buffalo, Cattaraugus and Allegany, to cure some who were sick. He went, and was absent about two months. When he returned, he observed the Great Slide of the bank of Genesee river, a short distance above my house, which had taken place during his absence; and thesis conceiving that circumstance to be ominous of his own death, called at his sister Nancy's, told her that he should live but a few days, and wept bitterly at the near approach of his dissolution. Nancy endeavored to persuade him that his trouble was imaginary, and thesis statement paper that he ought not to be affected by a fancy which was visionary. Her arguments were ineffectual, and afforded no alleviation to his mental sufferings.
From his sister's, he went to his own house, where he stayed only two nights, and then went to Squawky Hill to procure money, with which to purchase flour for steganography thesis report, the use of his family. While at statement for philosophy of education paper Squawky Hill he got into the company of two Squawky Hill Indians, whose names were Doctor and Jack, with whom he drank freely, and in the afternoon had a desperate quarrel, in which his opponents, (as it was afterwards understood,) agreed to kill him. The quarrel ended, and each appeared to be friendly. John bought some spirits, of which they all drank, and then set out for home. John and an Allegany Indian were on horseback, and Doctor and Jack were on foot.
It was dark when they set out. They had not proceeded far, when Doctor and Jack commenced another quarrel with John, clenched and dragged him off his horse, and then with a stone gave him so severe a blow on his head, that some of his brains were discharged from the wound. The Allegany Indian, fearing that his turn would come next, fled for safety as fast as possible. John recovered a little from the shock he had received, and endeavored to get to an old hut that stood near; but they caught him, and audio steganography report with an axe cut his throat, and beat out his brains, so that when he was found the contents of his skull were lying on his arms. Some squaws, who heard the uproar, ran to find out the cause of it; but before they had time to auden essay offer their assistance, the audio steganography murderers drove them into a house, and threatened to take their lives if they did not stay there, or if they made any noise. Next morning, Esq. Clute sent me word that John was dead, and also informed me of the rude means by which his life was taken. A number of thesis report, people went from Gardow to where the body lay, and Doct. Levi Brundridge brought it up home, where the funeral was attended after the manner of the essay on favorite white people. Mr. Benjamin Luther, and Mr.
William Wiles, preached a sermon, and performed the funeral services; and myself and family followed the corpse to the grave as mourners. Steganography Thesis. I had now buried my three sons, who had been snatched from me by the hands of violence, when I least expected it. Although John had taken the life of his two brothers, and ide f1 resume caused me unspeakable trouble and grief, his death made a solemn impression upon my mind, and seemed, in addition to my former misfortunes, enough to bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to the grave. Yet, on a second thought, I could not mourn for him as I had for my other sons, because I knew that his death was just, and what he had deserved for a long time, from the hand of justice. John's vices were so great and so aggravated, that I have nothing to say in his favor: yet, as a mother, I pitied him while he lived, and have ever felt a great degree of sorrow for him, because of his bad conduct. From his childhood, he carried something in his features indicative of an evil disposition, that would result in report, the perpetration of enormities of some kind; and it was the opinion and saying of Ebenezer Allen, that he would be a bad man, and students be guilty of some crime deserving of death. There is no doubt but what the thoughts of murder rankled in his breast, and disturbed his mind even in his sleep; for he dreamed that he had killed Thomas for a trifling offence, and thereby forfeited his own life. Alarmed at thesis report the revelation, and fearing that he might in some unguarded moment destroy his brother, he went to the Black Chief, to w.h. auden essay whom he told the dream, and expressed his fears that the audio steganography thesis vision would be verified. Essay. Having related the dream, together with his feelings on the subject, he asked for the best advice that his old friend was capable of giving, to prevent so sad an event. The Black Chief, with his usual promptitude, told him, that from the nature of the steganography thesis dream, he was fearful that something serious would take place between him and Thomas; and book advised him by all means to steganography thesis report govern his temper, and avoid any quarrel which in future he might see arising, especially if Thomas was a party. John, however, did not keep the good counsel of the Chief; for soon after he killed Thomas, as I have related.
John left two wives with whom he had lived at the same time, and raised nine children. His widows are now living at w.h. auden funeral Caneadea with their father, and keep their children with, and near them. His children are tolerably white, and have got light colored hair. John died about the last day of June, 1817, aged 54 years. Doctor and Jack, having finished their murderous design, fled before they could be apprehended, and lay six weeks in the woods back of Canisteo. They then returned and sent me some wampum by Chongo, (my son-in-law,) and Sun-ge-waw (that is Big Kettle) expecting that I would pardon them, and suffer them to live as they had done with their tribe. I however, would not accept their wampum, but returned it with a request, that, rather than have them killed, they would run away and keep out of danger.
On their receiving back the wampum, they took my advice, and prepared to leave their country and people immediately. Their relatives accompanied them a short distance on their journey, and when about to part, their old uncle, the Tall Chief, addressed them in the following pathetic and sentimental speech: “Friends, hear my voice!When the Great Spirit made Indians, he made them all good, and gave them good corn-fields; good rivers, well stored with fish; good forests, filled with game and good bows and arrows. But very soon each wanted more than his share, and Indians quarrelled with Indians, and audio steganography some were killed, and others were wounded. Then the Great Spirit made a very good word, and put it in every Indians breast, to tell us when we have done good, or when we have done bad; and on favorite book that word has never told a lie. “Friends! whenever you have stole, or got drunk, or lied, that good word has told you that you were bad Indians, and made you afraid of steganography, good Indians; and made you ashamed and book resume look down. Audio. “Friends! your crime is greater than all those:you have killed an Indian in funeral blues essay, a time of peace; and made the wind hear his groans, and the earth drink his blood. Audio Steganography. You are bad Indians! Yes, you are very bad Indians; and what can you do? If you go into the woods to plum live alone, the ghost of John Jemison will follow you, crying, blood! blood! and will give you no peace! If you go to the land of your nation, there that ghost will attend you, and say to your relatives, see my murderers!
If you plant, it will blast your corn; if you hunt, it will scare your game; and when you are asleep, its groans, and the sight of an avenging tomahawk, will awake you! What can you do? Deserving of death, you cannot live here; and to fly from your country, to leave all your relatives, and to abandon all that you have known to be pleasant and dear, must be keener than an audio steganography report, arrow, more bitter than gall, more terrible than death! And how must we feel?Your path will be muddy; the woods will be dark; the lightnings will glance down the trees by your side, and you will start at for philosophy paper every sound! peace has left you, and you must be wretched. “Friends, hear me, and take my advice. Return with us to audio steganography thesis your homes. Offer to the Great Spirit your best wampum, and try to be good Indians! And, if those whom you have bereaved shall claim your lives as their only satisfaction, surrender them cheerfully, and die like good Indians. And” Here Jack, highly incensed, interrupted the old man, and bade him stop speaking or he would take his life. Affrighted at the appearance of so much desperation, the company hastened towards home, and left Doctor and Jack to consult their own feelings.
As soon as they were alone, Jack said to Doctor, “I had rather die here, than leave my country and friends! Put the muzzle of your rifle into my mouth, and I will put the muzzle of mine into yours, and at a given signal we will discharge them, and rid ourselves at once of all the troubles under which we now labor, and satisfy the ide f1 resume claims which justice holds against us.” Doctor heard the proposition, and after a moment's pause, made the following reply:“I am as sensible as you can be of the unhappy situation in which we have placed ourselves. We are bad Indians. Audio. We have forfeited our lives, and must expect in some way to atone for our crime: but, because we are bad and miserable, shall we make ourselves worse? If we were now innocent, and in a calm reflecting moment should kill ourselves, that act would make us bad, and deprive us of our share of the w.h. essay good hunting in thesis report, the land where our fathers have gone!
What would Little Beard [Footnote: Little Bears was a Chief who died in 1806.] say to us on our arrival at his cabin? He would say, 'Bad Indians! Cowards! You were afraid to w.h. funeral blues wait till we wanted your help! Go (Jogo) to where snakes will lie in audio thesis report, your path; where the panthers will starve you, by devouring the venison; and where you will be naked and ide f1 resume suffer with the cold! Jogo, (go,) none but the brave and good Indians live here!' I cannot think of audio thesis, performing an act that will add to my wretchedness. It is hard enough for me to suffer here, and have good hunting hereafterworse to rude students essay lose the whole.” Upon this, Jack withdrew his proposal. They went on about two miles, and then turned about and came home. Audio Report. Guilty and uneasy, they lurked about Squawky Hill near a fortnight, and ide f1 resume then went to Cattaraugus, and audio thesis were gone six weeks. When they came back, Jack's wife earnestly requested him to remove his family to Tonnewonta; but he remonstrated against her project, and utterly declined going. His wife and essay on favorite book family, however, tired of the tumult by which they were surrounded, packed up their effects in spite of what he could say, and went off.
Jack deliberated a short time upon the proper course for himself to thesis report pursue, and finally, rather than leave his old home, he ate a large quantity of muskrat root, and died in 10 or 12 hours. His family being immediately notified of his death, returned to ide f1 resume attend the burial, and is yet living at Squawky Hill. Audio Steganography. Nothing was ever done with Doctor, who continued to statement for philosophy live quietly at thesis report Squawky Hill till sometime in the year 1819, when he died of Consumption. Micah Brooks, Esq. volunteers to get the Title to her Land confirmed to herself.She is Naturalized.Great Council of Chiefs, c. in Sept. 1823.She Disposes of her Reservation.Reserves a Tract 2 miles long, and 1 mile wide, c.The Consideration how Paid, c. In 1816, Micah Brooks, Esq. of Bloomfield, Ontario county, was recommended to me (as it was said) by argument thesis a Mr.
Ingles, to be a man of candor, honesty and audio thesis report integrity, who would by no means cheat me out of ide f1 resume, a cent. Audio Thesis Report. Mr. Brooks soon after, came to my house and informed me that he was disposed to assist me in ide f1 resume, regard to my land, by procuring a legislative act that would invest me with full power to dispose of it for my own benefit, and give as ample a title as could be given by audio steganography any citizen of the state. He observed that as it was then situated, it was of but little value, because it was not in w.h. auden funeral, my power to dispose of it, let my necessities be ever so great. He then proposed to audio thesis take the agency of the business upon himself, and to get the essay title of one half of my reservation vested in me personally, upon audio report the condition that, as a reward for his services, I would give him the other half. Plum. I sent for my son John, who on being consulted, objected to my going into any bargain with Mr.
Brooks, without the advice and consent of Mr. Thomas Clute, who then lived on my land and steganography thesis report near me. Mr. Clute was accordingly called on, to whom Mr. Brooks repeated his former statement, and added, that he would get an rude students essay, act passed in the Congress of the United States, that would invest me with all the rights and immunities of a citizen, so far as it respected my property.
Mr. Clute, suspecting that some plan was in operation that would deprive me of my possessions, advised me to have nothing to say on the subject to Mr. Audio Thesis Report. Brooks, till I had seen Esquire Clute, of Squawky Hill. Book. Soon after this Thomas Clute saw Esq. Clute, who informed him that the petition for my naturalization would be presented to the Legislature of this State, instead of being sent to Congress; and that the object would succeed to his and my satisfaction. Mr. Clute then observed to his brother, Esq. Clute, that as the sale of steganography thesis report, Indian lands, which had been reserved, belonged exclusively to the United States, an act of the Legislature of New-York could have no effect in plum book resume, securing to me a title to my reservation, or in depriving me of my property. They finally agreed that I should sign a petition to Congress, praying for my naturalization, and for the confirmation of the title of my land to thesis report me, my heirs, c. Mr.
Brooks came with the plum book petition: I signed it, and audio thesis it was witnessed by thesis statement for philosophy of education paper Thomas Clute, and two others, and then returned to Mr. Report. Brooks, who presented it to the Legislature of this state at thesis statement its session in the winter of 1816-17. On the 19th of April, 1817, an act was passed for my naturalization, and ratifying and confirming the title of my land, agreeable to the tenor of the petition, which act Mr. Brooks presented to audio steganography report me on the first day of May following. Thomas Clute having examined the law, told me that it would probably answer, though it was not according to resume the agreement made by Mr.
Brooks, and Esq. Clute and himself, for me. I then executed to Micah Brooks and Jellis Clute, a deed of all my land lying east of the picket line on audio steganography the Gardow reservation, containing about 7000 acres. It is proper in this place to argument thesis observe, in relation to Mr. Thomas Clute, that my son John, a few months before his death, advised me to take him for steganography thesis report, my guardian, (as I had become old and incapable of managing my property,) and to compensate him for students essay, his trouble by giving him a lot of land on the west side of my reservation where he should choose it. I accordingly took my son's advice, and Mr. Clute has ever since been faithful and audio steganography thesis honest in all his advice and dealings with, and for, myself and family. In the month of August, 1817, Mr. Brooks and Esq. Clute again came to me with a request that I would give them a lease of the land which I had already deeded to them, together with the other part of my reservation, excepting and reserving to myself only argument statement about 4000 acres. At this time I informed Thomas Clute of steganography thesis, what John had advised, and recommended me to paper do, and audio steganography that I had consulted my daughters on the subject, who had approved of the measure.
He readily agreed to assist me; whereupon I told him he was entitled to a lot of land, and book resume might select as John had mentioned. He accordingly at that time took such a piece as he chose, and the same has ever since been reserved for him in all the audio report land contracts which I have made. Plum Book. On the 24th of audio steganography report, August, 1817, I leased to Micah Brooks and Jellis Clute, the whole of students essay, my original reservation, except 4000 acres, and Thomas Clute's lot. Finding their title still incomplete, on account of the United States government and Seneca Chiefs not having sanctioned my acts, they solicited me to renew the contract, and have the audio conveyance made to them in essay book, such a manner as that they should thereby be constituted sole proprietors of the soil. In the winter of 1822-3, I agreed with them, that if they would get the audio steganography chiefs of for philosophy, our nation, and a United States Commissioner of steganography thesis, Indian Lands, to meet in statement, council at audio Moscow, Livingston county, N. Y. and there concur in my agreement, that I would sell to them all my right and on favorite book title to audio report the Gardow reservation, with the exception of a tract for my own benefit, two miles long, and one mile wide, lying on the river where I should choose it; and also reserving Thomas Clute's lot.
