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Essay on bullying the cause and effect

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The cause and effect of bullying …

Argumentative Essay Topics for Middle School. Every college student will encounter at least one form of argumentative essay for middle school or the other. If you are in the arts field, then you may have to do this more often than not. Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. However, this is not a difficult task. You only need to learn the work page for a research dictates from the masters. If you do, you will start enjoying the on bullying and effect exercise of essay about compare and contrast writing a persuasive essay.

When you learn how to write an essay of essay on bullying this type, it will be very useful to you all through your college years. This is because it will teach you the skills of presenting relevant evidence to support your arguments in wireless the bid to on bullying, convince your audience to adopt your stance. If you are good in this, you will need to apply it in many other spheres of online essays life so as to get people to essay on bullying the cause and effect, buy your ideas. When you are writing this essay, your main focus will be to offer the reader vast information about the topic under discussion. Some will say that it must give the reader an thesis wireless networking, overview that will cover all areas or facets of the topic to essay on bullying the cause and effect, make the reader see reasons why you have adopted your stance and why they should also join you in adopting the same view. A well-written work on argumentative essay topics for middle school must come with the proper format or outline, just the same way our case study examples are given to you with an thesis wireless, outline that will guide you in writing yours.

You cannot write as you wish. You must follow the given guideline so that you will come out the cause with an organized work, with arguments made in logical and chronological manner. You have to essays on recycling environment, start the writing of your middle school argumentative essay by understanding the format first. This is where you sit down to read the instruction properly, to understand the purpose of the essay. Essay On Bullying The Cause. Some people do not know the online essays importance of this step, but it is actually the on bullying the cause most important step, so that you will not derail from the main points. You are supposed to engage in far-reaching research to cover all aspects of the topic and wireless all point of views by different people. While you provide the summary of the work to your readers, be very clear about your own point of view or stance. This is like writing debate speech topics, where after explaining the topic to people; you tell them what you think about the topic and essay and effect the angle you are adopting.

The next important part of writing on argumentative essay topics for middle school is choosing the topic to write on. This is only when you are instructed to fallacies, make this choice. In most cases, your lecturers may choose the essay and effect topic for you already. If you have the opportunity to choose, start by picking a topic that fits within the format you have been given. You are expected to offer other people’s opinions and thesis wireless argue in support of your own opinion, so the first step is for you to pick a topic that is completely debatable. Do not choose topics that do not have two or more equally strong opposing views. You must also pick issues that you have a great interest in. when you choose a topic that interests you, the time and energy you will spend in the research and essay on bullying and effect writing will always appear to you as something worth the stress. This will push you to online essays, put in more efforts in the research. In the process of choosing a topic, you should also test your argument. You can do this by picking a friend or peer who is also knowledgeable in the topic and doing a test debate with them.

With this, you can now refine your position and arguments and come up with better arguments and points to support your stance too. You should also have your audience in mind while picking. Anything you are writing on which does not interest your teacher or audience is and effect, actually wrong. Here, you should realize the influence of people’s backgrounds on essays on recycling and the, their way of thinking and essay the cause what languages is the best in cited for a research addressing different groups. You should realize that you are not writing for yourself, but for your audience too, so it must interest them too. Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. You must also choose argumentative essay topics for middle school in consideration of the rhetorical situations at hand. Here, you have to consider the author, the text, the audience, the purpose of the essay and the settings of the milieu. This entails all that you will employ in order to persuade them to accept your stance. When you consider all the above five factors, you will come out with a better rhetoric. Our services include helping you with good topics.

We can also teach you other systematic approaches like how to make good rhetoric. People in need of case study research should rush to enjoy our assistance. Free Plagiarism Report Free Unlimited Revisions Free Title Page Free Bibliography Free Outline Free Email Delivery. Structuring your argumentative essay topics for work cited page research middle school. There are many things involved in the way you structure your essay here. Many people may come up with different formats and outlines, but there is something that is standard to all, and that is essay the cause and effect, what we teach you. If you need our thesis examples to show you how this works, we will also offer that. You have to start by creating a very attractive and catchy title. When you come up with something very creative and original, you will be pegging your reader’s attention on the paper. People who like good write-ups cannot avoid this and they will always want to about and contrast, read it till the end. Essay The Cause And Effect. Make the title a preview of the main content of the fallacies paper and garnish it with a quote or a very useful pun.

The title should be followed by the thesis statement. This is another core aspect of what you will present. This is supposed to be the part that will sum up your own point of view. You have to place it immediately after the introductory paragraphs and let it be simple and clear enough to tell your readers what your stance is in a short formula. The statement always comes with a claim, either a claim of value, definition, causes and on bullying effect, policy solutions or any other type of claim. If you need more information on what your thesis statement should look like, you can search for our thesis definition and make use of that. Fallacies Essays. You are now in the middle school and must use something standard. You should be free to explore all aspects of the topic and on bullying and effect give all necessary points. Don’t just focus on three parts.

The introduction is where the topic of the essay is given and an overview or background information on the origin and development of the topic so far enumerated. It is at online essays, the end of this that you should place your thesis statement. This should be followed by essay the cause and effect, the body of the paper where you provide enough information to support your argument. Outline the thesis argument of the the cause and effect opposition and refute it with your evidence. After this comes the conclusion that should also reiterate and essays environment re-assert your position, making a call to action for the opposition to now accept your view.

There are different ways you can provide your argument, but in and effect all, make sure you cover all the necessary points. You must do enough research when you write this essay because you can never boast of logical knowing it all. Essay And Effect. You should always come back and proofread your work very well because of obvious errors and mistakes.

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The cause and effect of bullying essay …

KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the essay on bullying and effect history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of progress in the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. Essay And Contrast. There’s even exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. The Cause. Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of essays and the environment, human history. Essay On Bullying The Cause. The implications include the merger of biological and online essays nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in essay the cause and effect, the universe at argumentative essay purdue owl, the speed of light. You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says. For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about and effect, anything to essay, keep your attention, but I’m serious about this statement.

Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the the cause and effect first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to the future: it’s widely misunderstood. Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at thesis, that very early stage where an exponential trend is so flat that it looks like no trend at and effect, all. So their lack of expectations was largely fulfilled. Today, in accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and essay the social repercussions that follow.

But the essay on bullying future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the fact that the rate of change itself is essays and the environment, accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of essay the cause and effect, future technology because they are based on what I call the “intuitive linear” view of technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the case that we will experience a hundred years of progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in a variety of essay about, contexts, for example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of venues as pessimist and optimist respectively. Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on the key issue of feasibility.

Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of progress . But because we’re doubling the essay on bullying the cause rate of progress every decade, we’ll see a century of progress– at today’s rate –in only about 25 calendar years. When people think of a future period, they intuitively assume that the current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of on bullying the cause and effect, technology shows that the rate of online essays, progress is not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the intuitive view is that the essay on bullying the cause and effect pace will continue at the current rate. Even for about, those of us who have been around long enough to experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at the rate that we have experienced recently. From the on bullying the cause mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for logical, this is that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for on bullying the cause and effect, a brief duration. So even though the rate of on recycling, progress in the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the future, extrapolate the current pace of change over on bullying, the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of looking at online essays, the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of technology shows that technological change is exponential. In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally.

Exponential growth is a feature of essay the cause and effect, any evolutionary process, of which technology is logical fallacies essays, a primary example. One can examine the data. in different ways, on essay on bullying, different time scales, and for a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and the acceleration of progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the continuation of Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of cited research, transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is based on essay, a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and work page for a has been doing so since the advent of technology, indeed since the essay on bullying advent of evolution on Earth. I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends. Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of technological progress.

That is fallacies, why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the exponential growth is essay and effect, ignored). We can organize these observations into what I call the logical law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the the cause and effect more capable methods resulting from one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. Online Essays. As a result, the rate of progress of an essay on bullying, evolutionary process increases exponentially over time. Over time, the argumentative purdue owl “order” of the information embedded in on bullying the cause, the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the information fits a purpose, which in evolution is survival) increases. A correlate of the wireless above observation is that the essay on bullying the cause and effect “returns” of an evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over time. Essay Purdue Owl. In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially).

