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CAIR: Islamists Fooling the Establishment. by Daniel Pipes and Sharon Chadha. Middle East Quarterly. Spring 2006, pp. 3-20. The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), headquartered in Washington, is perhaps the best-known and most controversial Muslim organization in North America.

CAIR presents itself as an advocate for Muslims' civil rights and the spokesman for American Muslims. Nonverbal! We are similar to a Muslim NAACP, says its communications director, Ibrahim Hooper.[1] Its official mission—to enhance understanding of Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and build coalitions that promote justice and means mutual understanding[2]—suggests nothing problematic. Starting with a single office in 1994, CAIR now claims thirty-one affiliates, including a branch in phd thesis nonverbal Canada, with more steadily being added. In addition to its grand national headquarters in Washington, it has impressive offices in essay questions for middle other cities; the New York office, for example, is housed in phd thesis the 19-story Interchurch Center located on Manhattan's Riverside Drive. But there is another side to CAIR that has alarmed many people in a cause essay school positions to phd thesis know.

The Department of Homeland Security refuses to deal with it. Senator Charles Schumer (Democrat, New York) describes it as an organization which we know has ties to terrorism.[3] Senator Dick Durbin (Democrat, Illinois) observes that CAIR is writing as a, unusual in its extreme rhetoric and its associations with groups that are suspect.[4] Steven Pomerantz, the nonverbal, FBI's former chief of counterterrorism, notes that CAIR, its leaders, and and other essays its activities effectively give aid to international terrorist groups.[5] The family of phd thesis John P. O'Neill, Sr., the former FBI counterterrorism chief who perished at the World Trade Center, named CAIR in a lawsuit as having been part of the criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism[6] responsible for the September 11 atrocities. Counterterrorism expert Steven Emerson calls it a radical fundamentalist front group for Hamas.[7] Of particular note are the American Muslims who reject CAIR's claim to speak on their behalf. The late Seifeldin Ashmawy, publisher of the materialism and other essays, New Jersey-based Voice of Peace , called CAIR the champion of extremists whose views do not represent Islam.[8] Jamal Hasan of the Council for nonverbal, Democracy and Tolerance explains that CAIR's goal is to spread Islamic hegemony the phd thesis, world over by hook or by crook.[9] Kamal Nawash, head of nonverbal Free Muslims Against Terrorism, finds that CAIR and similar groups condemn terrorism on the surface while endorsing an ideology that helps foster extremism, adding that almost all of paper third of view their members are theocratic Muslims who reject secularism and phd thesis want to establish Islamic states.[10] Tashbih Sayyed of the paper point of view, Council for Democracy and Tolerance calls CAIR the most accomplished fifth column in phd thesis nonverbal the United States.[11] And Stephen Schwartz of the Center on writing a cause and effect essay, Islamic Pluralism writes that CAIR should be considered a foreign-based subversive organization, comparable in the Islamist field to the Soviet-controlled Communist Party, USA.[12] CAIR, for nonverbal, its part, dismisses all criticism, blaming negative comments on Muslim bashers who can never point to something CAIR has done in its 10-year history that is objectionable.[13] Actually, there is much about the organization's history that is objectionable—and it is readily apparent to anyone who bothers to look. When President George W. Bush visited the Islamic Center of Washington several days after September 11, 2001, to signal that he would not tolerate a backlash against real and other essays, Muslims, he invited CAIR's executive director, Nihad Awad, to join him at phd thesis the podium. Two months later, when Secretary of State Colin Powell hosted a Ramadan dinner, he, too, called upon dummy resume, CAIR as representative of Islam in America.[14] More broadly, when the State Department seeks out Muslims to welcome foreign dignitaries, journalists, and academics, it calls upon CAIR.[15] The organization has represented American Muslims before Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Agency hosted CAIR's Sensitivity and Diversity Workshop in an effort to harmonize space research with Muslim sensibilities.[16] Law-enforcement agencies in Florida, Maryland, Ohio, Michigan, New York, Arizona, California, Missouri, Texas, and Kentucky have attended CAIR's sensitivity-training sessions.[17] The organization boasts such tight relations with law enforcement that it claims to have even been invited to monitor police raids.[18] In July 2004, as agents from the FBI, Internal Revenue Service, and nonverbal Homeland Security descended on type, the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America, a Saudi-created school in Merrifield, Virginia, a local paper reported that the FBI had informed CAIR's legal director, Arsalan Iftikhar, that morning that the raid was going to take place.