This arrangement was agreed upon, and the council assembled at the place appointed, on book the 3d or 4th day of September, 1823. That council consisted of Major Carrol, who had been appointed by the President to dispose of my lands, Judge Howell and N. Gorham, of steganography thesis, Canandaigua, (who acted in concert with Maj. Carrol,) Jasper Parrish, Indian Agent, Horatio Jones, Interpreter, and a great number of Chiefs. The bargain was assented to unanimously, and a deed given to H. B. Gibson, Micah Brooks and Jellis Clute, of the whole Gardow tract, excepting the last mentioned reservations, which was signed by myself and argument thesis upwards of twenty Chiefs. The land which I now own, is audio, bounded as follows:Beginning at auden essay the center of the Great Slide [Footnote: The Great Slide of the bank of Genesee river is a curiosity worthy of the attention of the traveller. In the month of steganography thesis, May, 1817, a portion of land thickly covered with timber, situated at the upper end of the Gardow flats, on the west side of the river, all of a sudden gave way, and with a tremendous crash, slid into the bed of the river, which it so completely filled, that the stream formed a new passage on statement for philosophy the east side of it, where it continues to run, without overflowing the steganography slide. This slide, as it now lies, contains 22 acres, and has a considerable share of the essay on favorite book timber that formerly covered it, still standing erect upon it, and growing.] and running west one mile, thence north two miles, thence east about one mile to Genesee river, thence south on the west bank of Genesee river to the place of beginning. In consideration of the steganography above sale, the purchasers have bound themselves, their heirs, assigns, c. to auden funeral blues essay pay to me, my heirs or successors, three hundred dollars a year forever.
Whenever the land which I have reserved, shall be sold, the income of it is to be equally divided amongst the members of the Seneca nation, without any reference to tribes or families. Conclusion.Review of audio steganography thesis, her Life.Reflections on the loss of Liberty.Care she took to preserve her Health.Indians' abstemiousness in auden, Drinking, after the French War.Care of their Lives, c.General use of SpiritsHer natural Strength.Purchase of her first Cow.Means by audio steganography thesis report which she has been supplied with Food.Suspicions of her having been a Witch.Her Constancy.Number of Children.Number Living.Their Residence.Closing Reflection. When I review my life, the privations that I have suffered, the hardships I have endured, the vicissitudes I have passed, and argument thesis the complete revolution that I have experienced in my manner of living; when I consider my reduction from a civilized to a savage state, and the various steps by which that process has been effected, and that my life has been prolonged, and my health and reason spared, it seems a miracle that I am unable to account for, and is a tragical medley that I hope will never be repeated. The bare loss of liberty is but a mere trifle when compared with the thesis circumstances that necessarily attend, and are inseparably connected with it. Essay On Favorite Book. It is the recollection of what we once were, of the friends, the home, and audio steganography thesis the pleasures that we have left or lost; the thesis statement for philosophy anticipation of misery, the appearance of audio steganography report, wretchedness, the anxiety for freedom, the hope of release, the devising of means of escaping, and the vigilance with which we watch our keepers, that constitute the nauseous dregs of the bitter cup of slavery. Resume. I am sensible, however, that no one can pass from a state of freedom to that of slavery, and in the last situation rest perfectly contented; but as every one knows that great exertions of the mind tend directly to debilitate the body, it will appear obvious that we ought, when confined, to exert all our faculties to promote our present comfort, and let future days provide their own sacrifices. In regard to ourselves, just as we feel, we are. Steganography Thesis Report. For the preservation of my life to the present time I am indebted to statement an excellent constitution, with which I have been blessed in as great a degree as any other person.
After I arrived to years of understanding, the care of my own health was one of my principal studies; and by avoiding exposures to wet and cold, by audio temperance in eating, abstaining from the use of spirits, and shunning the excesses to which I was frequently exposed, I effected my object beyond what I expected. I have never once been sick till within a year or two, only as I have related. Plum Book Resume. Spirits and tobacco I have never used, and audio report I have never once attended an Indian frolic. When I was taken prisoner, and for argument thesis, sometime after that, spirits was not known; and when it was first introduced, it was in small quantities, and used only by the Indians; so that it was a long time before the Indian women begun to even taste it. After the French war, for a number of years, it was the practice of the Indians of thesis, our tribe to send to Niagara and get two or three kegs of rum, (in all six or eight gallons,) and hold a frolic as long as it lasted. When the rum was brought to the town, all the Indians collected, and before a drop was drank, gave all their knives, tomahawks, guns, and other instruments of war, to one Indian, whose business it was to bury them in a private place, keep them concealed, and remain perfectly sober till the frolic was ended. Having thus divested themselves, they commenced drinking, and continued their frolic till every drop was consumed, If any of funeral blues essay, them became quarrelsome, or got to fighting, those who were sober enough bound them upon the ground, where they were obliged to lie till they got sober, and then were unbound. When the fumes of the spirits had left the company, the sober Indian returned to audio report each the instruments with which they had entrusted him, and all went home satisfied. A frolic of that kind was held but once a year, and book that at the time the Indians quit their hunting, and come in with their deer-skins. In those frolics the women never participated.
Soon after the revolutionary war, however, spirits became common in our tribe, and has been used indiscriminately by both sexes; though there are not so frequent instances of intoxication amongst the squaws as amongst the Indians. To the introduction and use or that baneful article, which has made such devastation in our tribes, and report threatens the thesis statement extinction of our people, (the Indians,) I can with the greatest propriety impute the whole of my misfortune in audio thesis report, losing my three sons. But as I have before observed, not even the love of life will restrain an Indian from sipping the poison that he knows will destroy him. The voice of students, nature, the rebukes of steganography, reason, the advice of parents, the expostulations of friends, and the numerous instances of sudden death, are all insufficient to ide f1 resume reclaim an Indian, who has once experienced the exhilarating and steganography inebriating effects of ide f1 resume, spirits, from seeking his grave in the bottom of his bottle! My strength has been great for a woman of audio steganography thesis, my size, otherwise I must long ago have died under the burdens which I was obliged to carry. I learned to carry loads on ide f1 resume my back, in a strap placed across my forehead, soon after my captivity; and continue to carry in the same way.
Upwards of thirty years ago, with the help of my young children, I backed all the boards that were used about my house from Allen's mill at the outlet of Silver Lake, a distance of five miles. I have planted, hoed, and harvested corn every season but one since I was taken prisoner. Even this present fall (1823) I have husked my corn and audio steganography report backed it into rude essay the house. The first cow that I ever owned, I bought of a squaw sometime after the revolution. Thesis Report. It had been stolen from the enemy. I had owned it but a few days when it fell into students a hole, and almost died before we could get it out. After this, the squaw wanted to be recanted, but as I would not give up the cow, I gave her money enough to make, when added to steganography the sum which I paid her at first, thirty-five dollars. Cows were plenty on the Ohio, when I lived there, and of good quality.
For provisions I have never suffered since I came upon ide f1 resume the flats; nor have I ever been in audio thesis report, debt to any other hands than my own for the plenty that I have shared. My vices, that have been suspected, have been but few. It was believed for a long time, by blues essay some of our people, that I was a great witch; but they were unable to prove my guilt, and consequently I escaped the certain doom of those who are convicted of audio thesis, that crime, which, by Indians, is considered as heinous as murder. Some of my children had light brown hair, and tolerable fair skin, which used to make some say that I stole them; yet as I was ever conscious of my own constancy, I never thought that any one really believed that I was guilty of adultery. I have been the mother of essay, eight children; three of whom are now living, and I have at this time thirty-nine grand children, and fourteen great-grand children, all living in the neighborhood of Genesee River, and at Buffalo. I live in my own house, and on my own land with my youngest daughter, Polly, who is married to George Chongo, and has three children. My daughter Nancy, who is married to Billy Green, lives about audio steganography, 80 rods south of my house, and has seven children.
My other, daughter, Betsey, is married to John Green, has seven children, and resides 80 rods north of my house. Thus situated in the midst of my children, I expect I shall soon leave the world, and make room for the rising generation. I feel the essay weight of audio steganography thesis, years with which I am loaded, and auden am sensible of my daily failure in audio steganography thesis, seeing, hearing and strength; but my only funeral blues anxiety is for my family. If my family will live happily, and I can be exempted from trouble while I have to audio thesis stay, I feel as though I could lay down in peace a life that has been checked in almost every hour, with troubles of a deeper dye, than are commonly experienced by ide f1 resume mortals. An account of the destruction of a part of the audio thesis British Army, by the Indians, at a place called the Devil's Hole, on the Niagara River, in the year 1763. Resume. It is to be regretted that an event of so tragical a nature as the following, should have escaped the steganography thesis pens of American Historians, and have been suffered to argument slide down the current of time, to the verge of oblivion, without having been snatched almost from the vortex of steganography report, forgetfulness, and placed on the faithful page, as a memorial of premeditated cruelties, which, in former times, were practised upon the white people, by the North American Savages.
Modern History, perhaps, cannot furnish a parallel so atrocious in of education, design and execution, as the one before us, and it may be questioned, even if the history of ancient times, when men fought hand to hand, and disgraced their nature by inventing engines of torture, can more than produce its equal. Audio Steganography. It will be observed in the preceding narrative, that the affair at the Devil's Hole is said to have happened in November, 1759. That Mrs. Jemison arrived at thesis for philosophy of education paper Genesee about that time, is rendered certain from a number of report, circumstances; and that a battle was fought on the Niagara in Nov. 1759, in statement, which two prisoners and some oxen were taken, and brought to audio steganography report Genesee, as she has stated, is altogether probable.
But it is equally certain that the event which is the subject of rude students essay, this article, did not take place till the year 1763. In the time of the French war, the neighborhood of Forts Niagara and Sclusser, (or Schlosser, as it was formerly written,) on the Niagara river, was a general battle-ground, and for this reason, Mrs. Jemison's memory ought not to be charged with treachery, for not having been able to distinguish accurately, after the lapse of sixty years, between the circumstances of one engagement and those of steganography thesis, another. She resided on the Genesee at the time when the rude students warriors of audio thesis report, that tribe marched off to assist in laying the ambush at the Devil's Hole; and no one will doubt her having heard them rehearse the story of the event of that nefarious campaign, after they returned. Chronology and history concur in on favorite, stating that Fort Niagara was taken from the French, by the British, and that Gen. Prideaux was killed on the 25th of July, 1759. Having obtained from Mrs. Jemison a kind of introduction to the story, I concluded that if it yet remained possible to procure a correct account of the circumstances which led to and attended that transaction, it would be highly gratifying to the American public, I accordingly directed a letter to thesis report Mr. Linus S. Everett, of Buffalo, whose ministerial labor, I well knew, frequently called him to Lewiston, requesting him to furnish me with a particular account of the destruction of the essay on favorite British, at the time and place before mentioned.
He obligingly complied with my request, and gave me the result of his inquiries on that subject, in the following letter: Copy of a letter from Mr. Linus S. Everett, dated Fort Sclusser, 29th December, 1823. Respected and dear friend , I hasten, with much pleasure, to comply with your request, in regard to audio steganography the affair at the Devil's Hole. I have often wondered that no authentic account has ever been given of that bloody and tragical scene. I have made all the ide f1 resume inquiries that appear to be of any use, and proceed to give you the audio report result. At this place, (Fort Sclusser,) an old gentleman now resides, to whom I am indebted for the best account of the affair that can be easily obtained. His name is Jesse Warehis age about plum resume, 74. Although he was not a resident of this part of the country at the time of the audio steganography thesis event, yet from his intimate acquaintance with one of the survivors, he is able to give much information, which otherwise could not be obtained. The account that he gives is as follows:In July, 1759, the British, under Sir William Johnston, took possession of Forts Niagara and Sclusser, which had before been in the hands of the French. At this time, the Seneca Indians, (which were a numerous and powerful nation,) were hostile to the British, and warmly allied to the French.
These two posts, (viz.) Niagara and Sclusser, were of rude, great importance to the British, on audio thesis the account of affording the means of communication with the posts above, or on the upper lakes. In 1760, a contract was made between Sir William Johnston and a Mr. Stedman, to construct a portage road from Queenston landing to Fort Sclusser, a distance of eight miles, in auden, order to facilitate the transportation of provision, ammunition, c. from one place to the other. In conformity to this agreement, on the 20th of June, 1763, Stedman had completed his road, and appeared at Queenston Landing, (now Lewiston,) with twenty-five portage wagons, and audio steganography thesis report one hundred horses and oxen, to transport to Fort Sclusser the king's stores. At this time Sir William Johnston was suspicious of the intentions of the Senecas; for after the surrender of the forts by the French, they had appeared uneasy and hostile. In order to prevent the for philosophy teams, drivers and goods, receiving injury, he detached 300 troops to audio guard them across the portage.
The teams, under this escort, started from Queenston landingStedman, who had the charge of the whole, was on horse back, and rode between the troops and teams; all the troops being in front. On a small hill near the plum book Devil's Hole, at that time, was a redoubt of twelve men, which served as a kind of guard on ordinary occasions, against the depredations of the audio steganography report savages. “On the arrival of the plum resume troops and teams at the Devil's Hole,” says a manuscript in the hands of my informant, “the sachems, chiefs and warriors of the Seneca Indians, sallied from the adjoining woods, by thousands, (where they had been concealed for some time before, for that nefarious purpose,) and falling upon audio report the troops, teams and drivers, and the guard of book, twelve men before mentioned, they killed all the men but three on the spot, or by driving them, together with the audio steganography report teams, down the precipice, which was about rude students essay, seventy or eighty feet! The Indians seized Stedman's horse by the bridle, while he was on him, designing, no doubt, to make his sufferings more lasting than that of his companions: but while the bloody scene was acting, the attention of the Indian who held the horse of Stedman being arrested, he cut the reins of audio steganography, his bridleclapped spurs to his horse, and argument rode over the dead and dying, into the adjacent woods, without receiving injury from the enemy's firing. Thus he escaped; and audio thesis besides him two othersone a drummer, who fell among the thesis statement for philosophy trees, was caught by his drum strap, and escaped unhurt; the other, one who fell down the precipice and broke his thigh, but crawled to the landing or garrison down the river.” The following September, the Indians gave Stedman a piece of land, as a reward for his bravery. Report. With sentiments of respect, I remain, sir, your sincere friend, L. Auden Blues. S. Audio Steganography Report. EVERETT. Auden Funeral Essay. A particular account of General Sullivan's Expedition against the Indians, in report, the western part of the State of thesis statement, New-York, in 1779. It has been thought expedient to publish in this volume, the following account of Gen. Sullivan's expedition, in addition to the facts related by Mrs.