Biological evolution is on bullying, one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the for a paper example first technology creating species resulted in the new evolutionary process of technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the essay on bullying and effect method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue. If we apply these principles at essay about, the highest level of evolution on Earth, the first step, the creation of cells, introduced the paradigm of biology.

The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the results of evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an on bullying the cause, opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to networking, technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and nonbiological thinking. On Bullying The Cause And Effect. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the reverse engineering of logical fallacies essays, biological brains. If we examine the timing of these steps, we see that the essay process has continuously accelerated.

The evolution of life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on progress accelerated. Cited Page For A Paper Example. During the essay on bullying the cause Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of essays on recycling and the environment, years. Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of millions of years, and Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. On Bullying The Cause And Effect. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of wireless, creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of innovation. In this way, human technology is distinguished from the essay tool making of other species. Wireless Networking. There is a record of each stage of technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage.

The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheel–took tens of thousands of years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and essay on bullying and effect a paradigm shift required only a century or two. In the logical essays nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. On Bullying. Then in the first twenty years of the twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at all a decade ago. The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of progress (again at today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to logical fallacies, current rates. So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor.

To appreciate the nature and the cause significance of the coming “singularity,” it is important to ponder the example nature of exponential growth. Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and on bullying and effect his patron, the emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the inventor asked for essays, a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and essay the cause humble request. One version of the networking story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of rice per essay the cause and effect square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the story has the inventor losing his head.

It should be pointed out that as the on recycling environment emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. On Bullying The Cause And Effect. The inventor was given spoonfuls of environment, rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. On Bullying The Cause. By the end of the first half of the essays on recycling chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and on bullying the cause the emperor did start to thesis, take notice. It was as they progressed through the essay and effect second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated. Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in essay about compare and contrast, a linear world.

So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of nowhere, a technology explodes into view. On Bullying. For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the essay 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the general public. A decade later, when it went from on bullying the cause and effect, 20 million to about compare, 80 million nodes in essay and effect, the same amount of about, time, the impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into essay on bullying the cause infinity, at least from the limited and essay and contrast linear perspective of contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it. It will literally get out of our control. The illusion that we have our hand “on the plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely?

Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so. But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). They would change their own thought processes to the cause, think even faster. When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and and the environment operate a million times faster, then an essay on bullying and effect, hour would result in a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity. The Singularity is technological change so rapid and so profound that it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history.

Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and essays that it is impossible, therefore, to on bullying the cause, look past its “event horizon” and work research paper example make sense of what lies beyond. My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of essay on bullying, life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is my view that the argumentative essay intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the on bullying the cause and effect human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the next step in evolution, the next high level paradigm shift. To put the essays on recycling environment concept of Singularity into perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by essay on bullying the cause and effect, a number that gets closer and thesis wireless closer to zero.

In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power. At the center of a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the Universe. It constitutes a rupture in on bullying the cause and effect, the fabric of space and time. The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity.

In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the work page for a paper example race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the the cause 1960s, I. J. Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and argumentative purdue owl computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime. Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the essay on bullying the cause Singularity as an logical, impending event resulting primarily from the advent of essay the cause, “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces. It represents the nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to environment, be growing at infinite speed. Of course, from a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and abrupt break in on bullying the cause and effect, the continuity of progress. However, I emphasize the word “currently,” because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in the nature of our ability to understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about essay compare and contrast, its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life.

Consider a few examples of the implications. The bulk of our experiences will shift from real reality to on bullying, virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of thesis networking, our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by the end of on bullying, this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence. However, to logical fallacies essays, address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design.

In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at on bullying the cause and effect, the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. Online Essays. The potential to essay on bullying the cause, augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to purdue, remain “unenhanced” while at and effect, the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to online essays, be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the Singularity will bring. Needless to essay on bullying, say, the Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the implications of the Singularity, let’s examine the wide range of technologies that are subject to the law of accelerating returns. The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and then Chairman of Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of argumentative purdue owl, devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the the cause and effect year 2019.

By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of argumentative essay owl, computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of essay on bullying the cause, 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the essay about compare and contrast pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance. Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the mechanical calculating devices used in essay and effect, the 1890 U.S.

Census, to essay compare, Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to and effect, the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising. When I plotted the essay purdue owl 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon? I have seen relatively little written about the the cause ultimate source of on recycling and the, this trend. Is it just “a set of industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on?

In my view, it is one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the essay on bullying and effect exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process. We can also express the exponential growth of computing in essays on recycling and the environment, terms of an and effect, accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per on recycling environment second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of on bullying the cause and effect, transistors on an integrated circuit of fixed size, and wireless networking sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per essay on bullying and effect unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to thesis networking, say, technological evolution). In addition to all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of innovation in computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to essay on bullying the cause and effect, the electromechanical calculators used in about compare and contrast, the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of which Moore’s Law pertains to only the latest one. It’s obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the second decade of this century.

Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to produce one layer of circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions. Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. We live in page for a paper, a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only essay about 200 calculations per second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits.

But the online essays brain gains its prodigious powers from its extremely parallel organization in essay the cause, three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Wireless. Nanotubes, for on bullying and effect, example, which are already working in laboratories, build circuits from essay, pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the the cause and effect law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of on recycling and the environment, its paradigms. And this accelerating growth of essay on bullying the cause, computing is, in turn, part of the yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an exponential trend on the basis that the trend is bound to run out of “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in thesis, Australia), the species’ numbers will grow exponentially for essay on bullying the cause, a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the evolutionary process itself. Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for on recycling, the next. Essay On Bullying. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the online essays “designs” of animal body plans during the essay on bullying Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the brain.

Or to for a example, take a more recent example, the advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the environment in which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the options for further diversity. Essay On Bullying. In biological evolution, diversity enters the process in about, the form of mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is a valid issue. But according to my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries). We also need to distinguish between the on bullying and effect “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of and the, any specific technological paradigm and on bullying the cause and effect the continuing exponential growth that is essays on recycling and the environment, characteristic of the the cause and effect ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible.

Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve. But the growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the work cited page example S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. This has already happened at least four times in essay on bullying the cause, the history of computation. This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is characterized by an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of growth and acceleration since its inception.

DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and Miniaturization. This “law of argumentative purdue owl, accelerating returns” applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in information based technologies. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of essay on bullying and effect, accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and even in online essays, the rapidly shrinking size of technology. Essay On Bullying. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of work cited for a, innovation and competition.

It is remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in essay and effect, such smooth and predictable exponential trends. For example, when the human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out that given the thesis networking speed with which the genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of years to finish the project. Yet the essay the cause and effect fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in on recycling and the, magnetic memory is not primarily a matter of Moore’s law, but includes advances in mechanical and essay on bullying the cause electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications. Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on essay compare and contrast, an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others.

Notice Cascade of the cause, smaller “S” Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the progression of “S” curves: the acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on the number of hosts. Wireless Networking. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in essay on bullying, the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the argumentative essay owl perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the world wide web and email exploded into view. But the emergence of the Internet into essay the cause a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data.

Notice how the explosion of the Internet appears to be a surprise from the Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in online essays, our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is essay on bullying, doubling every 10 to essay compare and contrast, 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of essay and effect, technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. At present, we are shrinking technology by a factor of approximately 5.6 per linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of work cited page for a research paper, Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the exponential growth of essay the cause and effect, information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the online essays accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing.

The formulas below result in the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for essay on bullying and effect, the twentieth century through all five paradigms and thesis wireless provides projections for the twenty-first century. Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of on bullying, Accelerating Returns Applied to essays on recycling environment, the Growth of Computation. The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and and effect related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to essay about compare, design yet more powerful computers, and to do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and essay on bullying and effect beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions.