CAIR is also a media darling. It claims to log five thousand annual mentions on newspapers, television, and radio, including some of the most prestigious media in the United States.[19] The press dutifully quotes CAIR's statistics, publishes its theological views, reports its opinions, rehashes its press releases, invites its staff on television, and generally dignifies its existence as a routine part of the American and Canadian political scenes. CAIR regularly participates in seminars on nonverbal, Islamic cultural issues for corporations and has been invited to essay middle school speak at many of America's leading universities, including Harvard, Stanford, Johns Hopkins, and Columbia. American high schools have invited CAIR to nonverbal promote its agenda, as have educationally-minded senior citizens.[20] Perhaps the most obvious problem with CAIR is the fact that at least five of its employees and board members have been arrested, convicted, deported, or otherwise linked to terrorism-related charges and activities. Resume! Randall (Ismail) Royer , an American convert to Islam, served as CAIR's communications specialist and civil rights coordinator; today he sits in jail on terrorism-related charges. In June 2003, Royer and ten other young men, ages 23 to 35, known as the phd thesis, Virginia jihad group, were indicted on forty-one counts of conspiracy to train for and participate in a violent jihad overseas. The defendants, nine of them U.S. citizens, were accused of association with Lashkar-e-Taiba, a radical Islamic group designated as a foreign terrorist organization by the U.S. Bibtex! Department of State in 2001. They were also accused of meeting covertly in private homes and at the Islamic Center in Falls Church to nonverbal prepare themselves for dummy resume yahoo, battle by listening to lectures and watching videotapes.[21] As the prosecutor noted, Ten miles from Capitol Hill in the streets of northern Virginia, American citizens allegedly met, plotted, and recruited for violent jihad.[22] According to Matthew Epstein of the nonverbal, Investigative Project, Royer helped recruit the others to the jihad effort while he was working for CAIR.

The group trained at firing ranges in Virginia and Pennsylvania; in addition, it practiced small-unit military tactics at and effect essay a paintball war-games facility in Virginia, earning it the moniker, the nonverbal, paintball jihadis.[23] Eventually members of the real materialism and other essays, group traveled to Pakistan. Five of the men indicted, including CAIR's Royer, were found to have had in their possession, according to the indictment, AK-47-style rifles, telescopic lenses, hundreds of phd thesis rounds of ammunition and tracer rounds, documents on undertaking jihad and materialism martyrdom, [and] a copy of the terrorist handbook containing instructions on how to phd thesis nonverbal manufacture and bibtex type use explosives and chemicals as weapons.[24] After four of the nonverbal, eleven defendants pleaded guilty, the remaining seven, including Royer, were accused in dummy a new, 32-count indictment of yet more serious charges: conspiring to help Al-Qaeda and nonverbal the Taliban battle American troops in Afghanistan.[25] Royer admitted in paragraph writing as a his grand jury testimony that he had already waged jihad in nonverbal Bosnia under a commander acting on orders from Osama bin Laden. Prosecutors also presented evidence that his father, Ramon Royer, had rented a room in bibtex phd thesis his St. Louis-area home in 2000 to Ziyad Khaleel, the student who purchased the satellite phone used by Al-Qaeda in planning the two U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa in August 1998.[26] Royer eventually pleaded guilty to phd thesis lesser firearms-related charges, and the former CAIR staffer was sentenced to twenty years in paragraph on travelling as a prison.[27] A coda to the Virginia jihad network came in nonverbal 2005 when a Federal court convicted another Virginia man, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, of plotting to kill President Bush. Prosecutors alleged that Abu Ali participated in the Virginia jihad network's paintball games and perhaps supplied one of on travelling means his fellow jihadists with an assault rifle.[28] Royer's possible role in Abu Ali's plans are unclear.

Ghassan Elashi , the founder of nonverbal CAIR's Texas chapter, has a long history of funding terrorism. First, he was convicted in July 2004, with his four brothers, of having illegally shipped computers from their Dallas-area business, InfoCom Corporation, to a cause and effect middle two designated state-sponsors of phd thesis terrorism, Libya and Syria.[29] Second, he and two brothers were convicted in April 2005 of knowingly doing business with Mousa Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas leader, whom the U.S. State Department had in 1995 declared a specially designated terrorist. Elashi was convicted of all twenty-one counts with which he was charged, including conspiracy, money laundering, and paragraph writing on travelling dealing in the property of nonverbal a designated terrorist.[30] Third, he was charged in type July 2004 with providing more than $12.4 million to Hamas while he was running the Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development, America's largest Islamic charity.[31] When the U.S. government shuttered Holy Land Foundation in late 2001, CAIR characterized this move as unjust and disturbing.[32] Bassem Khafagi , an Egyptian native and CAIR's onetime community relations director, pleaded guilty in September 2003 to lying on phd thesis nonverbal, his visa application and passing bad checks for bibtex, substantial amounts in early 2001,[33] for phd thesis, which he was deported. Paragraph Writing As A Means Of Education! CAIR claimed Khafagi was hired only after he had committed his crimes and that the phd thesis, organization was unaware of his wrongdoing.[34] But that is unconvincing, for a cursory background check reveals that Khafagi was a founding member and president of the Islamic Assembly of North America (IANA),[35] an organization under investigation by the U.S. Dummy! Department of Justice for terrorism-related activities.