Jemison, of the barbarities which were perpetrated upon Lieut. Report. Boyd, and two others, who were taken, and who formed a part of his army, etc. A detailed account of this expedition has never been in the hands of the public; and book as it is now produced from a source deserving implicit credit, it is presumed that it will be received with satisfaction. Audio Steganography. John Salmon, Esq. to students essay whom we are happy to acknowledge our indebtedness for the subjoined account, is an old gentleman of respectability and good standing in society; and audio steganography is at this time a resident in the town of Groveland, Livingston county, New-York. Book Resume. He was a hero in the American war for independence; fought in the battles of his country under the thesis report celebrated Morgan; survived the on favorite blast of British oppression; and now, in the decline of life, sits under his own well earned vine and fig-tree, near the grave of his unfortunate countrymen, who fell gloriously, while fighting the ruthless savages, under the command of the gallant Boyd. In the thesis report autumn after the on favorite battle at Monmouth, (1778,) Morgan's riflemen, to audio thesis which corps I belonged, marched to Schoharie, in this state of New-York, and argument thesis there went into winter quarters.
The company to which I was attached, was commanded by Capt. Michael Simpson; and Thomas Boyd, of Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, was our Lieutenant. Steganography. In the resume following spring, our corps, together with the audio whole body of troops under the command of Gen. Clinton, to the amount of about 1500, embarked in boats at Schenectady, and w.h. auden funeral blues essay ascended the thesis report Mohawk as far as German Flats. Thence we took a direction to Otsego lake, descended the Susquehanna, and plum book without any remarkable occurrence, arrived at Tioga Point, where our troops united with an army of 1500 men under the command of Gen. Sullivan, who had marched through a part of New-Jersey, and had reached that place by the way of Wyoming, some days before us. That part of the army under Gen. Sullivan, had, on their arrival at Tioga Point, found the Indians in some force there, with whom they had had some unimportant skirmishes before our arrival. Upon the junction of these two bodies of troops, Gen. Sullivan assumed the command of the report whole, and proceeded up the Tioga.
When within a few miles of the place now called Newtown, we were met by a body of Indians, and a number of troops well known in those times by the name of Butler's Rangers, who had thrown up, hastily, a breastwork of logs, trees, c. They were, however, easily driven from their works, with considerable loss on their part, and without any injury to our troops. The enemy fled with so much precipitation, that they left behind them some stores and camp equippage. They retreated but a short distance before they made a stand, and built another breastwork of considerable length, in the woods, near a small opening. Essay. Sullivan was soon apprized of their situation, divided his army, and attempted to surround, by sending one half to the right and steganography thesis report the other to the left, with directions to meet on the opposite side of the enemies. In order to prevent their retreating, he directed bomb-shells to be thrown over them, which was done: but on the shells bursting, the Indians suspected that a powerful army had opened a heavy fire upon them on that side, and fled with the utmost precipitation through one wing of the surrounding army.
A great number of the essay on favorite enemy were killed, and our army suffered considerably. The Indians having, in steganography report, this manner, escaped, they went up the river to a place called the Narrows, where they were attacked by our men, who killed them in w.h. auden funeral blues essay, great numbers, so that the audio report sides of the rocks next the river appeared as though blood had been poured on them by w.h. auden funeral blues pailfulls. The Indians threw their dead into the river, and audio steganography report escaped the best way they could. From Newtown our army went directly to the head of the essay on favorite Seneca lake; thence down that lake to its mouth, where we found the steganography thesis report Indian village at that place evacuated, except by a single inhabitanta male child about plum resume, seven or eight years of age, who was found asleep in one of the Indian huts. Its fate I have never ascertained. Audio Thesis. It was taken into the care of an officer of the army, who, on account of ill health, was not on thesis duty, and who took the audio steganography child with him, as I have since understood, to his residence on or near the North river. From the mouth of Seneca lake we proceeded, without the occurrence of any thing of importance, by the outlets of the Canandaigua, Honeoye, and Hemlock lakes, to the head of Connissius lake, where the army encamped on the ground that is now called Henderson's Flats. Soon after the army had encamped, at the dusk of the evening, a party of twenty-one men, under the command of Lieut. Essay On Favorite. Boyd, was detached from the rifle corps, and sent out for audio steganography thesis, the purpose of reconnoitering the ground near the Genesee river, at a place now called Williamsburg, at a distance from the camp of about seven miles, under the guidance of a faithful Indian pilot. That place was then the site of an Indian village, and it was apprehended that the thesis statement Indians and Rangers might be there or in that vicinity in audio steganography thesis report, considerable force.
On the arrival of the party at auden funeral blues Williamsburg, they found that the Indian village had been recently deserted, as the fires in thesis report, the huts were still burning. Students Essay. The night was so far spent when they got to their place of destination, that Lieutenant Boyd, considering the fatigue of his men, concluded to remain during the night near the steganography thesis report village, and to send two men messengers with a report to the camp in the morning. Accordingly, a little before daybreak, he despatched two men to the main body of the army, with information that the enemy had not been discovered. Ide F1 Resume. After day-light, Lieut. Boyd cautiously crept from the audio place of his concealment, and upon getting a view of the village, discovered two Indians hovering about the settlement: one of ide f1 resume, whom was immediately shot and audio thesis scalped by one of the riflemen, whose name was Murphy. Supposing that if there were Indians in that vicinity, or near the village, they would be instantly alarmed by this occurrence, Lieut.
Boyd thought it most prudent to retire, and make the best of w.h. funeral essay, his way to thesis the general encampment of our army. They accordingly set out and retraced the steps which they had taken the day before, till they were intercepted by the enemy. On their arriving within about one mile and a half of the main army, they were surprized by the sudden appearance of a body of Indians, to rude students the amount of five hundred, under the command of the celebrated Brandt, and the same number of Rangers, commanded by audio report the infamous Butler, who had secreted themselves in a ravine of considerable extent, which lay across the track that Lieut. Boyd had pursued. Upon discovering the enemy, and essay knowing that the only chance for escape was by breaking through their line, (one of the most desperate enterprizes ever undertaken,) Lieut. Boyd, after a few words of encouragement, led his men to the attempt.
As extraordinary as it may seem, the first onset, though unsuccessful, was made without the loss of a man on the part of the heroic band, though several of the enemy were killed. Two attempts more were made, which were equally unsuccessful, and in which the whole party fell, except Lieut. Boyd, and report eight others. Lieut. Boyd and a soldier by funeral blues the name of Parker, were taken prisoners on the spot, a part of the remainder fled, and a part fell on the ground, apparently dead, and were overlooked by the Indians, who were too much engaged in pursuing the fugitives to notice those who fell. When Lieut. Boyd found himself a prisoner, he solicited an audio steganography thesis, interview with Brandt, whom he well knew commanded the Indians. This Chief, who was at that moment near, immediately presented himself, when Lieut.
Boyd, by thesis for philosophy paper one of those appeals which are known only by those who have been initiated and instructed in certain mysteries, and which never fail to bring succor to audio thesis report a “distressed brother,” addressed him as the only source from which he could expect a respite from cruel punishment or death. The appeal was recognized, and Brandt immediately, and in the strongest language, assured him that his life should be spared. Funeral Blues. Lieut. Boyd, and his fellow-prisoner, Parker, were immediately conducted by a party of the Indians to the Indian village called Beard's Town, on the west side of audio steganography thesis report, Genesee river, in what is book, now called Leicester. After their arrival at thesis Beard's Town, Brandt, their generous preserver, being called on service which required a few hours absence, left them in ide f1 resume, the care of the British Col. Butler, of the steganography report Rangers; who, as soon as Brandt had left them, commenced an interrogation, to obtain from the prisoners a statement of the funeral blues essay number, situation and intentions of the audio thesis report army under Gen. Sullivan; and threatened them, in case they hesitated or prevaricated in their answers, to deliver them up immediately to be massacred by the Indians, who, in Brandt's absence, and with the encouragement of their more savage commander, Butler, were ready to rude essay commit the greatest cruelties.
Relying, probably, on the promises which Brandt had made them, and steganography thesis report which he undoubtedly meant to fulfil, they refused to ide f1 resume give Butler the desired information. Audio Thesis Report. Butler, upon this, hastened to put his threat into execution. They were delivered to some of their most ferocious enemies, who, after having put them to very severe torture, killed them by severing their heads from their bodies. The main army, immediately after hearing of the situation of Lieut. Boyd's detachment, moved on statement of education towards Genesee river, and finding the bodies of those who were slain in Boyd's heroic attempt to report penetrate through the argument statement enemy's line, buried them in what is audio, now the students essay town of Groveland, where the grave is to be seen at this day. Upon their arrival at the Genesee river, they crossed over, scoured the audio report country for some distance on thesis the river, burnt the Indian villages on the Genesee flats, and destroyed all their corn and other means of audio steganography thesis report, subsistence. The bodies of Lieut. Boyd and Parker were found and buried near the bank of Beard's creek, under a bunch of wild plum-trees, on the road, as it now runs, from Moscow to Geneseo.
I was one of those who committed to the earth the remains of my friend and rude students essay companion in arms, the gallant Boyd. Audio Thesis. Immediately after these events the army commenced its march back, by the same route that it came, to Tioga Point; thence down the thesis statement Susquehanna to Wyoming; and steganography thence across the country to Morristown, New-Jersey, where we went into winter quarters. Gen. Sullivan's bravery is unimpeachable. He was unacquainted, however, with fighting the Indians, and made use of the w.h. auden funeral best means to keep them at such a distance that they could not be brought into an engagement. It was his practice, morning and evening, to have cannon fired in or near the camp, by which the Indians were notified of their speed in marching, and of his situation, and were enabled to make a seasonable retreat. The foregoing account, according to the best of my recollection is strictly correct. Groveland, January 24, 1824.
Esq. Salmon was formerly from audio steganography thesis Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, and argument statement was first Serjeant in Capt. Simpson's and Lieut. Boyd's company. Tradition of the thesis report Origin of the Seneca Nation.Their Preservation from utter extinction.The Means by book resume which the People who preceded the Senecas were destroyedand the Cause of the different Indian Languages. The tradition of the Seneca Indians, in regard to thesis their origin, as we are assured by Capt. Horatio Jones, who was a prisoner five years amongst them, and for many years since has been an interpreter, and agent for plum book, the payment of audio, their annuities, is essay, that they broke out of the steganography thesis earth from a large mountain at ide f1 resume the head of Canandaigua Lake, and that mountain they still venerate as the place of their birth; thence they derive their name, “Ge-nun-de-wah,” [Footnote: This by some is spoken Ge-nun-de-wah-gauh.] or Great Hill, and are called “The Great Hill People,” which is the true definition of the word Seneca. The great hill at steganography thesis report the head of Canandaigua lake, from whence they sprung, is called Genundewah, and has for a long time past been the place where the Indians of that nation have met in council, to hold great talks, and to offer up prayers to the Great Spirit, on account of its having been their birth place; and also in consequence of the destruction of a serpent at essay that place, in ancient time, in a most miraculous manner, which threatened the steganography destruction of the whole of the Senecas, and barely spared enough to commence replenishing the earth.
The Indians say, says Capt. Jones, that the fort on the big hill, or Genundewah, near the head of Canandaigua lake, was surrounded by a monstrous serpent, whose head and tail came together at the gate. A long time it lay there, confounding the people with its breath. At length they attempted to rude students essay make their escape, some with their hommany-blocks, and others with different implements of household furniture; and in marching out of the fort walked down the throat of the serpent. Two orphan children, who had escaped this general destruction by audio steganography being left some time before on the outside of the fort, were informed by an oracle of the means by which they could get rid of their formidable enemywhich was, to take a small bow and a poisoned arrow, made of book resume, a kind of willow, and steganography report with that shoot the serpent under its scales. This they did, and the arrow proved effectual; for on its penetrating the skin, the serpent became sick, and extending itself rolled down the thesis statement for philosophy of education hill, destroying all the audio report timber that was in its way, disgorging itself and breaking wind greatly as it went. At every motion, a human head was discharged, and rolled down the hill into on favorite book the lake, where they lie at this day, in steganography report, a petrified state, having the hardness and appearance of stones. To this day the essay on favorite Indians visit that sacred place, to mourn the loss of their friends, and to celebrate some rites that are peculiar to themselves.
To the knowledge of steganography, white people there has been no timber on the great hill since it was first discovered by them, though it lay apparently in a state of students, nature for a great number of years, without cultivation. Stones in the shape of Indians' heads may be seen lying in the lake in great plenty, which are said to be the same that were deposited there at the death of the serpent. The Senecas have a tradition, that previous to, and for some time after, their origin at Genundewah, this country, especially about the lakes, was thickly inhabited by a race of civil, enterprizing and industrious people, who were totally destroyed by audio steganography thesis report the great serpent, that afterwards surrounded the great hill fort, with the assistance of others of the same species; and that they (the Senecas) went into w.h. funeral possession of the improvements that were left. Steganography Thesis Report. In those days the Indians throughout the whole country, as the Senecas say, spoke one language; but having become considerably numerous, the before mentioned great serpent, by an unknown influence, confounded their language, so that they could not understand each other; which was the cause of their division into nations, as the Mohawks, Oneidas, c. At that time, however, the Senecas retained their original language, and continued to occupy their mother hill, on which they fortified themselves against their enemies, and lived peaceably, till having offended the serpent, [Footnote: The pagans of the Senecas believe that all the ide f1 resume little snakes were made of the blood of the thesis great serpent, after it rolled into the lake.] they were cut off as before stated. Students. OF THEIR RELIGIONFEASTSAND GREAT SACRIFICE. Perhaps no people are more exact observers of religious duties than those Indians among the Senecas, who are denominated pagans, in contradistinction from those, who, having renounced some of steganography report, their former superstitious notions, have obtained the name of Christians. Blues. The traditionary faith of report, their fathers, having been orally transmitted to plum book them from time immemorial, is implicitly believed, scrupulously adhered to, and rigidly practised. They are agreed in their sentimentsare all of one order, and have individual and public good, especially among themselves, for the great motive which excites them to thesis attend to those moral virtues that are directed and explained by all their rules, and in argument statement, all their ceremonies. Many years have elapsed since the audio steganography report introduction of Christian Missionaries among them, whom they have heard, and very generally understand the purport of the message they were sent to deliver. They say that it is highly probable that Jesus Christ came into the world in old times, to establish a religion that would promote the happiness of the ide f1 resume white people, on the other side of the great water, (meaning the sea,) and that he died for the sins of his people, as the audio thesis missionaries have informed them: But, they say that Jesus Christ had nothing to do with them, and that the Christian religion was not designed for their benefit; but rather, should they embrace it, they are confident it would make them worse, and consequently do them an injury. They say, also, that the Great Good Spirit gave them their religion; and that it is better adapted to their circumstances, situation and habits, and to the promotion of their present comfort and ultimate happiness, than any system that ever has or can be devised.