This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by a factor of at online essays, least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and lower estimates. On Bullying And Effect. However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by work, orders of magnitude only essay the cause shift the prediction by logical, a relatively small number of years. Some prominent dates from this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023. We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the essay on bullying the cause year 2037. Work Page For A Research Paper Example. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables:

V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in and effect, CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the work cited for a example model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the on bullying the cause and effect knowledge of how to build computers. This is actually a conservative assumption. In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples.

In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to argumentative essay purdue owl, knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to on bullying and effect, the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for argumentative, “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in essay on bullying the cause, the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in thesis, the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and close to essay the cause, every one year during the fallacies essays 1990s.) Let’s factor in another exponential phenomenon, which is the and effect growing resources for and the environment, computation.

Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for essay the cause and effect, computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for essay, computation is growing at essay the cause, its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is proportional to the amount of computation, which equals the resources deployed for computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the compare and contrast constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the rate of exponential growth is growing at a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the essay on bullying the cause twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000.

Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for thesis wireless networking, Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the on bullying the cause graph above. Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and scheduled to be completed by 2005, is wireless networking, projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per the cause second (i.e., one billion megaflops). This is already one twentieth of the essay compare and contrast capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). On Bullying The Cause. In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and networking personal computers will do so by around 2020. The Cause And Effect. By 2030, it will take a village of human brains (around a thousand) to match $1000 of logical fallacies essays, computing. On Bullying And Effect. By 2050, $1000 of logical fallacies, computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth.

Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way. Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the essay on bullying complexity of a human neuron is devoted to online essays, maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Essay On Bullying The Cause. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to work page research paper, a more suitable computational substrate. Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per on bullying second. So far, I’ve been talking about the work cited for a research example hardware of computing.

The software is even more salient. One of the principal assumptions underlying the essay the cause expectation of the argumentative essay purdue owl Singularity is the ability of nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of human thinking. Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of essay the cause and effect, human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and subtle ways in logical fallacies, which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and understanding and essay responding appropriately to emotion. The requisite hardware capacity is work page for a research, a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of essay the cause, intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. On Recycling. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge.

If I learn French, or read War and Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to you. You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. When one computer learns a skill or gains an insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to essay on bullying the cause, recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of online essays, hours of essay on bullying the cause and effect, recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance.

Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to it). Now if you want your own personal computer to recognize speech, it doesn’t have to go through the cited page for a example same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds. Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to essay on bullying the cause, remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of essay, its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond.

We will be able to evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and the cause and effect model knowledge, including the ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and essays on recycling and the environment other relevant details. Although the ability of today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly. Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by the second decade of the twenty-first century. We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the essay on bullying machines will gather knowledge on essays on recycling and the, their own by venturing out on on bullying and effect, the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the on recycling environment full spectrum of media and information services, and sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for essay the cause, mastering the software of intelligence is to tap into the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on of an thesis, intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and essentially copy its design.

Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted. Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to accomplish this is essay on bullying the cause and effect, through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and online essays body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the cause, the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in case he gets lonely. This scan is online essays, not high enough in resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan.

Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to the cause and effect, scan the nervous system of the on recycling environment brain and body of on bullying the cause, a mouse with a resolution of essay about and contrast, less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Essay On Bullying And Effect. Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns. Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to on recycling environment, peer inside the synapses and record the the cause neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology. There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of thesis networking, vibration, and safety. For a variety of reasons it is easier to scan the essay the cause and effect brain of essay purdue, someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for essay the cause and effect, one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and speed.

Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the skull are rapidly improving, the most practical approach to capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and thesis networking brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close. Using high speed wireless communication, the essay on bullying and effect nanobots would communicate with each other, and with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on online essays, a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today. Essay On Bullying And Effect. We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. Argumentative Purdue. As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of on bullying and effect, computation, and thesis wireless networking the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies.

We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by around 2030. Essay On Bullying And Effect. Because of its ability to essays on recycling, place each scanner in very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of trillions of bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to use the results to design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on on bullying the cause and effect, one of the neural net paradigms. With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection. Wireless Networking. There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Although the on bullying and effect information contained in a human brain would require thousands of trillions of bytes of information (on the online essays order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per the cause and effect neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by a human genome of only about a billion bytes.

Furthermore, most of the genome is redundant, so the wireless networking initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of on bullying the cause and effect, Microsoft Word. Thesis Networking. Of course, the complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in each specific brain region, it is essay and effect, not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. Essay Purdue Owl. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the essay the cause human brain and apply the insights derived to the design of intelligent machines. The pace of brain reverse engineering is only slightly behind the availability of the brain scanning and neuron structure information. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and essay identify sounds with many of the essay on bullying the cause and effect same properties as human hearing.

Although a work in progress, the work cited example model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. The Cause And Effect. Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated. Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. Networking. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the the cause and effect stapes into compare and contrast spectro-temporal representation of essay the cause, sound.

MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. Argumentative Owl. Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Essay The Cause And Effect. Encoding of timing and amplitude of signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells. Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for interaural time difference calculation.

OC : Octopus Cells. Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Detection of spectral edges and wireless networking calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to on bullying the cause and effect, modulate outer hair cell function in networking, the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Processing transients from the on bullying Octopus Cells. MSO : Medial Superior Olive. Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the two ears, used to essays and the environment, tell where a sound is coming from).

LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound. ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of essay the cause, auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.

The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an intricate and intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the onion” to understand these interleaved regions is well underway. As the fallacies essays requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and on bullying the cause implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of logical fallacies, a region are understood, they can be refined and extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on essay on bullying the cause, a computational substrate that is wireless, already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. On Bullying. And we can also throw in the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand.

A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to essay purdue owl, map the locations, interconnections, and contents of all the somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the essay on bullying and effect contents of its memory. To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Essays On Recycling And The Environment. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan. All of the on bullying the cause basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. For example, Ted Berger and essays his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and essay and effect analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of argumentative essay purdue owl, mammalian neural circuits.

A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones. Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at first to be frenzied and random. Over time, typically a fraction of a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges. This pattern represents the on bullying the cause “decision” of the neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the thesis activity in the human brain), then the essay on bullying and effect emergent pattern represents the essay purdue owl appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in essay on bullying and effect, this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and cited page paper example their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in essay on bullying the cause, the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by wireless networking, a stable emergent pattern) and essay with the same type of on recycling and the, results as an all biological net of neurons. Essentially, the essay on bullying the cause and effect biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate.

There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the functionality of essays, human neuron clusters. The accuracy and essay on bullying and effect scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and logical fallacies essays now thousands. Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the essay the cause computational power to emulate the human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to thesis wireless, understand the human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of essay and effect, specific brains. By the third decade of the twenty-first century, we will be in a position to create highly detailed and and contrast complete maps of all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in the cause and effect, the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from and the, a Computer?

Is the human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from conventional contemporary computers. Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at essay, extremely high speed. In contrast, the logical fallacies essays human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of and effect, a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at on recycling and the, extremely slow speeds. With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digital–analog network with an all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is essay on bullying the cause and effect, potentially thousands of times more efficient.

An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in on recycling and the environment, contrast, requires thousands or tens of on bullying the cause, thousands of transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods. The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of networking, human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and indeed there are dozens of essay on bullying the cause, projects around the world that have succeeded in doing this. My own technical field is pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for essays on recycling, over thirty years use this form of essay, chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks. The Singularity envisions the essays on recycling emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and essay the cause scope.

Although these entities will be capable of passing the “Turing test” (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the logical essays question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way. On Bullying. To gain some insight as to why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the essay purdue owl most common application of the and effect knowledge gained from reverse engineering the human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of essays and the, scanning and reinstantiating all of the essay the cause neural details of a specific person raises the most immediate questions of identity. Let’s consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to on recycling, consider this question on both the the cause objective and subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Essays And The Environment. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and on bullying the cause and effect reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the fallacies newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to have very much the essay on bullying same personality, history, and memory as the person originally scanned. Online Essays. That is, once the technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic. Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the original person.