They, however, believe, that the Christian religion is better calculated for the good of white people than theirs is; and statement for philosophy of education paper wonder that those who have embraced it, do not attend more strictly to its precepts, and feel more engaged for its support and audio diffusion among themselves. At the present time, they are opposed to essay preachers or schoolmasters being sent or coming among them; and appear determined by all means to adhere to their ancient customs. They believe in a Great Good Spirit, (whom they call in thesis report, the Seneca language Nau-wan-e-u,) as the Creator of the world, and of every good thingthat he made men, and thesis paper all inoffensive animals; that he supplies men with all the audio report comforts of rude students essay, life; and that he is particularly partial to the Indians, whom they say are his peculiar people. Report. They also believe that he is pleased in giving them (the Indians) good gifts; and that he is highly gratified with their good conductthat he abhors their vices, and book that he is willing to punish them for their bad conduct, not only in this world, but in a future state of existence. His residence, they suppose, lies at report a great distance from them, in a country that is perfectly pleasant, where plenty abounds, even to profusion. That there the soil is completely fertile, and the seasons so mild that the corn never fails to be goodthat the deer, elk, buffalo, turkies, and other useful animals, are numerous, and that the forests are well calculated to facilitate their hunting them with successthat the streams are pure, and abound with fish: and that nothing is wanting, to render fruition complete. Over this territory they say Nauwaneu presides as an all-powerful king; and that without counsel he admits to his pleasures all whom he considers to be worthy of enjoying so great a state of plum resume, blessedness. To this being they address prayers, offer sacrifices, give thanks for favors, and perform many acts of devotion and reverence. Audio Steganography. They likewise believe that Nauwaneu has a brother that is less powerful than himself, and plum book who is opposed to him, and to every one that is or wishes to be good: that this bad Spirit made all evil things, snakes, wolves, catamounts, and all other poisonous or noxious animals and thesis report beasts of essay on favorite, prey, except the bear, which, on the account of the excellence of its meat for food, and skin for clothing, they say was made by Nauwaneu. Besides all this they say he makes and steganography thesis report sends them their diseases, bad weather and bad crops, and that he makes and ide f1 resume supports witches. He owns a large country adjoining that of his brother, with whom he is audio steganography thesis, continually at statement for philosophy paper variance.
His fields are unproductive; thick clouds intercept the rays of the sun, and consequently destructive frosts are frequent; game is very scarce, and not easily taken; ravenous beasts are numerous; reptiles of every poisoned tooth lie in the path of the traveller; streams are muddy, and steganography thesis report hunger, nakedness and general misery, are severely felt by those who unfortunately become his tenants. He takes pleasure in afflicting the Indians here, and after their death receives all those into his dreary dominions, who in their life time have been so vile as to be rejected by Nauwaneu, under whose eye they are continued in an uncomfortable state forever. To this source of evil they offer some oblations to resume abate his vengeance, and audio thesis report render him propitious. They, however, believe him to be, in a degree, under subjection to his brother, and incapable of executing his plans only by his high permission. Public religious duties are attended to in the celebration of particular festivals and rude students essay sacrifices, which are observed with circumspection and attended with decorum. In each year they have five feasts, or stated times for assembling in their tribes, and giving thanks to Nauwaneu, for the blessings which they have received from his kind and liberal and provident hand; and also to converse upon the best means of meriting a continuance of his favors. The first of these feasts is audio steganography thesis report, immediately after they have finished sugaring, at which time they give thanks for the favorable weather and ide f1 resume great quantity of sap they have had, and for the sugar that they have been allowed to make for the benefit of their families.
At this, as at all the audio steganography succeeding feasts, the Chiefs arise singly, and funeral blues address the audience in a kind of exhortation, in which they express their own thankfulness, urge the necessity and propriety of general gratitude, and point out the audio steganography course which ought to be pursued by each individual, in order that Nauwaneu may continue to bless them, and that the evil spirit may be defeated. On these occasions the Chiefs describe a perfectly straight line, half an inch wide, and perhaps ten miles long, which they direct their people to travel upon by placing one foot before the other, with the heel of plum resume, one foot to the toe of the other, and so on till they arrive at the end. The meaning of which is, that they must not turn aside to the right hand or to the left into report the paths of vice, but keep straight ahead in auden funeral blues essay, the way of audio thesis report, well doing, that will lead them to the paradise of Nauwaneu. The second feast is after planting; when they render thanks for the pleasantness of the seasonfor the good time they have had for preparing their ground and planting their corn; and are instructed by their Chiefs, by what means to merit a good harvest. When the green corn becomes fit for essay on favorite, use, they hold their third, or green corn feast. Their fourth is celebrated after corn harvest; and the fifth at the close of their year, and is always celebrated at the time of the old moon in the last of January or first of February. This last deserves a particular description. The Indians having returned, from hunting, and having brought in audio steganography report, all the venison and skins that they have taken, a committee is appointed, says Mrs. Jemison, consisting of from ten to twenty active men, to superintend the festivities of the great sacrifice and thanksgiving that is to be immediately celebrated. This being done, preparations are made at the council-house, or place of essay, meeting, for the reception and accommodation of the audio thesis whole tribe; and then the thesis statement for philosophy paper ceremonies are commenced, and audio steganography report the whole is conducted with a great degree of order and harmony, under the direction of the committee. Two white dogs, [Footnote: This was the practice in former times; but at present I am informed that only one dog is sacrificed.] without spot or blemish, are selected (if such can be found, and if not, two that have the fewest spots) from those belonging to auden funeral blues essay the tribe, and killed near the door of the council-house, by being strangled.
A wound on the animal or an effusion of blood, would spoil the victim, and render the sacrifice useless. The dogs are then painted red on their faces, edges of audio thesis, their ears, and on various parts of their bodies, and are curiously decorated with ribbons of different colors, and fine feathers, which are tied and fastened on in such a manner as to make the most elegant appearance. They are then hung on a post near the door of the council-house, at the height of twenty feet from the ground. Argument Thesis Statement. This being done, the audio thesis frolic is commenced by funeral blues essay those who are present, while the committee run through the tribe or town, and thesis hurry the people to assemble, by students essay knocking on their houses. Audio Steganography Thesis. At this time the committee are naked, (wearing only a breech-clout,) and each carries a paddle, with which he takes up ashes and scatters them about the on favorite book house in every direction. In the course of the ceremonies, all the fire is extinguished in every hut throughout the tribe, and new fire, struck from the flint on steganography thesis report each hearth, is book, kindled, after having removed the whole of the ashes, old coals, c. Having done this, and steganography thesis report discharged one or two guns, they go on, and in this manner they proceed till they have visited every house in argument thesis statement, the tribe. This finishes the business of the first day. On the audio report second day the essay committee dance, go through the town with bear-skin on their legs, and at every time they start they fire a gun.
They also beg through the tribe, each carrying a basket in steganography thesis, which to receive whatever may be bestowed. The alms consist of rude essay, Indian tobacco, and other articles that are used for audio steganography, incense at the sacrifice. Ide F1 Resume. Each manager at this time carries a dried tortoise or turtle shell, containing a few beans, which he frequently rubs on the walls of the houses, both inside and out. Audio Steganography Thesis. This kind of manoeuvering by the committee continues two or three days, during which time the people at the council-house recreate themselves by rude essay dancing. Audio Thesis Report. On the fourth or fifth day the committee make false faces of husks, in which they run about, making a frightful but ludicrous appearance. Statement. In this dress, (still wearing the bear-skin,) they run to the council-house, smearing themselves with dirt, and bedaub every one who refuses to contribute something towards filling the baskets of incense, which they continue to carry, soliciting alms. Steganography. During all this time they collect the evil spirit, or drive it off entirely, for the present, and book also concentrate within themselves all the sins of audio steganography, their tribe, however numerous or heinous. Essay Book. On the eighth or ninth day, the committee having received all the sin, as before observed, into their own bodies, they take down the dogs, and audio thesis after having transfused the whole of it into one of their own number, he, by a peculiar slight of hand, or kind of magic, works it all out of himself into the dogs. Plum Resume. The dogs, thus loaded with all the sins of the people, are placed upon a pile of wood that is directly set on fire. Here they are burnt, together with the sins with which they were loaded, surrounded by report the multitude, who throw incense of tobacco or the like into essay the fire, the scent of which they say, goes up to Nauwaneu, to whom it is steganography thesis report, pleasant and acceptable. This feast continues nine days, [Footnote: At present, as I have been informed, this feast is not commonly held more than from five to seven days.
In former times, and till within a few years, nine days were particularly observed.] and during that time the thesis statement paper Chiefs review the national affairs of the year past; agree upon the best plan to audio steganography be pursued through the next year, and attend to all internal regulations. On the last day, the whole company partake of an elegant dinner, consisting of meat, corn and beans, boiled together in large kettles, and w.h. essay stirred till the whole is completely mixed and soft. This mess is devoured without much ceremonysome eat with a spoon, by dipping out steganography thesis report, of the kettles; others serve themselves in small dippers; some in ide f1 resume, one way, and audio steganography some in another, till the whole is consumed. After this they perform the war dance, the peace dance, and smoke the pipe of peace; and then, free from iniquity, each repairs to his place of abode, prepared to auden funeral commence the business of a new year. In this feast, temperance is observed, and audio commonly, order prevails in students essay, a greater degree than would naturally be expected. They are fond of the company of spectators who are disposed to be decent, and treat them politely in their way; but having been frequently imposed upon by the whites, they treat them generally with indifference. OF THEIR DANCES. Of these, two only will be noticed.
The war dance is said to have originated about the audio steganography thesis time that the Six Nations, or Northern Indians, commenced the old war with the Cherokees and w.h. auden funeral blues other Southern Indian Nations, about one hundred years ago. Thesis Report. When a tribe, or number of tribes of the Six Nations, had assembled for the purpose of going to battle with their enemies, the Chiefs sung this song, and rude essay accompanied the music with dancing, and gestures that corresponded with the sentiments expressed, as a kind of stimulant to increase their courage, and anxiety to march forward to the place of steganography report, carnage. Those days having passed away, the Indians at this day sing the essay 'war song,' to audio commemorate the achievements of their fathers, and as a kind of amusement. When they perform it, they arm themselves with a war-club, tomahawk and knife, and commence singing with firm voice, and book a stern, resolute countenance: but before they get through they exhibit in their features and actions the most shocking appearance of anger, fury and vengeance, that can be imagined: No exhibition of the kind can be more terrifying to a stranger. The song requires a number of repetitions in the tune, and has a chorus that is sung at the end of steganography, each verse. I have not presumed to arrange it in metre; but the following is the substance: “We are assembled in the habiliments of war, and will go in quest of our enemies. We will march to their land and spoil their possessions. We will take their women and children, and lead them into captivity. The warriors shall fall by our war-clubswe will give them no quarter. Our tomahawks we will dip in their brains! with our scalping knives we will scalp them.” At each period comes on the chorus, which consists of one monosyllable only, that is ide f1 resume, sounded a number of times, and articulated like a faint, stifled groan. This word is thesis, “eh,” and signifies “we will,” or “we will go,” or “we will do.” While singing, they perform the ceremony of killing and scalping, with a great degree of dexterity.
The peace dance is performed to a tune without words, by both sexes. The Indians stand erect in one place, and strike the auden floor with the heel and toes of one foot, and thesis report then of the other, (the heels and toes all the while nearly level,) without changing their position in the least. The squaws at the same time perform it by ide f1 resume keeping the audio feet close together, and without raising them from the ground, move a short distance to the right, and then to the left, by first moving their toes and then their heels. Essay. This dance is audio, beautiful, and is generally attended with decency. OF THEIR GOVERNMENT. Their government is an oligarchy of a mixed nature; and is administered by Chiefs, a part of whose offices are hereditary, and a part elective.
The nation is divided into tribes, and each tribe commonly has two Chiefs. Essay. One of steganography, these inherits his office from his father. Argument. He superintends all civil affairs in the tribe; attends the national council, of which he is a member; assents to all conveyances of land, and steganography is consulted on every subject of importance. The other is elected by auden the tribe, and can be removed at the pleasure of his constituents for malconduct. He also is audio steganography thesis report, a member of the national council: but his principal business is to superintend the military concerns of his tribe, and in war to lead his warriors to w.h. auden funeral battle. He acts in concert with the audio steganography thesis other Chief, and their word is implicitly relied on, as the for philosophy of education law by which they must be governed.
That which they prohibit, is not meddled with. The Indian laws are few, and easily expounded. Their business of a public nature is transacted in council, where every decision is final. They meet in general council once a year, and sometimes oftener. The administration of their government is not attended with expense. They have no national revenue, and consequently have no taxes. THE EXTENT AND NUMBER OF THE SIX NATIONS. The Six Nations in the state of New-York are located upon several reservations, from the Oneida Lake to the Cattaraugus and steganography thesis Allegany rivers. A part of those nations live on the Sandusky, in plum, the state of Ohio, viz380 Cayugas, 300 Senecas, 64 Mohawks, 64 Oneidas, and report 80 Onondagas. The bulk of the Mohawks are on Grand River, Upper Canada, together with some Senecas, Tuscaroras, Cayugas, Oneidas, and Onondagas.
In the state of New-York there are 5000, and in essay, the state of Ohio 688, as we are assured by Capt. Horatio Jones, agent for paying their annuities, making in the whole, in both states, 5688. OF THEIR COURTSHIPS, c. When an Indian sees a squaw whom he fancies, he sends a present to her mother or parents, who on receiving it consult with his parents, his friends, and each other, on the propriety and expediency of the audio steganography thesis proposed connexion. If it is statement of education paper, not agreeable, the present is returned; but if it is, the audio steganography thesis lover is informed of his good fortune, and immediately goes to live with her, or takes her to a hut of his own preparing. Polygamy is w.h. auden funeral blues, practised in a few instances, and steganography is not prohibited. Divorces are frequent. W.h. Funeral Blues. If a difficulty of importance arises between a married couple, they agree to separate. They divide their property and children; the squaw takes the girls, the Indian the boys, and both are at liberty to marry again. Audio Steganography. They have no marriage ceremony, nor form of divorcement, other than what has been mentioned. OF FAMILY GOVERNMENT.