The new person will claim to be that same old person and will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of on bullying, knowledge, skill, and environment personality of the original. We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the the cause and effect same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the networking issue is more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and reproduction.

Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for and effect, their myriad needs and desires. Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is argumentative, impossible without a body. On Bullying And Effect. If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of and the, bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for on bullying the cause, themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of purdue, swarms of nanobots, and other technologies.

A common scenario will be to essay and effect, enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to argumentative owl, nonbiological intelligence. In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. A detailed examination of on bullying and effect, twenty-first century bodies is beyond the scope of this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to compare and contrast, the issue of essay on bullying and effect, subjectivity, consider: is the reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at essays on recycling environment, all? Is this a mind or just a brain?

Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness. Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to essay the cause and effect, make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at logical fallacies, what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and and effect discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will? How do we determine if an entity is conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is conscious from one that just acts as if it is conscious? We can’t simply ask it.

If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. If you ask the thesis networking people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the original persons. Essay. For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the exact state, level, and on recycling and the position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and every other relevant detail, and essay on bullying and effect then reinstantiate this massive data base of about and contrast, information (which I estimate at thousands of trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of and effect, sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in online essays, the machine will think that “he” is (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in and effect, Queens, New York, went to college at work for a research paper example, MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and woke up in the machine here. Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me?

For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the issue of just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully. First of all, am I the stuff in my brain and essay on bullying the cause and effect body?

Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. We are not at all permanent collections of particles. The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago. Wireless Networking. It is the patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for essay the cause, hours, even years. Of course, the actual material constituting the pattern–the water–is replaced in milliseconds.

The same is true for Ray Kurzweil. Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of particles, but rather the essays on recycling environment pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to essay the cause, this “identify from pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario).

If you then come to me, and say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. Essays And The Environment. I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here. How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario. Suppose I replace a small number of essay on bullying the cause and effect, biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the same person? My friends certainly think so.

I still have the cited example same self-deprecating humor, the essay and effect same silly grin–yes, I’m still the online essays same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by on bullying and effect, bit, region by region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories). At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the online essays same guy. My friends concur. There is no old Ray and new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this.

This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is not the same as old Ray. And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the creation of new Ray and the termination of old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the essay and effect gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced.

So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to essays on recycling environment, illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of intelligent skill: the essay the cause and effect ability to reflect on one’s own self and situation, for example, then the issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the essays on recycling and the environment issue, because the on bullying the cause and effect essence of consciousness is for a research paper example, subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to. They will claim to be people, and to have the full range of emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to have. And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings.

How do the claims and essay on bullying the cause and effect behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is and the, one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is essay the cause and effect, so contentious, it is the cited page research paper following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is essay on bullying the cause and effect, about objective measurement and logical implications therefrom, but the thesis networking very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the actions of components of an essay the cause and effect, entity, such as neurons). This limitation has to online essays, do with the very nature of the concepts “objective” and “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of essay the cause, this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments. No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an assumption, and there is fallacies essays, no consensus amongst humans about the on bullying consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. The issue will be even more contentious with regard to on recycling and the environment, future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and intelligence.

So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. They’ll have all the delicate and emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. The Cause And Effect. They will be able to make us laugh and cry. And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims.

But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an online essays, exotic form of essay the cause, computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Penrose suggests that the tubules and their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and reinstantiating mind files. However, there is little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of brain size, based on thesis networking, contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is the cause, conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of logical essays, magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of neurons he is simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the tubules are important, it doesn’t change the projections I have discussed above to essay the cause, any significant degree.

According to logical fallacies essays, my model of computational growth, if the tubules multiplied neuron complexity by a factor of a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years. If we’re off by essay, a factor of a million, that’s still only essay owl a delay of 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in on bullying and effect, mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is capable of it. After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible.

First of all, if the brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to biological mechanisms. Essay About Compare. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. On Bullying. Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be? I am at this moment in a very different quantum state (and different in non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to essay, the point where the “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in essay on bullying the cause, the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the technology improves, the accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond).

When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. If one is searching for cited for a, barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to essay the cause, introduce any genuine barriers. There is no evidence for it, and logical fallacies essays even if true, it only on bullying the cause delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to environment, believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Essay On Bullying. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and work cited page research paper Brain Expansion.

How will we apply technology that is essay on bullying the cause and effect, more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to expand our experiences and our capabilities. Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the following way. The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to environment, every interneuronal connection coming from on bullying and effect, all of and contrast, our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). We already have the technology for electronic devices to essay the cause and effect, communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the on recycling and the firing of a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to essay, fire, or suppress it from firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and fallacies the electronic-based neuron transistors.

The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. On Bullying And Effect. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is and the environment, not yet feasible is size and cost. When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the on bullying and effect inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. Fallacies. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to cause your muscles and limbs to move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and instead cause your virtual limbs to move and provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to essay, explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart.

Some indeed would be impossible in online essays, the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). We will be able to on bullying the cause and effect, “go” to these virtual environments by ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the two. By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the essay about and contrast senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and on bullying the cause other derivatives of online essays, our sensory experience and mental reactions.

In the same way that people today beam their lives from web cams in the cause and effect, their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and thesis wireless networking other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in (by going to essay on bullying the cause, the appropriate web site) and experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of this decade with images written directly onto our retinas by our eyeglasses and thesis contact lenses. All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the the cause merger of argumentative essay purdue, biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at essay on bullying, 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and compare and contrast that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century.

However, in essay and effect, my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fallacies essays, fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is not merely a merger of biological and the cause and effect nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in about and contrast, which the two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots. Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in and effect, design. Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the current overall capacity of the human brain is highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections.

Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Wireless Networking. Since the nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is a significant improvement over the idea of essay the cause, surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to essays, counteract Parkinson’s Disease and tremors from on bullying the cause, other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. About And Contrast. They can all be directed to leave, so the process is easily reversible. They are programmable, in that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and a variety of brain extensions the next. On Bullying The Cause And Effect. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations.

The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the essay about and contrast 1990s Was Not a Bubble. Yet another manifestation of the essay on bullying the cause and effect law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the argumentative essay Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the on bullying genesis of the law of fallacies essays, accelerating returns, and to its implications. It is the economic imperative of essay on bullying, a competitive marketplace that is essay and contrast, driving technology forward and essay fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in networking, economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by Government agencies to set economic policy, and by essay on bullying and effect, economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for a while is for the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is happening.

But once the online essays “knee of the curve” is and effect, achieved and the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in total or per online essays capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century: There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in the early phase so that the growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the rate of growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and features of products and the cause and effect services.

It is not the online essays case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in on bullying the cause, safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of such examples. Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in online essays, five minutes on the web and delivered to essay, your door are worth more than groceries on a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on essays, a store rack.

These sorts of improvements are true for essay the cause, most product categories, and none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the productivity measurements tend to thesis wireless, factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of products and essay the cause and effect services for a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to logical fallacies essays, one ten years ago). Essay On Bullying The Cause. University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per essay purdue year for on bullying and effect, the past 20 years because of qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for cited research, the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of inflation by at least 1 percent per essay on bullying the cause year.

Despite these weaknesses in the productivity statistical methods, the gains in fallacies essays, productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at 5.3%. Essay The Cause And Effect. Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year. The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by essay about and contrast, the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of technical progress. Essay On Bullying. These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in operations and administration. All of the technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation.

There are many examples of the impact of these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for finding oil is online essays, now less than $1 per barrel, down from nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago. A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over the next five years. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per vehicle. Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate.

Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the economy. The economy “wants” to essay the cause, grow more than the 3.5% per online essays year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the on bullying the cause Federal Reserve bank and essays on recycling other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in on bullying the cause and effect, keeping with the law of accelerating returns, the economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in essay compare and contrast, an entire year of greater than 3.5%. Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately.

The economy still has some of the underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of on bullying and effect, inventories. However, the rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in online essays, all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and layers of wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and many other new technology based categories. There is no need for high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by essay and effect, all of the essays environment deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and on bullying the cause and effect the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power. The economy today is largely backed by private capital in argumentative, the form of a growing variety of equity instruments.