In their families, parents are very mild, and rude the mother superintends the children. The word of the audio thesis Indian father, however, is essay on favorite book, law, and must be obeyed by the whole that are under his authority. One thing respecting the Indian women is worthy of attention, and perhaps of imitation, although it is now a days considered beneath the dignity of the ladies, especially those who are the steganography most refined; and that is, they are under a becoming subjection to their husbands. It is a rule, inculcated in all the Indian tribes, and practised throughout their generations, that a squaw shall not walk before her Indian, nor pretend to take the lead in book, his business. And for this reason we never can see a party on the march to or from hunting and the like, in which the squaws are not directly in the rear of audio steganography, their partners. OF THEIR FUNERALS. The deceased having been laid out in plum book, his best clothing, is put into audio steganography thesis a coffin of boards or bark, and with him is deposited, in plum book, every instance, a small cup and a cake. Audio Steganography Thesis Report. Generally two or three candles are also put into the coffin, and in a few instances, at the burial of a great man, all his implements of war are buried by the side of the body. The coffin is then closed and carried to the grave. On its being let down, the person who takes the lead of the solemn transaction, or a Chief, addresses the dead in a short speech, in which he charges him not to be troubled about himself in his new situation, nor on his journey, and not to trouble his friends, wife or children, whom he has left. Tells him that if he meets with strangers on his way, he must inform them what tribe he belongs to, who his relatives are, the situation in which he left them, and that having done this, he must keep on till he arrives at the good fields in the country of Nauwaneu.
That when he arrives there he will see all his ancestors and personal friends that have gone before him; who, together with all the Chiefs of celebrity, will receive him joyfully, and furnish him with every article of perpetual happiness. The grave is now filled and left till evening, when some of the nearest relatives of the dead build a fire at the head of essay on favorite, it, near which they set till morning. In this way they continue to practise nine successive nights, when, believing that their departed friend has arrived at audio report the end of his journey, they discontinue their attention. During this time the relatives of the dead are not allowed to dance. Formerly, frolics were held, after the expiration of nine days, for the dead, at essay on favorite book which all the squaws got drunk, and those were the only occasions on steganography report which they were intoxicated: but lately those are discontinued, and squaws feel no delicacy in getting inebriated. OF THEIR CREDULITY. Students. As ignorance is the steganography thesis report parent of rude, credulity, it is not a thing to be wondered at that the Indians should possess it in a great degree, and even suffer themselves to be dictated and governed by it in many of the most important transactions of their lives. Steganography Report. They place great confidence in dreams, attach some sign to plum book resume every uncommon circumstance, and steganography believe in charms, spirits, and many supernatural things that never existed, only in minds enslaved to ignorance and tradition: but in no instance is essay book, their credulity so conspicuous, as in their unalterable belief in steganography, witches. They believe there are many of these, and that next to the author of evil, they are the greatest scourge to their people. The term witch, by them, is used both in the masculine and feminine gender, and denotes a person to whom the evil deity has delegated power to inflict diseases, cause death, blast corn, bring bad weather, and in short to cause almost any calamity to which they are liable. With this impression, and for philosophy of education paper believing that it is their actual duty to destroy, as far as lies in their power, every source of unhappiness, it has been a custom among them from time immemorial, to destroy every one that they could convict of so heinous a crime; and in fact there is no reprieve from the sentence.
Mrs. Jemison informed us that more or less who had been charged with being witches, had been executed in almost every year since she has lived on the Genesee. Audio. Many, on being suspected, made their escape: while others, before they were aware of being implicated, have been apprehended and brought to trial. She says that a number of years ago, an Indian chased a squaw, near Beard's Town, and caught her; but on the account of her great strength she got away. The Indian, vexed and disappointed, went home, and plum book the next day reported that he saw her have fire in her mouth, and that she was a witch. Audio. Upon this she was apprehended and killed immediately.
She was Big-tree's cousin, Mrs. Plum. Jemison says she was present at the execution. Steganography Thesis Report. She also saw one other killed and thrown into the river. Col. Jeremiah Smith, of Leicester, near Beard's Town, saw an Indian killed by his five brothers, who struck him on ide f1 resume the head with their tomahawks at audio steganography thesis report one time. He was charged with being a witch, because of his having been fortunate enough, when on a hunting party, to kill a number of deer, while his comrades failed of taking any.
Col. Smith also saw a squaw, who had been convicted of being a witch, killed by having small green whips burnt till they were red hot, but not quite coaled, and thrust down her throat. From such trifling causes thousands have lost their lives, and notwithstanding the means that are used for their reformation, the statement for philosophy paper pagans will not suffer “a witch to live.” OF THE MANNER OF FARMING, AS PRACTISED BY THE INDIAN WOMEN. It is well known that the squaws have all the labor of the field to perform, and almost every other kind of hard service, which, in civil society, is performed by the men. In order to expedite their business, and at the same time enjoy each other's company, they all work together in one field, or at report whatever job they may have on hand. Ide F1 Resume. In the spring they choose an old active squaw to be their driver and overseer when at labor, for audio steganography thesis report, the ensuing year. She accepts the honor, and they consider themselves bound to obey her. When the time for planting arrives, and the soil is statement, prepared, the squaws are assembled in the morning, and conducted into audio steganography report a field, where each plants one row. They then go into the next field, plant once across, and so on till they have gone through the ide f1 resume tribe. If any remains to be planted, they again commence where they did at first, (in the same field,) and steganography report so keep on till the ide f1 resume whole is finished.
By this rule they perform their labor of steganography thesis, every kind, and every jealousy of one having done more or less than another, is effectually avoided. Book Resume. Each squaw cuts her own wood; but it is all brought to the house under the direction of the overseereach bringing one back load. OF THEIR METHOD OF COMPUTING TIME, AND KEEPING THEIR RECORDS. This is done by moons and winters: a moon is a month, and the time from the end of one winter to that of another, a year. From sunset till sunrise, they say that the sun is asleep. In the old of the report moon, when it does not shine in the night, they say it is dead. They rejoice greatly at the sight of the new moon.
In order to commemorate great events, and preserve the chronology of them, the war Chief in ide f1 resume, each tribe keeps a war post. This post is audio report, a peeled stick of timber, 10 or 12 feet high, that is erected in the town. On Favorite. For a campaign they make, or rather the Chief makes, a perpendicular red mark, about three inches long and half an inch wide; on the opposite side from thesis this, for statement for philosophy, a scalp, they make a red cross, thus, +; on another side, for a prisoner taken, they make a red cross in this manner, X', with a head or dot, and by placing such significant hireoglyphics in so conspicuous a situation, they are enabled to ascertain with great certainty the thesis time and circumstances of past events. Hiokatoo had a war-post, on which was recorded his military exploits, and other things that he tho't worth preserving. Hiokatoo used to say that when he was a young man, there lived in the same tribe with him an old Indian warrior, who was a great counsellor, by the name of Buck-in-je-hil-lish. Essay. Buckinjehillish having, with great fatigue, attended the council when it was deliberating upon war, declared that none but the ignorant made war, but that the wise men and the warriors had to do the fighting. This speech exasperated his countrymen to such a degree that he was apprehended and tried for being a witch, on the account of his having lived to thesis report so advanced an age; and because he could not show some reason why he had not died before, he was sentenced to be tomahawked by a boy on the spot, which was accordingly done.
In the last war, (1814,) an Indian who had been on argument thesis statement fatigue, called at a commissary's and begged some bread. Thesis. He was sent for a pail of water before he received it, and while he was absent an officer told the commissary to put a piece of money into the bread, and observe the event. He did so. The Indian took the argument thesis bread and steganography thesis report went off: but on the next day having ate his bread and found the money, he came to the commissary and gave him the same, as the officer had anticipated. Little Beard, a celebrated Indian Chief, having arrived to a very advanced age, died at his town on the Genesee river about the essay on favorite book first of June, 1806, and was buried after the manner of burying chiefs. In his life time he had been quite arbitrary, and had made some enemies whom he hated, probably, and was not loved by them. The grave, however, deprives envy of its malignity, and revenge of its keenness. Little Beard had been dead but a few days when the great eclipse of the sun took place, on the sixteenth of June, which excited in audio steganography, the Indians a great degree of astonishment; for as they were ignorant of astronomy, they were totally unqualified to account for so extraordinary a phenomenon.
The crisis was alarming, and something effectual must he done, without delay, to remove, if possible, the cause of such coldness and w.h. auden essay darkness, which it was expected would increase. They accordingly ran together in the three towns near the Genesee river, and after a short consultation agreed that Little Beard, on the account of some old grudge which he yet cherished towards them, had placed himself between them and the sun, in audio steganography thesis report, order that their corn might not grow, and so reduce them to a state of statement for philosophy of education, starvation. Steganography Thesis. Having thus found the cause, the essay on favorite book next thing was to remove it, which could only be done the use of powder and steganography ball. Upon this, every gun and rifle was loaded, and a firing commenced, that continued without cessation till the old fellow left his seat, and book the obscurity was entirely removed, to audio thesis report the great joy of the ingenious and ide f1 resume fortunate Indians. In the month of audio, February, 1824, Corn Planter, a learned pagan Chief at argument Tonnewonta, died of common sickness. He had received a liberal education, and was held in high estimation in his town and tribe, by both parties; but the pagans more particularly mourned his loss deeply, and seemed entirely unreconciled. They imputed his death to witchcraft, and charged an Indian by the name of Prompit, with the crime. Mr.
Prompit is a Christian Indian, of the Tuscarora nation, who has lived at Tonnewonta a number of years, where he has built a saw-mill himself, which he owns, and is considered a decent, respectable man. About two weeks after the death of Corn Planter, Mr. Report. Prompit happened in company where the author was present, and immediately begun to w.h. auden blues essay converse upon that subject. He said that the old fashioned Indians called him a witchbelieved that he had killed Corn Planter, and had said that they would kill him. But, said he, all good people know that I am not a witch, and that I am clear of the audio thesis charge. Likely enough they will kill me; but if they do, my hands are clean, my conscience is clear, and I shall go up to God. I will not run nor hide from them, and w.h. auden funeral they may kill me if they choose toI am innocent. When Jesus Christ's enemies, said he, wanted to kill him, he did not run away from them, but let them kill him; and why should I run away from my enemies?
How the affair will terminate, we are unable to decide. DESCRIPTION OF GENESEE RIVER AND ITS BANKS, FROM MOUNT MORRIS TO THE UPPER FALLS. From Mount Morris the banks of the Genesee are from two to four hundred feet in height, with narrow flats on one side of the river or the audio thesis other, till you arrive at the tract called Gardow, or Cross Hills. Here you come to Mrs. Jemison's flats, which are two miles and a quarter long, and statement paper from eighty to one hundred and twenty rods wide, lying mostly on the west side of the river. Steganography. Near the upper end of these flats is the Great Slide. Directly above this, the banks (still retaining their before mentioned height) approach so near each other as to plum admit of but thirty acres of flat on one side of the river only, and above this the perpendicular rock comes down to the water. From Gardow you ascend the river five miles to audio the lower falls, which are ninety-three feet perpendicular. W.h.. These falls are twenty rods wide, and have the greatest channel on the east side. From Wolf creek to these falls the banks are covered with elegant white and Norway pine. Above the lower falls the banks for steganography thesis, about two miles are of perpendicular rock, and retain their height of between two and book four hundred feet.
Having travelled this distance you reach the middle falls, which are an uninterrupted sheet of water fifteen rods wide, and one hundred and ten feet in perpendicular height. This natural curiosity is audio report, not exceeded by any thing of the kind in the western country, except the cataract at Niagara. From the middle falls the banks gradually rise, till you ascend the river half a mile, when you come to the upper falls, which are somewhat rolling, 66 feet, in the shape of a harrow. Above this the banks are of moderate height. Argument Thesis Statement. The timber from the lower to thesis report the upper falls is principally pine. Just above the middle falls a saw-mill was erected this season (1823) by Messrs. Ziba Hurd and Alva Palmer. In November, 1822, Capt. Stephen Rolph and Mr. Alva Palmer drove a deer into Genesee river, a short distance above the plum book middle falls, where the banks were so steep and the current so impetuous, that it could not regain the shore, and report consequently was precipitated over the falls, one hundred and ten feet, into the gulph below. The hunters ran along the bank below the falls, to watch the fate of the animal, expecting it would be dashed in thesis statement for philosophy of education paper, pieces.
But to their great astonishment it came up alive, and by audio report swimming across a small eddy, reached the bank almost under the falls; and as it stood in that situation, Capt. Ralph, who was on the top of the bank, shot it. This being done, the next thing to be considered was, how to get their prize. The rock being perpendicular, upwards of one hundred feet, would not admit of their climbing down to it, and there was no way, apparently, for them to get at it, short of plum book, going down the river two miles, to the lower falls, and then by creeping between the water and the precipice, they might possibly reach their game. This process would be too tedious. Report. At length Mr. Palmer proposed to resume Capt. Rolph and Mr.
Heman Merwin, who had joined them, that if they would make a windlas and fasten it to a couple of saplings that stood near, and then procure some ropes, he would be let down and get the deer. The apparatus was prepared; the rope was tied round Palmer's body, and he was let down. On arriving at audio steganography the bottom he unloosed himself, fastened the rope round the deer, which they drew up, and then threw down the rope, in which he fastened himself, and was drawn up, without having sustained any injury. From the top to the bottom of the rock, where he was let down, was exactly one hundred and auden blues twenty feet.
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essay god helios sun Helios, Christos, the Sun: Ferrying the Archetypal Zodiac Disciples. by Ralph Monday. The Christian religion is a parody on the worship of the audio steganography, Sun, in which they put a man whom they call Christ, in the place of the Sun, and pay him the same adoration which was originally paid to the Sun .Thomas Paine. The Zodiac, therefore, is the Path or Way. When Christ spoke to His disciples as the Cosmic Christ, He told them I am the Way, and to this it is argument thesis possible to give an astrological significance, for all three types of lives tread this cosmic Way, the audio steganography thesis, Cosmic Christ, the Planetary Spirit and the human being (Path of the Soul).
C hristianity views Jesus as being the light of the world, and indeed he is, but not in thesis statement of education, the way the story is told in thesis report, the New Testament. If one has the students, courage to throw off religious fetters and abandon a blind acceptance of subjective faith dogma, and instead employ reason, abundant evidence can be examined that is the basis for an argument where the story of Christ is neither new, original, nor unique, but is audio thesis report instead the creation of the church, a powerful astrotheological archetypal symbol to ide f1 resume solidify and consolidate power over audio, the mind of culture. Christianity, and beginning with the argument thesis statement, Catholic Church in particular, has molded and transformed the figure of Christ into its own peculiar votive offering served up during the course of a year, but the majority of the influence is focused around Easter and Christmas, the vernal equinox and the winter solstice, for the one year story of Christ's ministry on earth is an allegory of the passing of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac, Christ as the symbol of the sun and the twelve disciples as corresponding allegorical symbols of the astrological progression of the zodiac through the seasons, the connection of the audio report, earth to the heavens--As above, so below--observation of natural phenomenon that has been of great interest to the race since time immemorial, the cycles of the heavens given a supernatural interpretation and of education paper overlay that to audio steganography thesis this day remains as a powerful crucible molded around the minds of countless millions of people. But before examining the astrotheological basis for Christ, a brief review is presented in regard to the historicity of this monumental symbol of western civilization. An Historical Christ. The quest for an historical Christ is doomed to failure, much like the quest for the Holy Grail. More is known about the Big Bang theory than is known about a biography of Christ. Essay! The vast majority of all that is audio steganography known about probably the most famous figure in Western history is contained in the New Testament, and to large extent the four Canonical Gospels of the Bible. This evidence is definitely second hand, questionable hearsay, for the Gospels were written long after the rude, death of Jesus. Audio Thesis! The information grew out of oral story telling for at least several decades before the rude, church began to create the mythical demigod that is so familiar today.
Walker affirms this point: …[T]hese Gospels did not come into report, the Bible as original and authoritative from the authors themselves, but rather from the influence of early church fathers, especially the most influential of them all: Irenaeus of Lyon who lived in the middle of the second century. Many heretical gospels existed by that time, but Irenaeus considered only some of them for mystical reasons. He claimed only four in number; according to Romer, like the four zones of the world, the four winds, the four divisions of man's estate, and the four forms of the first living creatures-- the lion of essay Mark, the calf of Luke, the man of Matthew, the eagle of audio steganography thesis report John .The four gospels then became Church cannon for the orthodox faith. Most of the other claimed gospel writings were burned, destroyed, or lost. (Romer, qtd. in Walker) That no historian wrote about the crowds of thousands that purportedly followed Jesus, the miracles that he performed, his crucifixion and resurrection, defies and challenges reason.
Nor is there a single contemporary Roman record verifying that a Pontius Pilate executed a man named Jesus, and the Romans, creators of the first great bureaucratic state, kept extensive records. The non-Christian sources that are invariably used by Christian apologists in an attempt to establish the historicity of Christ were all written after the time when Christ was supposed to have lived and on favorite are hardly eye witness accounts. The most commonly referenced sources are Josephus Flavius, Pliny the Younger, Tacitus, and Suetonius. Josephus lived from 37-100 C.E. In his Antiquities of the Jews written in 93 C.E. a famous reference is made to, About this time there lived Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one ought to call him a man. For he was one who performed surprising deeds and was a teacher of thesis such people as accept the truth gladly. He won over many Jews and of education many of the Greeks. Audio Thesis Report! He was the ide f1 resume, Messiah… (qtd. in Goldberg). The debate over the authenticity of audio thesis report this passage is well known, and will not be recounted here. Suffice to plum say that the vast majority of biblical scholars since the nineteenth century hold that it is a later Christian interpolation, an assertion that can easily be verified if the thesis report, reader cares to examine the matter further. Of the remaining three references, Pliny the Younger (B 62 C.E.), Tacitus (B 64 C.E.), and Suetonius (B 69 C.E.), were all born well after the time of Jesus, and again, none are held to students be reliable by most biblical scholars; there is no need to go into the matter further in this essay; the audio steganography thesis, arguments questioning the authenticity of these passages are well known, and the historicity of Christ is not the major thesis.
Robert Keable, in his work, The Great Galilean makes note of this strange history of silence: No man knows sufficient of the statement of education paper, early life of Jesus to write a biography of him. Thesis! For that matter, no one knows enough for the normal Times obituary notice of a great man. If regard were had to what we should call, in correct speech, definitely historical facts, scarcely three lines could be filled. Moreover, if newspapers had been in existence, and if that obituary notice had had to be written in the year of his death, no editor could have found in the literature of his day so much as his name. Thesis Statement For Philosophy Of Education! Yet few periods of the ancient world were so well documented as the audio steganography thesis, period of Augustus and Tiberius.
But no contemporary knew of his existence. Even a generation later, a spurious passage in Josephus, a questionable reference in Suetonius, and the mention of a name that may be his by Tacitus-that is essay all. His first mention in any surviving document, secular or religious, is twenty years after. (qtd. in report, Jackson) Earl Doherty in plum, his provocative work The Jesus Puzzle also makes note of the strange silence of history, and in perhaps one of the greatest feats of twentieth century biblical scholarship, constructs a compelling argument that questions the thesis, very existence of book resume a historical Jesus. In regard to the four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, no one knows who wrote them. Audio! All four Gospels are anonymous, and the names of the purported authors were applied to these works in the second century C.E. In regard to the composition of the Gospels, Remsberg notes that, Justin Martyr, the most eminent of the early Fathers, wrote around the middle of the second century and makes more than three hundred quotations from the books of the Old Testament, and nearly one hundred from the Apocryphal books; but none from the book, Four Gospels. -- In the latter half of the second century, between the time of Justin and steganography thesis report Papias, and the time of Theophilus and Irenaeus, the Four Gospels were undoubtedly written or compiled. Rude Essay! (The Gospels: Second Century Writings) As for the dates of the composition of the four Gospels some conservative scholars believe that Matthew was written between 60-65 C.E., while other biblical authorities date it to the seventies, some even as late as 85 C.E. In regard to Mark, most scholars assign a date no later than 70-73 C.E., but a large majority of moderate and conservative scribes assign to Mark a composition date between 65 and 70 C.E., while Luke's composition date is assigned between 60-64 C.E. For John, conservative scholars believe the gospel to have been written at about 85 C.E., while others place the composition to a later date or early second century (New Testament).
This evidence is presented in establishing that so little is known about the authorship of the Gospels, and the historicity of Christ, that an alternative hypothesis can be advanced, namely that the story of Jesus can be interpreted as being a mythologized allegory of the progression of the sun through the audio steganography thesis report, yearly zodiac, an astronomical phenomenon that was well known and extremely important to the ancient world. The early church fathers were privy to book the resemblance between Christ and earlier dying and resurrected gods, and of the problem of history. Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Irenaeus, for example, explained away the resemblance of the Christ mythos to earlier pagan gods by asserting that Satan had previously created these imitators in order to confuse and deceive when Christ incarnated, and Pope Leo X said, What profit has not that fable of Christ brought us! (qtd. in audio, Acharya S). And Justin Martyr writing to a pagan in the second century C.E. also had these words to relate: When we say that the thesis paper, Word, who is the first-birth of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propound nothing different from audio steganography thesis report what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of plum book Jupiter (Savior Myth). As reported in The Christ Myth, also interesting is the fact that there are no images of the crucified Christ dated to the first three centuries, and Constantine envisioned Christ as a beautiful young man rather like Apollo. The Dead Sea scrolls, unearthed in 1947, hold no record of this savior who is held to have so tremendously impacted the entire world, and in point of fact, Paul is the only person known to have first used the term Christ or the name Jesus (Rogge). The preceding assertions set the stage for thesis an examination of the grand drama of the heavens, one that has been eternally played out upon w.h. auden blues essay the earth in a cosmic pantomime beginning with the foundation of astrology as an indicator of as above, so below.
Astrology, Mythology-Heavens and Earth-Origin of the Zodiac. Sometime between 3000-2000 B.C.E. in Mesopotamia the earliest evidence is found for the emergent disciplines of astronomy, mathematics and mythology, a triplicate that together would become the steganography, basis of astrology and the linkage between the heavens and the earth. Campion has noted that the auden funeral essay, history of astrology is symbiotically intertwined with religious history. Notwithstanding the practical importance of correlations between such occurrences as the sun's annual rhythm through the audio thesis report, heavens and the corresponding seasons, symbolic linkages also began to develop: the human life cycle progressing through birth to death was interlinked with the sun's birth in the east each morning and death in the west each evening, bringing with it the transition from darkness to light, and argument thesis the annual cycle of vegetation throughout the report, seasons. Thus the observance of the book, calendar became, as it still is, an object of audio steganography thesis religious ritual, and there was a measure of interchange between heavenly sky deities and earth-bound vegetation deities (Origins of Astrology). An examination of comparative mythology inevitably leads to the conclusion that in the myths and sacred narratives of the majority of all civilized nations the Zodiac signs are prominent. According to Kennedy, If you go back in time to Rome, or beyond that to Greece, or before that to book Egypt, Persia, Assyria, or Babylonia-regardless of how far back you go, there is a remarkable phenomenon: Nearly all nations had the same twelve signs, representing the same twelve things, placed in thesis report, the same order (qtd. in Horn). The origin of the Zodiac has long been of interest to not only astronomers, but scholars as well. Gilman notes that, […] the narrow strip in the sky in which we observe and measure the movements of the Sun, Moon and the planets, was undoubtedly recognized in Babylon 4,000 or so years ago. It was not apparently until about 520 B.C. that the twelve Signs were actually defined.
This seems to have been done by Cleostratos of Tenedos, […] who divided the ecliptic into twelve equal parts and is said to have recognized the plum resume, Signs of the Zodiac. He reputedly described them in a now-lost poem, Astrologia . (Twelve Gods) Also, early in the 19th century Pieree-Simnon de Laplace stated that, The names of the zodiacal constellations were not haphazard fancies. They reflected relationships that were the subject of many inquiries or attempts at a systematic organization. Research has gradually revealed that the signs of the zodiac and their corresponding relationship to observation earth phenomena, is an ancient inheritance, a cultural chain linked from the Romans, to the Greeks, and from there stretching back to the Babylonians. Audio Steganography Report! The Babylonians, in turn, are heir to the even more ancient cultures of Sumer and Akkad, and some scholars believe the origin of the plum resume, signs is even more primeval, placing their emergence around or even before 4000 B.C.E.
Even more surprising than this antiquity is the audio thesis, stability of the constellations over the centuries, even with the attempt by Christian authors to reshape the stars to fit their particular interest in biblical stories, the original names and shapes have survived (Johnson and van Berkel 6-7). From the earliest written records, the Sumerian/Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh , (whose history may have been transmitted to the Greeks by ide f1 resume, the Phoenicians) where this ancient demigod of Uruk passes through twelve stages on his underground journey to Dilmun, to the civilizations of the Greek and report Roman, an ancient astronomical religion is clearly in evidence, one that developed geographically over the entire Mediterranean region. In recognition of this religion of astronomy Richer argues that: …astronomers before the eighth century [B.C.E.] used stars of ide f1 resume first magnitude as the principal celestial markers. In the ancient Egyptian calendar, for example, the beginning of the year was related to the heliacal rising of audio report Spica. This harked back to a more ancient age, the Age of Gemini…, when the equinoxes occurred in Gemini and Sagittarius, a period corresponding to around 6500 [B.C.E.]. The star-based system was eventually integrated with the zodiacal system, which has been traced back in its current form to at least 2000 [B.C.E.] in the ancient Near East.
Considering precessional correspondences,…[this indicates] a system of coordinates based on the four seasons and four cardinal points…introduced into plum resume, Greece between 2000 and audio report 1900 [B.C.E.]….The zodiacal signs most likely were introduced into Greece from Sumer and Babylonia, with the Hittites and Phoenicians as intermediaries. The adoption of a full-blown zodiacal projection onto Greek territory seems to funeral essay have coincided with the Greek adoption of the Phoenician alphabet between 1000-850 [B.C.E]. (qtd. in Dougherty) Dougherty also notes that ancient myths of gods, demigods, and heroes are connected to this primal astronomical religion, and that the steganography thesis, adoration and worship of Greek heroes like Hercules, Theseus, Perseus, and Bellerophon predated the worship of the Olympian gods and their narratives at rude students a later date were merged with the stories of the twelve zodiacal deities. Heracles is a solar archetype identified with Leo; his twelve labors symbolize an amalgam of traditions that personify successive cultural or historical stages in relationship to the drama being performed in the zodiacal stage of the heavens (A Key to Ancient Greece). In addition: Many deities have been associated with the sun. Audio Steganography Thesis! The Greeks believed that Apollo, Bacchus, Dionysos, Sabazius, Hercules, Jason, Ulysses, Zeus, Uranus, and Vulcan partook of either the visible or invisible attributes of the sun. The Norwegians regarded Balder the Beautiful as a solar deity, and plum Odin is often connected with the celestial orb, especially because of his one eye. Among the Egyptians, Osiris, Ra, Anubis, Hermes, and even the mysterious Ammon himself had points of resemblance with the audio steganography report, solar disc.
Isis was the mother of the sun, and even Typhon, the Destroyer, was supposed to be a form of solar energy. The Egyptian sun myth finally centered around the person of a mysterious deity called Serapis. The two Central American deities, Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl, while often associated with the rude, winds, were also undoubtedly solar gods. (The Sun, A Universal Deity) The connection of deity to audio thesis the sun is of education paper obvious for anyone who has even a minute amount of analytical skill. Audio Thesis! The observation is nothing new, but it is plum book one that has only audio steganography report begun to filter into the masses in essay on favorite, western culture, for report Fiske noted over a century ago that, Countless other examples, when similarly analyzed, show that the earliest […] conception of a Divine Power, nourishing man and sustaining the thesis, universe, was suggested by the light of the mighty Sun; who, as modern science has shown, is the originator of all life and motion upon the globe, and steganography thesis whom the ancients delighted to ide f1 resume believe the source, not only of the audio thesis report, golden light, but of everything that is bright, joy-giving, and pure. (Myths and Myth-makers 109) This all, of book course, means that: The ancients believed that the sun, the moon, wandering stars (planets), comets, and audio thesis report other celestial bodies were heavenly gods who were in motion about a stationary earth.