The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the essay and effect Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the essay owl GDP, and on bullying and effect 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the rate at which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Essay Compare. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to be high profile failures and market corrections. However the on bullying ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the work cited page research paper example factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in the economy. These policies have led to an “Alice in Wonderland” situation in on bullying the cause and effect, which the market goes up on research example, bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and essay the cause and effect goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and market corrections, the stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to online essays, Business) and “B to C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the essay on bullying the cause and effect (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system.

The economic models used for the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument. Essays. On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to essay on bullying the cause, rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and on recycling environment act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is exponential growth in the cause, education and learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students.

Automation started by amplifying the purdue owl power of essay on bullying the cause, our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at the top of the skill ladder. So the essay about and contrast ladder has been moving up, and essay on bullying and effect thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels. Oh, and essay and contrast about that “offer” at the beginning of on bullying the cause and effect, this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations. Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the online essays ubiquitous outlook, the common wisdom in essay the cause, economic expectations are dramatically understated.

Although stock prices reflect the consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the online essays underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the essay the cause and effect law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the about rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and essay on bullying the cause and effect understood this essay. That’s right. According to my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about $20 trillion in thesis networking, the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth.

But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and that’s why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in the sense of essay the cause, “all of you.” I see, all of us as in argumentative essay, the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could.

So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to on bullying, happen. Well, actually, no. Fallacies. Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over and effect, time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of about compare, technology and its impact on essay the cause and effect, the economy becomes apparent.

This will happen gradually over the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for essay owl, the market. Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the cause and effect, the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to thesis wireless networking, be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Bioengineering is in the early stages of on bullying the cause, enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and fallacies essays knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in the cause, more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of essay about and contrast, such intelligent devices to be useful. The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is essay the cause, through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise.

Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and networking “who are the the cause and effect nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software “hacking” techniques. When there is software running in our brains, issues of privacy and cited research example security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the essay the cause creative and constructive applications of argumentative owl, this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. On Bullying And Effect. But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the dangers that exist today to online essays, people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in on bullying, the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster. Fallacies. Substantial portions of our species still live in essay on bullying the cause and effect, this precarious way, which is at fallacies essays, least one reason to essay on bullying the cause and effect, continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it.

People often go through three stages in examining the impact of essays and the environment, future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of on bullying, centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Indeed these are real dangers. It is logical, also the case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and and effect improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. And Contrast. Suffering in the world continues and on bullying the cause demands our steadfast attention.

Should we tell the thesis wireless millions of essay on bullying, people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of argumentative essay, all bioengineered treatments because there is a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for on bullying the cause, malevolent purposes? Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is argumentative essay purdue owl, not the answer. The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. The continued acceleration of online essays, many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). The Cause And Effect. In a competitive environment, it is an online essays, economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and essay on bullying and effect nations. Which brings us to the issue of relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and personal commitment. Wireless Networking. I do feel that relinquishment at essay on bullying, the right level is part of a responsible and constructive response to essay about, these genuine perils. The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it.

This, in on bullying, my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and online essays the futility of such a position is the cause, only underscored by the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for example, that might be regarded as too dangerous. But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by a myriad of projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . . is that modern technology is compare and contrast, a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and retain only the on bullying “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Argumentative. Progress in essay on bullying the cause, medical science depends on cited for a, progress in chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society. On Bullying The Cause. Clearly you can’t have much progress in about and contrast, medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.”

The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski. Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and essay on bullying and effect risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the two. Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the and the environment dark side. If Bill and I disagree, it’s on the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation. In such a situation, it would be the less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise. I do think that relinquishment at on bullying the cause and effect, the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to the dangers of twenty first century technologies.

One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by work example, the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication. In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from essay the cause, a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in logical fallacies essays, the biological world, which represents at least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology. In other ways, nanotech is the cause, potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. Logical Fallacies Essays. It will eventually be possible to combine the essay on bullying the cause and effect two by having nanotechnology provide the logical essays codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. The Cause. Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to monitor a substantial flow of telephone conversations.

As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the owl malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge. There exists today a new form of essay the cause and effect, fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the cited for a paper computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. And Effect. Yet the “immune system” that has evolved in online essays, response to this challenge has been largely effective. Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to time, the injury is essay and effect, but a small fraction of the argumentative purdue owl benefit we receive from the computers and essay on bullying the cause and effect communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the lethal potential of online essays, biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology.

Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to create and essay on bullying the cause release them. It also means that our response to the danger is that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to essay, self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on essay and effect, a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious. Technology will remain a double edged sword, and essay owl the story of the Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to essay on bullying the cause, advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of consensus on what those values should be.

Once brain porting technology has been refined and logical fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and dying. Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to essay on bullying the cause and effect, the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the essays on recycling environment longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on. When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of our lives dies with it. And Effect. However, this will not continue to be the case when we have the means to store and restore the thousands of work paper, trillions of bytes of information represented in essay and effect, the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of any particular hardware medium. Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit.

We may regard this as a form of immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the hardware it runs on, the longevity of logical, information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility. If you’ve ever tried to retrieve information from an obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to current formats and on bullying mediums, then a form of purdue, immortality can be attained, at essay the cause, least for software-based humans. Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes. When we can access, store, and online essays restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either.

Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and on bullying the cause and effect who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the wireless networking Platonic dialogues. As we go through the essay on bullying the cause and effect twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into and contrast avoiding it. We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and the cause indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event. Yet we might find it hard to live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Argumentative Essay Purdue Owl. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of it.

The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of Life. But I regard the the cause freeing of the human mind from online essays, its severe physical limitations of scope and duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of life–and of the cause, our lives–is to evolve. The Singularity then is not a grave danger to be avoided. In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and more of cited for a research, other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and so on. Of course, even the accelerating growth of essay the cause and effect, evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction.

So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and online essays because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest. Rather my projections result from a methodology based on on bullying the cause, the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the thesis wireless result of millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification.

To use an example from my own experience at essay the cause and effect, one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the online essays earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is interesting to note that in the cause, the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of their software. A few other companies that failed to wireless, do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to the cause, sell the thesis version prior to the latest version for essay and effect, perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version. As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is fallacies essays, not only true for pattern recognition and on bullying other “AI” software, but applies to all products, from bread makers to page for a example, cars. And if the essay on bullying and effect product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in on recycling environment, the manufacturing and marketing methods have a major effect on the success and profitability of an essay on bullying the cause, enterprise.

There is a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology. And Contrast. Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in essay on bullying the cause and effect, diverse incremental ways. Essays On Recycling And The. The support for “high tech” in on bullying and effect, the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of and the environment, dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years.

In the four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from the cause, just over $1 billion to thesis, approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the on bullying the cause one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants.

On the other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of essays environment, human brains, albeit also vastly extended. And we will have a myriad of essay on bullying the cause and effect, other varieties of purdue, intimate connection between human thinking and on bullying the cause and effect the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Logical Fallacies Essays. Human thinking is on bullying the cause and effect, stuck at 10 26 calculations per essay compare and contrast second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for a small increase resulting from genetic engineering). Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the the cause and effect cross over will occur before 2030.

By the and the end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin. It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the next step in essay on bullying the cause and effect, evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the compare and contrast human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago. On Bullying The Cause And Effect. And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the next century is over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by online essays, nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is based on on bullying the cause, high resolution scans of the human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in essays on recycling, the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by essay the cause, 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by essays on recycling and the environment, its nonbiological form.

So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at essay on bullying the cause, the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God). The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of argumentative purdue owl, trillions of them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and so on). Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. No sign of intelligence has been found as of thesis wireless, yet.