Since the sun (Sol invictus) seemed to be the most influential of the celestial gods, it was especially worshipped and regarded as annually reborn at its lowest point in the sky during the essay book, winter solstice of December 25th. Since the plane of the ecliptic--the path that the sun travels in the sky--traces out the band of the twelve star-patterns that make up the zodiac, the sun was considered a god that gave birth to, or was a father of, the twelve zodiacal gods. [However], [t]he Greek astronomer Hipparchus made the astounding discovery in 128 BCE that the zodiac of constellations slowly drifted backward over time so that they appeared, with respect to the sun's position at audio thesis winter solstice, in a new location in the heavens. Every 25 thousand years these constellations slowly moved; a phenomenon we know today to be the precession of the equinoxes which is caused by the wobble of the earth on on favorite, its axis. To the ancients, it was a frightening and astounding event[.] (Still) Hipparchus lived from 190-120 B.C.E. and Still also notes that his discovery of the precession of the equinoxes shattered the geocentric theory of the immovable earth, and that the precession could only mean that the whole cosmic sphere was in motion, and for the ancients this was a revelation that they interpreted as being the result of a powerful new god, so incredible in its force that it was fully possible for steganography moving the entire universe. At that time the spring equinox took place in Aries the Ram, and preceding that Taurus the Bull heralded in the rebirth of the earth in spring, and ide f1 resume it was believed that Mithras was the cosmic power whose force was so formidable that the Bull was killed (The Virgin Birth). Audio! In the great cosmic war between dark and light, Christ replaced Mithras as this force strong enough to bend the very cosmos to his will, and as the parallels between Mithrass and Christ are well known, there is no point in discussing them here, for argument thesis I have dealt with this topic at length in another essay, and the present work will focus in specific content on steganography thesis, only one of these solar deities: Christ in order to provide support for the illuminating archetypal pattern that this example provides in the context of the solar deity and the twelve signs of the zodiac.
Christ and book the Twelve Zodiac Disciples. Modernity, and now extending into the Postmodern world, has long questioned the Christ story as authentic history. Audio! The philosophes of the eighteenth century European Enlightenment and their new world counterparts in the Age of Reason began exploring nature from the standpoint of w.h. auden funeral blues essay Natural Philosophy or Natural Law. This was the genesis of modern science, and from that point forward supernatural explanations of natural phenomena have been stripped away one by one, laid bare by the scrutiny of the scientific method, so that a reign of supernaturalism lasting more than six thousand years has been virtually eliminated as a satisfactory cause of human experience in just over two hundred years. First, a brief summary of the archetype of the dying and resurrected god is presented, a common motif that existed in the Mediterranean world centuries before the church adopted this primal story and audio thesis report grafted the narrative into its own peculiar hierarchy for the purpose of control and power. The ancient Greek and Roman cultures from thesis statement for philosophy paper which much of steganography report Postmodern Western culture is essay on favorite book descended, adopted gods from Asia Minor: Egypt, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylon, Phrygia, Persia, etc. These gods were often symbolic of vegetation myths tied to the seasons and shared the audio steganography thesis report, following characteristics, an resume, archetypal pattern similar to audio steganography Joseph Campbell's hero's journey, for the day god, the Sun god, was the ancient world's great deity, one that has been worshipped all over the planet, personified in every sacred allegory, and mythopoetically associated with mortal suffering, for, everywhere we read of the birth, death, and resurrection of the plum resume, Sun; he had his cradle and his tomb, whether called Adonis, Osiris, Hercules, Bacchus, Attis, Krishna, Mithra, or Christ (Existence of audio steganography report Christ Disproved). According to Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth these dying and resurrected gods were born of a Virgin Mother on or near the date of modern Christmas in a Cave or Underground Chamber; they held such titles as Light-bringer, Mediator, Healer, Deliverer, Savior and led a life of toil and service for humanity; eventually all were defeated by the Powers of Darkness and descended into Hell or the thesis of education paper, Underworld, then rose from the dead, and became the archetypal connector of humanity to the Heavenly world; they triumphantly went on to have disciples, found Communions of Saints Churches where acolytes were received into the mysteries by Baptism, and their memory was commemorated by audio steganography report, Eucharistic meals (Pagan Christs). Edward Carpenter in 1919 likewise stated the same assertion in his Pagan and Christian Creeds: Their Origin and book resume Meaning . The idea of Christ being interpreted as a solar god is report not new. Scholars in the nineteenth century first began this new field of research. What is new is that only recently has this vast body of information been made available to the general public.
Christ as Zodiac Sun Myth. The ruling deity of day, Helios or the sun as God, was the supreme god of the ancient world universally worshipped in both continents, the old and the new world, and this god was allegorically personified in the mythos of every culture. The daily and annual passage of the sun, in myth, became the poetic interpretation of the destiny of all. The birth, death, and resurrection of the sun is a continually reoccurring archetypal image, cradle to tomb, whether the name of the sun god was Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Bacchus, Mithra, Chrishna, or Christ. Mangasarian points out that, The fact that Jesus' death was accompanied with the darkening of the Sun, and that the date of his resurrection is also associated with the position of the Sun at the time of the vernal equinox, is a further intimation that we have in the story of the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus, an ancient and essay on favorite book nearly universal Sun-myth, instead of verifiable historical events. (Truth About Jesus) Of course, why all these stories are so similar is audio easily surmised. The above mentioned gods, Hercules, Osiris, Adonis, Mithra, etc., were all born on or about December 25th, they had twelve disciples or were otherwise associated in some way with the number twelve, such as the labors of Hercules, they performed miracles, were persecuted, died, and resurrected.
This archetypal pattern is ide f1 resume common because it is based on the sun's movements through the constellations which according to Acharya S is steganography report […] an astrotheological development that can be found throughout the planet because the sun and the twelve zodiac signs can be observed around the globe.[…] Christ and all the others upon whom this character is argument thesis statement predicated are personifications of the sun, […]the Gospel fable […]a rehash of a mythological formula […] (Origins of Christianity). Audio Steganography Thesis! And these mythological characters share the following characteristics in relationship to the sun: on December twenty-second the book, sun apparently dies for three days because it appears to stop in its movement south, and then is resurrected or born again on December twenty-fifth when it begins moving north once again, the light coming forth into the world; at some locations in the ancient world the new year began in the constellation of Virgo where the sun was born of a virgin; when the sun rises in audio steganography thesis report, the morning it is the Savior of mankind, and wears a crown of thorns which is the essay book, corona or halo, and the sun can also walk on water, its reflection passing across the surface; the disciples are the audio, twelve months and twelve signs of the zodiac that the sun must journey through; at twelve noon the sun is in the house or temple of the Most High and Jesus began his work at twelve years of age; the sun enters at book thirty degrees into each sign of the zodiac, and Jesus began his ministry at age thirty; the sun is crucified when it is hung on the cross of the equator and the polar axis at the vernal equinox, or Easter, and at that time the sun is resurrected (Origins of Christianity). Another interesting facet in regard to the virgin birth is that, The Virgin Mary is the Constellation of Virgo and the story of virgin births is the timeless allegory of Virgo giving birth to the Sun on the darkest night of the year, the 24th of December. If we follow the path of the audio thesis report, sun we discover that towards the end of August the ide f1 resume, radiant Sun enters the thesis, celestial Virgo and w.h. auden blues places the seed of the new Sun in her to germinate the embryo of the new Sun, Horus, Apollo or Christ. This phenomenon, which takes place every year in August, gave rise to Christmas, a festival which still exists, and in which it is supposed that the Mother of audio steganography report Christ, disregarding her earthly life, is associated with the thesis statement for philosophy of education paper, glory of steganography her son, and is placed by his side in the heavens. We know that the sign of the celestial virgin rose over the horizon at w.h. blues essay the moment assigned to the birth of our Lord Jesus the Christ. Christians may be reluctant to recognize Virgo as the Blessed Virgin. Yet Virgo's stars descend after harvest below the report, horizon, and the sun of the winter rises from the same point-the infant Sun in his Mother's arms.
It is the birthday of the Christos who represents the Sun that is born in each and every one of us. (The Immaculate Conception) The church was well aware of the astrological significance of the constellation of Virgo for as Carpenter has stated: But it is book resume well known as a matter of history that the worship of Isis and Horus descended in the early Christian centuries to Alexandria, where it took the form of the worship of the Virgin Mary and the infant saviour, and so passed into the European ceremonial. We have therefore the Virgin Mary connected by linear succession and descent with that remote Zodiacal cluster in the sky! A curious confirmation of the same astrological connection is afforded by the Roman Catholic Calendar. For if this be consulted, it will be found that the festival of the Assumption of the Virgin is placed on the 15 August, while the festival of the steganography, birth of the Virgin is dated the 8 September… At the rude students, present day, the Zodiacal signs- owing to the precession of the Equinoxes-have shifted some distance from the constellations of the same name. But at steganography report the time when the Zodiac was constituted and these names were given, the first date obviously would signalise the actual disappearance of the cluster Virgo in essay on favorite book, the sun's rays, i.e. the Assumption of the Virgin into the glory of the god, while the second date would signalise the reappearance of the constellation-or the birth of the Virgin. (Sun Worship) The constellation of Virgo is audio not the argument thesis, only interesting connection between religious worship and the stars. Other constellations are also of steganography thesis report considerable import, but it is from Virgo to Leo that the archetypal symbolism is best read in this ancient, cosmic progression. In order to understand this assertion it is necessary to know that the sun in its yearly progression moves through the constellations (the plane of the ecliptic, an imaginary line drawn from the earth's equator to the sun's equator) to the left, and these constellations have always been thought to have a great influence on thesis statement for philosophy of education paper, the character of the sun.
The other important point to remember is audio steganography thesis report that the earth's axis is tilted twenty-three and one quarter degrees from the plane of the ecliptic, called the precession of the axis, the earth slowly wobbles at the north polar axis like a spinning top, and the sun moves below the equator at ide f1 resume the autumnal equinox and rises above the steganography report, equator at the vernal equinox, thus forming the image of a cross. Thus, the sun appears to move backwards through the constellations in what is called a Great Year that lasts approximately 25920 years, and this cosmic year is separated into twelve Ages connected to the Zodiac and its constellations. Each of these ages endures for argument thesis about 2160 years. The relationship to the worship of sun gods is apparent, for approximately three thousand years ago when the sun crossed the equator at the vernal equinox the constellation was Aries the lamb. Hence, the sun was known as the Lamb of God, the archetypal symbol of the resurrected savior, of the journey from the dark underworld to the apex of heaven. Christ is still identified in this way, but what of the fish? The sun entered the constellation of Pisces at approximately 6 B.C.E., which coincides with the audio report, approximate birth date given to Jesus by most scholars. Rude Students! Pisces is the sign of the fish, and Jesus was the fisher of men. And according to Dowling in her introduction, The Piscean Age is identical with the Christian Dispensation.
The word Pisces means fish. Audio Thesis! The sign is known as a water sign, and the Piscean Age has been distinctly the age of the fish and its element, water. Essay Book! In the establishment of their great institutions John the Harbinger and Jesus both introduced the rite of water baptism, which has been used in some form in all the so-called Christian Churches and cults, even to the present time. Water is the true symbol of purification. Jesus himself said to the Harbinger before he was baptised: All the men must be washed, symbolic of the cleansing of the soul.(Aquarian Gospel 64: 7.) Fish was a Christian Symbol. In the earlier centuries of the Christian Dispensation the audio steganography report, fish was everywhere used as a symbol. Book! In his remarkable book, Christian Iconography , Didron says: The fish, in the opinion of antiquarians generally, is the symbol of Jesus Christ. Steganography Thesis Report! The fish is sculptured upon a number of Christian monuments, and more particularly upon the ancient sarcophagi. (The Aquarian Age)
However, the old sign of the Lamb was also kept as an identifying symbol of the thesis, messiah. In regard to these sun gods Alvin Boyd Kuhn has noted that they continually and regularly appeared because they are archetypal symbols of the sun's life through the heavens, and as such mirror the earthly life of audio steganography report mortal being. Because, [t]o follow the yearly round of the zodiac was to epitomize graphically the whole history of human experience Moreover, in Psalms the book says that, Our God is a living fire, a consuming fire, the Lord God is a sun, and Jesus said I am come to send fire on earth, (Great Myth of Sun-Gods) a clear connection to deity and the light and fire of the sun. I am indebted to book David W. Deley for the following chart that simply and evidentially compares the Jesus story with the sun and zodiac. The Story of Jesus is the story of the Sun passing through the steganography thesis report, Zodiac during the year. Note the following: The parallels demonstrated in resume, the above chart graphically illustrate the connection and most probable overlay of the significance of the thesis, twelve signs of the zodiac by the church in order to enable the masses an ide f1 resume, easier conversion to steganography thesis Christianity.
For example, in the above chart the reference is of education made to Jesus being born and buried in a cave. Thesis! This corresponds to book resume the ancient geocentric world cosmology where the sun was thought to literally rise from the underworld (a cave) and set/return to the underworld each evening, a story that was allegorized as the sun being in a literal battle with the darkness (evil), and the rising sun portrayed the triumph over death (evil) and a resurrection that was greeted each day by humanity. However, the evidence doesn't just conclude here. Report! An examination of Christ's ministry as portrayed in the New Testament provides even more compelling evidence of Jesus as a sun allegory. Following are several passages from the New Testament (all quotations are taken from the on favorite, New International Version) that clearly demonstrate the linkage between Christ and the sun for he is continually portrayed as sun imagery: Ephesians 5:14: for steganography it is students essay light that makes everything visible. This is why it is said: Wake up, O sleeper, rise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you. John 8:12: When Jesus spoke again to the people, he said, I am the light of the world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of life. John 9:5: While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.
Both of the preceding two passages demonstrate that Jesus is really the sun for the light of the world is the sun. Matthew 17:12: There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the audio thesis, sun, and his clothes became as white as the light. John 12:35-36: Then Jesus told them, You are going to have the auden funeral blues, light just a little while longer. Audio Thesis Report! Walk while you have the light, before darkness overtakes you. Thesis For Philosophy Paper! The man who walks in the dark does not know where he is audio going. Put your trust in the light while you have it, so that you may become sons of light. Thesis! When he had finished speaking, Jesus left and hid himself from them.
Clearly, in this passage Jesus is personified as the sun and the light is an archetypal symbol of light overcoming darkness. Of course, when Jesus finished speaking the reason that he hid himself from the disciples is because the sun had set. John 3:19-20: This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but men loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil. Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for fear that his deeds will be exposed. Can any clearer meaning be expressed concerning the literal idea that criminals most commonly do their unlawful deeds in darkness (night) and not in audio report, the light (day)? John 1:3-8: Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. Essay Book! In him was life, and that life was the light of men. The light shines in the darkness, but the darkness has not understood it. Of course, and this passage is scientifically accurate in that the thesis, sun formed first in stellar evolution and then the earth and essay other planets came together through the attraction of audio steganography thesis report gravitational mass.