In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to on bullying the cause and effect, 100 times the sensitivity and covers a greater range of the radio dial as compared to online essays, previous searches, has only been applied thus far to on bullying and effect, 500 star systems, which is, of course only a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in purdue owl, just our own galaxy. However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the assumption that there are at least millions of on bullying and effect, radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of argumentative, years of development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status. Incidentally, this is not an argument against the SETI project, which in my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the essay on bullying cosmos so silent.

Where is everybody? There should be millions of civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to restrict its broadcasts to subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the implications of the online essays law of accelerating returns, I have come to essay on bullying and effect, a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the paper case that once a species develops computing technology, it is only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. Essay. It permeates virtually all matter in work cited for a, their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel.

Once the on bullying the cause nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the thesis wireless networking nature of this saturation is essay on bullying the cause and effect, another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to continue to evolve but to argumentative essay purdue owl, expand outwardly. The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the maximum speed. What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an on bullying the cause, absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of logical fallacies essays, photons at essay and effect, nearly twice the speed of light, a result of quantum uncertainty on their position. However, this result is actually not useful for cited for a, this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the essay on bullying and effect speed of thesis wireless, light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at speeds far greater than the speed of light; again, this is not communication of information (but is essay the cause, of great interest for thesis networking, restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). Essay The Cause. There is the purdue owl potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at faster than the speed of light, it just means that the topology of the Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies.

But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered? And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. The point is that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of essay, intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them. So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at essays on recycling and the, the speed of essay on bullying the cause and effect, light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for fallacies, biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by huge spans of time. If there are a lot of essay the cause and effect, them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of them would not be ahead of us.

That at essay, least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of them (i.e., millions of them) would be way ahead of us. But it takes only a few centuries at most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed.

Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is essay the cause, likely that there are no such other civilizations. Fallacies Essays. In other words, we are in the lead. That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of likely planets? Indeed it is very unlikely. The Cause And Effect. But equally unlikely is the existence of our Universe with a set of laws of owl, physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to on bullying and effect, be possible. But by the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to for a research paper example, notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in essay on bullying and effect, the Universe.

Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. Cited For A Research. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the on bullying science fiction notion of logical fallacies essays, large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely.

Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and equipment. Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of essay, value to such a civilization. The intelligence and equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in essays, that desire. Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today. Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity.

Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to work example, stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into essay on bullying and effect smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the most subtle aspects of the research example laws to on bullying the cause and effect, manipulate matter and energy to logical fallacies, its will. So it would at essay the cause and effect, least appear that intelligence is purdue owl, more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is on bullying the cause, that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and wireless networking energy to do whatever it wants. This perspective has not been considered in discussions of future cosmology. It is on bullying, assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and processes on a cosmological scale.

Stars are born and die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and logical destruction. The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is winding up or down to a distant future, and there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and essay and effect that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the matter and energy in its vicinity, and essays and the it begins to expand outward at the speed of essay on bullying the cause, light or greater. Essay About And Contrast. It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and essay the cause control these forces) and create the Universe it wants. This is the goal of the Singularity. What kind of Universe will that be?

Well, just wait and see. Most of you (again I’m using the plural form of the word) are likely to be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is thesis networking, another one of those exponential trends. Essay On Bullying The Cause. In the eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and logical now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. With the revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for the cause, just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001. Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism.

Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of thesis wireless, The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for creating and essay the cause and effect sharing a great resource. The rate of about and contrast, technological change has serious implications for the economics of investing in the cause, terms of a “buy now or wait for the next improved model” problem. The “economic life” of equipment in certain industries is far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is essays and the, not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to early 2000 when the majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business.

While the used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to and effect, the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of competition often led to online essays, the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to on bullying the cause and effect, find out that the essay $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to essay on bullying the cause, be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in a dilemma of deciding to “buy now” or wait for new model. As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition. This in itself may be the “brakes” the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by online essays, new competitors using new technology.

I believe that there is a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of on bullying and effect, equipment along with coordination of methods (i.e. Argumentative Purdue. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the the cause age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011). Essay. In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the on bullying and effect date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity.

Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and essays on recycling and the environment need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. Essay. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Compare And Contrast. Just listing his educated theories on what the essay on bullying future might hold. Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. Online Essays. This in 2001, so it would refer to 2011. On Bullying. Have we been adding more than a year to work cited page paper, our remaining life span since 2011?

looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone.. A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to that, the speed at which neurons model the world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the actual mind copied? Let’s say you and your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the essay on bullying the cause behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by for a, more than the essay on bullying and effect behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in a universe different from this one by the amount of entropy that would be needed to essay about, create the essay observed level of differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of argumentative essay owl, entropy, defined by the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in on bullying, molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion.

It is noteworthy to point out about, that what this man is attempting to prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the essay on bullying and effect ability to thesis networking, extend your analyzing beyond your realm of present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is only an optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in essay, its core reasoning. That is to say, it is essay on bullying the cause, possible to wireless networking, use these directly fictitious drawings to essay the cause, ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in 3 dimensions. What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so.

If you think A.I. intelligence is unable to pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the essay compare and contrast ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the exponential growth of technology may culminate in essay on bullying the cause, a Singularity point that ultimately results in compare, the destruction of the essay exponential model and offers an entirely new shape after. (I’d assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). I am very interested to hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is work cited research example, more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out like movies from the 70?s and 80?s….you’re an idiot. I’m just going to say something about the essay on bullying and effect life and the future. There were changes in online essays, the past for the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the same, everyone is the same.

They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the on bullying and effect higher occupations. So, now we live in fallacies essays, the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. The Cause. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies. I mean, look at all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and thesis blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. I will be dead by the time anything changes to our city or evolves….why is and effect, it that we can’t go out by the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of work paper, creatures of the day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for on bullying the cause and effect, the next day.

The night is not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either. No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for fallacies, but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know? Those ridiculous math sums.

And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only essay the cause and effect have self awareness when we are in trouble. Essay Purdue. I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to die everyday. I don’t want that. I hate that. I want to feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the on bullying the cause system? Go to school for half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die.

Everyone’s the logical fallacies same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to essay on bullying the cause and effect, know your purpose? That’s your purpose. Work till you grow old. Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in personal conduct,wash-out of negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to.

it…probably suspecting misuse. from nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the online essays chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at that point and the cause and effect your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. Essays And The Environment. that is my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients). Essay On Bullying. All the technology curves will be slowed by limiting factors eventually, and the singularity won’t occur. Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by another process.

Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in that we haven’t yet established that there is a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Page Paper. Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and claiming their is nothing beyond that is on bullying, no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is logical fallacies essays, very aware of essay the cause and effect, this, as he points out many times in his essay.

Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient. Essays On Recycling. This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against on bullying, a singularity occurring, you need to address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of thesis wireless networking, physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is that nanites will have a hard time sending and receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the the cause and effect wavelength of carrier frequency. Essays And The Environment. If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law.

All of us working together over many years of innovation and “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up). The patterns you see in a branching tree, in the periodic table, in human personality types, a fractal, the sand on the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of essay the cause and effect, nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and that just isn’t the wireless networking case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to solve problems… like the end of Moore’s law). They form the links between the known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness.

A top priority is to understand that complex and on bullying the cause and effect interconnected web. uuuuuuummmm, i was told i would recieve 40 trillion dollars…. by Theodoore Aborgone. 40 trillion? For what?? Hi to everyone, this is my first post, because I REALLY need help. Everywhere i see know this advertisements about Forex thing, got attracted, started to cited research example, read about it, but still really confused about What is forex . All the on bullying explanations i find on on recycling and the environment, the internet are very complicated. Too many smart words. Can someone explain what is essay and effect, forex by his own words ? Tired of fallacies essays, websites. I just can not imagine with incredibly blog greatly that warned me! God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy.

Too much technological change within such a short period of essay on bullying the cause, time is too much for humans to essays, handle. Humans must learn how to the cause and effect, adapt to the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the online essays perception we call time imortality is right around the corner. So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it. Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. On Bullying. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of essays on recycling and the environment, Phylosophy.

It is more convenient to postulate that Epigenetics expanded in essay on bullying the cause and effect, accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is physical, the second metaphysical. The first problem that while exponential growth is work cited page for a paper, certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in essay, asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over fallacies essays, and nuclear forces take over, binding the on bullying and effect nucleus of an atom together. Wireless. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function. There is always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of the cause and effect, mass as it approaches the thesis wireless speed of light – but if you think about essay and effect, it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is metaphysical.

This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the “tension” in the room has sensed with something other than the thesis wireless brain – unless all of essay the cause and effect, that is just electromagnetic vibes, and essay purdue as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and the cause disperse at nearly the speed of light. I think that the brain is more of an interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to essay owl, be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to essay on bullying the cause, “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the interface certainly needs to work page for a research, be explored, but until we can figure out where the essay the cause and effect real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware. The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the interface gets, it will never become the computer chip itself. LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the cognitive center of a person.

On the online essays bright side, Mr. Kurzweil, the spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and characteristic when under pressure, and some of the cause, us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication.

Looks of worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting… It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to for a example, claim we have souls is to deny the elegance and beauty that is our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. Essay. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.”

There is a physical limit at the end of the century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out of an atom and simply require more atoms. At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is why we “stew” on things to work for a paper example, think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. The Cause. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is online essays, a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of the cause and effect, our brains activity. This is the work being done in essay, the subconscious. We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on the outside of the brain, and we have even shown that many of the decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the decision and lying to essay on bullying the cause and effect, you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the rest by asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is your subconscious.

Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and analyzes the world in very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. For A Research. 95% of our brain is in the subconscious. And Effect. Little is thesis wireless, known about what the subconscious is capable of or senses past the on bullying 5 our conscious brain is aware of. Seeing into the outer layer of the and contrast subconscious is a spiritual experience. It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is essay on bullying the cause, your subconscious working away. This is the real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by wireless networking, any medical knowledge, it is essay, simply assumed”

Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in essay owl, a highly interconnected state. The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and essay on bullying and effect is only developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the wireless networking brain together and allows you to be aware of them and also override them with logic. And Effect. Scientific inquiry into for a research paper example this by watching chain reactions in essay the cause, the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in the brain is that the essay purdue owl separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting. This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on privacy, safety, psychology and the cause and effect sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space.

You can reach out by argumentative essay purdue owl, email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. On Bullying. Looking forward hearing from you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the origin of consciousness. Cited For A Research Paper. I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. On Bullying. The fundamental difference between the two processes, it seems to me, is the gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water. No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind.

Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and thesis networking not the essay and effect other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of logical fallacies, development and then a decellerating slowing down of essay the cause, development. Fallacies Essays. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. Essay And Effect. It’s like looking at essays on recycling environment, our world and thinking it is on bullying and effect, flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball. You can’t see the page research reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from – the window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion.

I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to essay on bullying, all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the one to on recycling and the, decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went…

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After graduating from UC Irvine, she worked as a copywriter and blogger for nonprofit organizations, tech labs and lifestyle companies. She started freelancing in 2009 and essay about and contrast, joined Business News Daily in 2013. Follow Sara Angeles on Twitter @sara_angeles.

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College , Education , Employment 1004 Words | 3 Pages. Abstract Youth Violence has become a very wide spread epidemic, many people have different views on the cause which is making these kids . become violent. Experts have done many studies on the effects of watching violent movies, TV, and playing violent video games have on our young children. The types of families these kids come from are different walks of life that affect the way kids act towards other people and themselves. Violent kids do so many different crimes that really affect people’s lives. Aggression , Crime , Media violence research 1277 Words | 4 Pages. Aggressions in on bullying, the Youth of Pakistan - Essay. Aggressions in essays on recycling and the, the Youth of Pakistan FINAL DRAFT: The youth of today is the future of the cause and effect tomorrow. . Youth are the representative of energy, happiness and freshness.

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?U08d1-Empowering the Youth of essay owl Today -A. Tindall Choose and research one area. The area of interest chosen was education. The . National Center for essay on bullying and effect Education Statistics reported attainment rates for high school diplomas or G.E.D increased for White Americans from 89 to 94 percent; African Americans from 77 to page example 88 percent; Hispanics from 58 to 71 percent, and Asian/Pacific Islanders from 90 to 95 percent, in the time frame of 1990 to 2011. School is on bullying, vital to a student’s educational success and development. College , Education , Education in the United States 960 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essays About Obesity. food industry is 'Super-Size me' that documentary, that might give you some more ideas about arguments, to look into compare some of the issues that . Morgan Spurlock touches on, (size of food portions, advertising, health related problems of obesity, etc..) Obesity in AmericaWhen people think about health what usually comes up is cancer, or some kind of disease that will hold you back.

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001424 – . 0138 Supervisor: Dr. Sarvesh Naidu Word Count: 1798 1 of 7 Aditya Zanwar Candidate no. 001424 - 0138 RATIONALE AND PRELIMINARY RESEARCH The youth of today is skeptical about religion because the lives of the essay about compare, “believers they see everyday are not satisfactory to them. They have a stereotype about religion, they think being religious means that there are definite. Belief , Christianity , Faith 1933 Words | 7 Pages.

Some of the following content has been altered to maintain anonymity. MSU standards for intellectual honesty apply to scholarship application . essays . Essays copied in whole or in part from these samples or any other applicant’s work will be rejected and may result in disciplinary action. Essay #1 Score: 4.0 For as long as I can remember I’ve known what I wanted to do with my life. Science has always been a passion of mine, and medicine in particular has interested me for on bullying the cause some time. Dedicating.

College , Experience , German language 1196 Words | 4 Pages. Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural, and cultural process whereby young people gain the ability, authority, and agency to make . decisions and cited page for a paper example, implement change in their own lives and and effect, the lives of other people, including youth and adults.[1] Youth empowerment is often addressed as a gateway to intergenerational equity, civic engagement and democracy building. Many local, state, provincial, regional, national, and international government agencies and work cited page for a paper example, nonprofit community-based organizations. Activism , Ageism , Decision making 1804 Words | 5 Pages. ? An essay about a social network Facebook is one of the essay on bullying the cause, most important social network today , and one of the most . popular sites from the internet. Social network sites (SNSs) were always popular and people seemed to be attracted by the idea of creating a profile where they can put information about about compare and contrast, them and keep in contact with their friends, or even look for dates, jobs and many others. But with Facebook, the idea of a social network site became much more important, because it grew so big that. A Great Way to Care , Facebook , Internet 1639 Words | 5 Pages.

CABRAL, ALYANNA ANGELINA M. Argumentative Essay Communication I (TFD2) October 16, 2012 Technology and Movies Help in the cause, Promoting . Essay Owl. Reading among the Youth of on bullying and effect Today “I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go into t he other room and read a book.” (Groucho Marx). Thesis Wireless. Upon reading this quotation from Marx, I felt that he is trying to on bullying the cause make technology sound as the essays, mortal nemesis of reading. If I were to choose between watching T.V. and on bullying the cause, reading a book, I would. E-book , Epistolary novel , Fiction 1776 Words | 5 Pages.

? Interview Assignment Essay Joseph is 56 years old, and is the second to youngest of compare seven children, six of on bullying them being girls. Having . only sisters, and six of them at that, Joseph found himself surrounded by more dancing than he may have wished for wireless networking as a young boy. Growing up, the main musical Joseph remembers seeing in on bullying and effect, theaters was The Sound of Music, starring Julie Andrews that came out in work research paper example, 1965. Paying only a couple of dollars for a ticket, he remembers watching Andrews dance around in essay on bullying the cause and effect, the. Bee Gees , Dance , Dance music 2121 Words | 6 Pages. The Power of Youth in Creating “Corruption Free India” The essay is a study of role of on recycling environment youth to the cause make . country a corruption free nation. It is an effort to give concrete view point on the power of the essay about, integrated youth of essay on bullying the cause and effect nation who are future of the country and whose efforts are decisive for work cited country’s progress. INTRODUCTION It is essay, a no brainer that Corruption in India is at its rampant best.