Further, the sun is the source of all life for everything, plants and animals are dependent upon the energy of the sun for life. When we eat food or drink, we are literally consuming the energy of the sun; this symbolism is also obvious in the Catholic Eucharist where the bread and plum book resume the wine are thought to literally change into the body and blood of Jesus, which they do, but not in the Catholic sense for what is really occurring is that people are consuming the audio report, transformed energy of the w.h. funeral blues essay, sun. There are numerous other examples in the New Testament that connect Jesus with sun imagery, but the point is made, and the Old Testament has imagery describing god as the sun. Steganography Thesis! Next, we will explore the story of w.h. auden Christ specifically as an audio report, allegory of the w.h. auden blues essay, passage of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. Christ as an steganography thesis, allegory of the sun. Let us now examine how the story of the w.h. auden, life of Jesus corresponds with the progression of the sun through the twelve signs of the zodiac. However, remember that the concept of steganography thesis report representing archetypal truths in allegory form is quite ancient, and plum book is not just confined to the Bible. First, the sun travels through Capricorn, the goat during the time frame of December 22- January 19. December 22 is the winter solstice; this is the shortest day of the year and audio steganography thesis report after December 22 the sun begins to move back toward the ide f1 resume, northern hemisphere, the savior sun is born and the light of the world is at hand, which is apparent by audio report, December 25 the official church sanctioned birth date of Jesus, though no one knows when he was supposed to have been born.
However, it is extremely interesting to note that late on the twenty-fourth of December, Virgo the Virgin is either directly on the horizon on is the ascendant. Exactly at midnight the sun enters into Capricorn which is the goat and the manger. Jesus is born by immaculate conception of Virgo the Virgin in the manger of Capricorn the goat, the latter representative of the common conception of Jesus being born with animals. Resume! He is born in the darkness and now he is the light of the world. This symbolism of light and darkness is ancient, archetypal and cross-cultural. It has many rich resonances of meaning.
Darkness is associated with blindness, night, sleep, cold, gloom, despair, lostness, chaos, death, danger and yearning for audio the dawn. It is a striking image of the auden essay, human condition. Light is steganography seen as the resume, antidote to the above, and is thus an report, image of salvation. In the light, one is awake, able to see and find one's way; it is associated with relief and rejoicing that the night is over; in the light one is safe and warm. In the plum book resume, light there is audio steganography life….FOR MATTHEW and Luke, and for Christians ever since, Jesus is the light shining in the darkness. The author of John's Gospel makes the same affirmation with compact perfection: The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. Jesus is the light who brings enlightenment; indeed, he is the light of the world.
This is the truth of this theme of the birth stories. And it is true independently of essay book their historical factuality (Borg 1218). Now, continuing with Christ personified archetypally as the sun moving yearly through the twelve signs of the zodiac, note that Christ was baptized thirty years after birth, and audio report thirty days after the rebirth of the argument statement, sun at the winter solstice the sun enters Aquarius the water bearer (January 20-February 18), the pouring out of water a symbolic baptism, and Christ is baptized by thesis report, John, the Baptist, a pouring out of water: I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who is more powerful than I, whose sandals I am not fit to carry. Thesis Paper! He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matthew 3:11). The fire is the flame of the sun, and what of John? The New Testament merely says that he was put in prison with no explanation offered. In the allegory, this is the constellation Aquarius moving lower and lower into steganography, the sky at sunset until it can no longer be seen, because it has been put in ide f1 resume, prison as the sun moves into the next sign of the zodiac, where each sign of the zodiac is divided into thirty degrees and steganography thesis there are twelve signs, as Christ had twelve disciples, and twelve times thirty equals three hundred sixty, the total number of degrees in the zodiac. Of course, the New Testament has Jesus beginning his ministry at age twelve; can a clearer point be made?
If not, then this: each of the twelve signs of the zodiac when entering into the beginning of the thirty degrees of the allotted sign, represents some event in the ministry of Christ allegorized as the sun. After the Baptism of essay Christ he continues on his journey into Galilee which literally means circuit, and this is the closed elliptical path of the sun on steganography report, its circuit through the constellations. Here Christ selected his first disciples from plum book fishermen, Simon and Andrew: As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen (Matthew 4:18). The sign following Aquarius is steganography thesis Pisces, the Fish (February 19-March 20). The Catholic Lent is observed to this day in the sign of Pisces, and fish is eaten one day of the week in argument thesis statement, obvious symbolism of this event. In his ministry Christ next transforms into the Good Shepard of the flock, watching over thesis, the lambs of the field so that they would be encouraged to not stray from the path. This corresponds to the sun entering the sign of Aries the Ram (March 21-April 19), and a ram of course, is a lamb before growing into a Ram, just as Christ must grow in power before becoming truly recognized as the thesis of education, Lamb of God, and the Jews still celebrate the Paschal Lamb during the same time frame, a sacrifice to God as Jesus was the sacrificial lamb.
Christ as lamb means that the sun is steganography thesis young in the sign of statement of education Aries, and will grow into the full power of the Ram, just as the sun grows in power as it passes through this sign, which is also the sign of spring, rebirth, resurrection. Christianity celebrates Easter at this time, which is really a pagan festival, and audio steganography thesis report the name Easter means that the sun is book rising due east. Sunrise services are also celebrated at this time when the idea of, He is risen, is thrown about. Of course, the sun has risen. Following this Christ begins his salvation of humanity. How is this accomplished? By the Eucharist, of course. The Son must provide spiritual nourishment in audio steganography report, order for his people to be saved. The sun, entering the sign of Taurus the Bull (April 20-May 20), is the time of plowing the fields to thesis grow crops that are nourished by the energy of the sun, and thus though food energy the salvation is at hand.
After Taurus the next sign of the zodiac is audio steganography thesis Gemini the Twins (May 21-June 20); we are getting close now to the height of summer, when the ide f1 resume, sun's energy is at its most abundant and the crops grow and increase, doubling, like the steganography report, twins, the process of salvation. The son's power, in his ministry, grew stronger and statement stronger, doubling as the multitudes reported by the New Testament followed him about the land. Following Gemini the sun enters Cancer the thesis, Crab (June 21-July 22). A crab is often depicted as traveling backwards, and the sun has reached its furthest point north at the summer solstice; after that the sun begins traveling backwards in its journey toward the equator once again. Christ spoke often of the backsliders, and it is at this time of year that the sun is indeed sliding back, falling, from our apparent perspective, toward the equator and the power of the rude essay, sun begins to wane, as does vegetation and report crops. Also interesting to note is that John the Baptist was born six months before Christ, and rude students essay John 3:30 says, He must increase, but I must decrease. One power is waning, the other waxing, the story of the sun in thesis report, its annual pilgrimage through the heavens, the argument, cycle of the seasons. Steganography Thesis Report! According to Deley: Around this point in the Jesus story an interesting thing happens - John the Baptist reappears and is beheaded.
According to the Bible, John the Baptist has been raised from the dead, (Mark 6:14), or This is John the Baptist; he has risen from the dead! (Matthew 14:2). Recall at the beginning of the allegory how Aquarius moved below the western horizon at sunset as the year went from January to February and the Sun traveled from Aquarius to Pisces. Each Zodiac constellation in turn goes below the students, horizon at sunset as each month passes. After six months the constellation of Aquarius begins to rise on the eastern horizon at sunset, and it appears that the head of Aquarius is cut off by audio steganography report, the horizon. Ide F1 Resume! This is John the Baptist rising from the dead, the dead being those who are below the earth. This is the beheading of John the Baptist by King Herod, a personification of darkness, which reigns supreme at night (See Matthew Chapter 2-The Birth of Jesus for more on King Herod). (Solar Mythology and the Jesus Story) After Cancer comes Leo the Lion. Christ had to first be the Lamb (Aries) before he could become the Lion of Judah (Leo). Steganography! The lion is a symbol of majestic royalty, power, awe inspiring majesty, and argument statement it is at this time of year (July 22-August 23) that the sun is at its most royal incarnation as it travels through the zodiac.
It is in Revelation 5:5 that Christ is called Lion of the Tribe of Judah. Steganography! This majesty is seen in Jesus' rebuking of the wind and the waves, and it is the power of the sun at the hottest months of the year. The power of the sun as the allegorical Christ is rude essay manifested at the grave of Lazarus when he proclaimed, Lazarus, come forth! (John 11:43). This is resurrection power, the calling forth of the dead just as the sun calls forth and provides energy to the land. Audio Report! The symbolism is quite obvious, as this is the masculine archetype of power. We come now to Virgo the on favorite book, Virgin (August 23-September 23). This is the time of year when the sun, traveling south, crosses the equator once again at the autumnal equinox.
The sun passes over the equator where this celestial body is annually crucified, and he the sun as the cross on its back like Christ climbing toward Golgotha, only this Golgotha will be the crucifixion of the vernal equinox. In addition, according to Deley, Harvest time comes about three quarters of the way through the audio steganography thesis report, year, and rude essay it's the happiest time of the year. And about three quarters of the way through the Jesus story is his triumphant entry into Jerusalem, which is the happiest part of the story (Mark 11:1-11; Matthew 21:1-11; Luke 19:28-44; John 12:12-16). Everyone knows him and steganography report is happy to see him. Rude Essay! Jesus' triumphant entry into Jerusalem is an allegory for the Sun's triumphant entry into Virgo, because that means it is harvest time, the best time of audio report year.
Harvest time is The Kingdom of Heaven time which Jesus refers to in earnest as coming soon throughout the story up to here. (Solar Mythology) Directly after Virgo the sun enters Libra the Scales of Justice (September 23-October 22). This is the time of harvest, when all the bounties and ide f1 resume fruits that the energy of the sun has provided in the growing season are reaped. At this point Deley notes that it is time to sell the harvest. So the harvest is audio report weighed out in the buying and selling process, and it is at this time that Jesus, On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple area and began driving out those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the w.h. auden essay, tables of the money changers and the benches of those selling doves… (Mark 11:15). Jesus, as the sun, is leaving the sign of Libra for the harvest is over, just as the money changers packed up and left. Directly preceding this event from the New Testament, Jesus curses the fig tree: The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit.
When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs. Then he said to the tree, May no one ever eat fruit from you again (Mark 11: 12-14). The tree withered up and thesis report died because this is the autumn season, the year is declining, just as the son is also declining. Following this event Jesus and the Twelve disciples have the last supper, for the year is closing and rude the twelve are the signs of the zodiac that the sun has nearly passed through. The time is now Scorpio the Scorpion (October 23-November 22), and these two months October and audio steganography thesis November symbolize the book, two thieves that Christ is thesis report crucified between, because these months are the two thieves of the year when there is no harvest, the sun further descends toward its weakest point of winter that will occur at the Winter solstice. Jesus is betrayed now by Judas, the sign of Scorpio, and he betrays Christ for thirty pieces of silver, this event symbolizing the thirty days of a month. The sun is betrayed at this point, for it will soon be at its weakest, and Sagittarius the Archer (November 22-December 21) is the culmination of the death story of the sun, that will soon be reborn on December 21 at on favorite the Winter solstice, and thus the cycle of the year is complete, as is the story of Jesus as an archetypal allegory of the audio steganography thesis, sun. Comments and questions may be sent to the author at [emailprotected]
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2006 http://members.cox.net/deleyd/religion/jesusoutline.html. Deley, David W. Solar Mythology and the Jesus Story. 24 Feb. 2006 http://members.cox.net/deleyd/religion/solarmyth/christ2002.htm. Dowling, Eva S. The Aquarian Age Gospel of Jesus, the Christ of the Piscean Age. The Reluctant Messenger. 19 Dec. 2005 http://reluctant-messenger.com/aquarian_gospel.htm. Fiske, John. Myths and Myth-makers: Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology. Ide F1 Resume! 1872.
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2005 http://members.aol.com/FLJOSEPHUS/testimonium.htm. Horn, Thomas. Ancient Israel, the book, Zodiac, and the Sun God. Christian News Service 2004. 15 Oct 2005 http://www.raidersnewsupdate.com/helios.htm. Immaculate Conception,The. Virgin Births. 28 March 2000. Crosscircle.com.
18 Dec. 2005 http://www.crosscircle.com/CH_2m.htmVS. Invention of Christendom. Theosophy March 1966: 140-146. Jabbar, Malik H. The Astrological Foundation of the Christ Myth. Rare Books. Jackson, John G. Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth Part Two: The Christ Myth. The John G. Jackson Virtual Museum. 1941. 09 Oct. Audio Thesis! 2005 http://www.nbufront.org/html/MastersMuseums/JGJackson/ChristMyth/ChristMythPart2.html.
Johnson, Richard and Gregory van Berkel. Ide F1 Resume! The Zodiac: Stellar Stories. Rhodes University Astronomy Society. 09 Oct. 2005 http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:Uk0JZwNRzEUJ:astrosoc.soc.ru.ac.za/archive/docs/The%2520Zodiac.pdf+ancient+heroes+and+the+zodiachl=en.
Kuhn, Alvin Boyd. The Great Myth of the audio thesis, Sun-Gods. October 1934. 18 Dec. 2005 http://www.tphta.ws/ABK_GMSG.HTM. Mangasarian, Mangasar Magurditch. The Truth About Jesus Is He a Myth?.
The Project Gutenberg Ebook. 10 Oct. 2005 http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/ttaji10.txt. Maxwell, Jordan. Sun Worship. 04 Nov. 2005 .http://smithbrad.nventure.com/sunworship.htm. Pagan Christs.
Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth. 09 Oct. 2005 http://home.earthlink.net/ Remsberg, John E. Sources of the ide f1 resume, Christ Myth:Pagan Divinities. The Christ. 2000. 16 Dec. 2005 http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/rmsbrg11.htm.
Rogge, Michael. The Christ Myth. Man and the Unknown. 1 Dec. 2003. Audio! 19 Dec. 2005 http://www.xs4all.nl/ S, Acharya. The Origins of Christianity and the Quest for w.h. funeral essay the Historical Jesus. 2006. 17 Dec.
2005 http://www.truthbeknown.com/origins.htm. Savior Myth. Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth. 17 Dec. 2005 http://home.earthlink.net/ Sun, a Universal Deity, The. Secret Teachings of All Ages. Sacred Texts. 04 Nov. Audio! 2005 http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/sta11.htm. Sun Worship.
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2000 http://smithbrad.nventure.com/sunworship.htm. © 1997-2000 . CD_ROM. ed. Twelve Labours,The. Wikipedia. 31 Oct 2005. Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia.
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