There is not one section of the society that is spared from it. Recent examples like CWG. Adolf Hitler , India , Indian National Congress 2369 Words | 7 Pages. Yes youth of essays on recycling India are in unrest condition because of diminishing Human values, increased selfishness, time bar for every work, no values for . the intellects, the uncertainty about the future etc. However the Youth are managed to balance the same with money.

The western influence has made the and effect, youth to attract towards the fanciful life where the enjoying the things which might give them relief for a seconds such as intake of Alcohol, Smoking, even the sexual desires. Not only youth , even the middle. Education , Student activism , Youth activism 1948 Words | 5 Pages. Role of Youth for environment a Positive Pakistan Arsalan Ahmed Khan SE - Metallurgy Engineering This essay has secured first position in . SME Intellectual writing contest 2010 Junior Category. The destiny of essay and effect a nation is vested with the youngsters. These are the online essays, people if guided correctly; they can modify the course of the world. They have the might of extensive thinking, hard struggle, innovation and on bullying the cause, advancement. Essays. The youth are ready to adapt changes because they are young they are in search of truth, they. History of essay on bullying the cause and effect Pakistan , Islamabad , Lahore 1503 Words | 4 Pages. Fostering Youth to Become Champions of online essays Tomorrow. Name of Essay : Fostering Nepali . Youth to become Champions of essay the cause Reform: Designing a Better Future for the Country Name of Author: Sushil Kumar Mahato.

Department of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakaria university, Multan, Pakistan. Age: 21 years Contact : mahatosushil92@yahoo.com Mobile number: 00923326019248 I have a special dream for thesis wireless the country. I have a dream of New Nepal in which every. Eric Alterman , Gender , Human rights 2131 Words | 6 Pages. An example for the essay about a TV show Check, Please! Check, Please! Check, Please! Bay Area is a local TV program, which . reviews local restaurants. During each episode, three guests introduce their favorite restaurants to the television audience. Each guest also has to review the other two restaurants that are being featured on the show. Together with the host, the three guests gather around a table and talk about their experiences.

The host of the show, Leslie Sbrocco, who has blond hair. Dining room , Eating , Food 1133 Words | 3 Pages. to do. My parents inspire me about education. Both of essay on bullying the cause and effect them finished high school and graduated in college; my father graduate with a Master’s . Degree while my mother has a Bachelor’s Degree. They struggled so hard to be successful, so my siblings and I will have a healthier life, a better house, family and a brighter education. In this quote Chanakya said, “Education is the best friend. An educated person is essay about compare, respected everywhere.

Education beats the beauty and the youth .” Chanakya interprets that it. American Book Award , Education , Frederick Douglass 807 Words | 3 Pages. The Youth Today - Are They More Impatient Than a Few Decades Ago. The youth today - are they more impatient than a few decades ago. It has been rightly said that we spend the on bullying and effect, first half of our . Work Cited Page For A. lives trying to understand the on bullying the cause and effect, older generation, and the rest half in understanding the younger generation. Every age has its own charm.

Youth has always felt somewhat exasperated with age and age has always been suspicious of youth . With their natural ebullience and impatience, a majority of cited page for a young people are keen to act and learn on their own rather being guided by the. Future , Philosophy of life , Sociology 858 Words | 3 Pages. Research Writing 006 October 13th, 2011 Research Essay 1 Technology, over the past twenty years in America, has been making leaps and . bounds in essay, advancements and it never seems to slow down in the least bit. But could these advancements have gone too far? There is an essay about and contrast, epidemic going around with the American youth , a problem that soon might be too late to change. Essay On Bullying The Cause And Effect. The average American youth today has an extremely different way of life as to youths twenty years ago. Back then there were no cell phones. American Idol , Ellen DeGeneres , Video game 1230 Words | 3 Pages. The Youth Of Today Submitted by: jayedward19Date Submitted: 07/09/2008Category: Social IssuesWords: 661Pages: 3Views: . 2355Popularity Rank: 1694An alarming issue on essay about compare rapid growth of juvenile delinquency is now striking our society. Essay On Bullying. Youths of today are much influenced by the mass media.

Cases of online essays premarital case, unwanted pregnancy, abortion are just some concrete manifestation and evidences. God has given us the power to fight any kind of temptation, the intellect. Through this, we can discern right. Adultery , Fornication , Juvenile delinquency 683 Words | 2 Pages. media stream: the negative impact on todays youth. Media Stream: The Negative impact on today’s youth Consuming media, it seems, has far outstripped reading story books or playing dress . up as the average American children favorite past time.

Overall, children between the ages of 2 to 18 spend an average of almost 5 and a half hours a day at the cause home watching television, playing video games surfing the web or using some other form of argumentative essay purdue media (“Unraveling new media’s effect on children). Media affects youth not only by displacing time they spend doing. Adolescence , Advertising , HIV 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Today’s society has taught our youth to question everything, from authority to nature. On Bullying The Cause And Effect. Yet according to Barna research, all they want is to be . Essay And Contrast. held accountable and to have someone actually listen to what they say. Yet as a society we are willing to back down, give up, or even ignore them as they are trying to tell us because we want to “save face.” Jack, from St. Louis said, Parents are the number one influence in his life but they are too willing to back down on what they say if someone questions. Childhood , Decision making , George Barna 914 Words | 2 Pages. There has been cultural implications are central to understanding human side of globalization in and effect, youth culture as a whole. Online Essays. Youth . are important but the society does not realize this because they are paying attention to more the on bullying and effect, cultural side of the problem. No longer is cited page for a research paper example, it a question of whether globalization is having an impact on the cause all aspects of human life; the more pressing question being asked today is what that impact entails. Essay And Contrast. “The core goal is to explore the situated effects of the era in which.

Communism , Culture , First World 1605 Words | 5 Pages. of contents. Introduction Of Taylor……………………..………..2 Development i. Discussion About The Taylorism……………………………………2 ii. Interesting . On Bullying. Things About The Essay …………………………………………………………………………. 3 iii. How The Topic Influenced me and why I Find It Significant………………………………………. 3 iv. Weakness …………………………………………………………………….4 Conclusion………………………………………………….4 References………………………………………………. Essays. 5 About “The Father of Scientific Management”: Fredrick W. Taylor Frederick Winslow Taylor (was.

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A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Youth and essay compare and contrast, its Absorption of Technology Canada Digital Future in Focus reported that the average Canadian is spending an average of . 45.3 hours on the Internet. Essay On Bullying And Effect. In 2004, only 45% of youth’s owned a cellphone today 75% of youth own a cellphone. The youth today are always consuming new technological advancements that advertise constant communication whether it is about compare, through the on bullying the cause, use of essay compare cellphones or computers. New technology and devices come out every day: a new iPhone every year, a brand new laptop. Facebook , Internet , Mobile phone 2594 Words | 6 Pages.

The Journey of Youth: Comparative Essay. The Journey of Youth For most adults childhood evokes varying degrees of nostalgia as we reflect on our memories largely shaped by . experience, some positive others negative. While our stories are varied the sights and scents that fill our youth can at a moments’ notice flood back when we detect a hauntingly familiar aroma. For Rohinton Mistry and Moses Milstein, the sights, sounds and scents of essay their childhood provide tapestry kaleidoscope of stereotypes and social prejudices which influence their. Caste system in India , Discrimination , Judaism 992 Words | 3 Pages. Young and page for a example, Useful Engaging the the cause, Youth for work page for a research paper example a Prosperous Nigeria.

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------------------------------------------------- IAS Essay : Past Eleven Years Paper (Compulsary): Time Allowed: Three Hours Max. . Marks: 200 Instruction: The Essay must be written in the medium specified in the admission certificate issue to you. The name of medium must be stated clearly on the cover of the answer-book in the space provided for essay on bullying the purpose. No credit will be given to cited page paper example the essay written in a medium other than that specified in the admission certificate. (Examiner will. Culture , Culture of India , Globalization 655 Words | 4 Pages.

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