CAIR surely knew that IANA under Khafagi was in phd thesis the business of, as prosecutors stated in Idaho court papers, disseminating radical Islamic ideology, the purpose of which was indoctrination, recruitment of members, and real essays the instigation of acts of violence and nonverbal terrorism.[36] For example, IANA websites promoted the essay questions ages, views of two Saudi preachers, Salman al-Awdah and Safar al-Hawali, well-known in Islamist circles for having been spiritual advisors to Osama bin Laden.[37] Under Khafagi's leadership, Matthew Epstein has testified, IANA hosted a conference at which a senior Al-Qaeda recruiter, Abdelrahman al-Dosari, was a speaker.[38] IANA disseminated publications advocating suicide attacks against the United States, according to federal investigators.[39] Also, Khafagi was co-owner of a Sir Speedy printing franchise until 1998 with Rafil Dhafir, who was a former vice president of IANA and a Syracuse-area oncologist convicted in February 2005 of phd thesis illegally sending money to Iraq during the Saddam Hussein regime as well as defrauding donors by dummy yahoo, using contributions to his Help the Needy charitable fund to nonverbal avoid taxes and to purchase personal assets for himself. Dhafir was sentenced to twenty-two years in prison.[40] Rabih Haddad , a CAIR fundraiser, was arrested in December 2001 on terrorism-related charges and deported from the United States due to his subsequent work as executive director of the Global Relief Foundation, a charity he cofounded[41] which was designated by the U.S. Treasury Department in October 2002 for financing Al-Qaeda and other terrorist organizations.[42] Siraj Wahhaj , a CAIR advisory board member, was named in 1995 by U.S. attorney Mary Jo White as a possible unindicted coconspirator in paragraph of education the plot to blow up New York City landmarks led by the blind sheikh, Omar Abdul Rahman. In defense of having Wahhaj on its advisory board, CAIR described him as one of the most respected Muslim leaders in America.[43] In October 2004, he spoke at phd thesis a CAIR dinner. This roster of employees and board members connected to terrorism makes one wonder how CAIR remains an bibtex type, acceptable guest at U.S. Phd Thesis! government events—and even more so, how U.S. law enforcement agencies continue to associate with it. CAIR has a number of links to essay questions the terror organization Hamas, starting with the founder of nonverbal its Texas chapter, Ghassan Elashi, as noted above. Real Materialism And Other Essays! Secondly, Elashi and another CAIR founder, Omar Ahmad, attended a key meeting in Philadelphia in 1993. An FBI memo characterizes this meeting as a planning session for Hamas, Holy Land Foundation, and Islamic Association of Palestine to find ways to nonverbal disrupt Israeli-Palestinian diplomacy and raise money for Hamas in the United States.[44] The Philadelphia meeting was deemed such strong proof of Islamic Association of Palestine's relation to Hamas that a federal judge in Chicago in December 2004 ruled the essay questions ages, Islamic Association of Palestine partially liable for nonverbal, US$156 million in damages (along with the Holy Land Foundation and Mohammad Salah, a Hamas operative)[45] for having aided and abetted the Hamas murder of David Boim, an writing and effect essay, American citizen.[46] Third, CAIR's founding personnel were closely linked to the Islamic Association of phd thesis nonverbal Palestine, which was founded by Ibrahim Abu Marzook, a senior Hamas operative and husband of Elashi's cousin; according to Epstein, the Islamic Association of Palestine functions as Hamas's public relations and recruitment arm in the United States.[47] The two individuals who established CAIR, Ahmad and Nihad Awad, had been, respectively, the president and public relations director of the and other, Islamic Association of Palestine. Hooper, CAIR's director of communications, had been an employee of the phd thesis nonverbal, Islamic Association of paragraph on travelling as a means of education Palestine.[48] Rafeeq Jabar, president of the Islamic Association of Palestine, was a founding director of CAIR. Fourth, the nonverbal, Holy Land Foundation, which the U.S. Writing And Effect Essay Middle! government has charged with funneling funds to Hamas, provided CAIR with some of its start-up funding in 1994. (See $5,000 money transfer, figure 1.) In the other direction, according to Joe Kaufman, CAIR sent potential donors to the Holy Land Foundation's website when they clicked on their post-September 11 weblink, Donate to phd thesis the NY/DC Disaster Relief Fund.[49] Fifth, Awad publicly declared his enthusiasm for type, Hamas at Barry University in Florida in 1994: I'm in support of Hamas movement more than the PLO.

As an attorney pointed out in phd thesis the course of deposing Awad for the Boim case, Awad both supported Hamas and acknowledged an yahoo, awareness of its involvement in violence.[50] A class-action lawsuit brought by the estate of John P. O'Neill, Sr. charges CAIR and its Canadian branch of being, since their inception, part of the nonverbal, criminal conspiracy of radical Islamic terrorism with a unique role in the terrorist network: both organizations have actively sought to resume hamper governmental anti-terrorism efforts by direct propaganda activities aimed at police, first-responders, and intelligence agencies through so-called sensitivity training. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! Their goal is to create as much self-doubt, hesitation, fear of name-calling, and litigation within police departments and intelligence agencies as possible so as to render such authorities ineffective in pursuing international and domestic terrorist entities.[51] It would be hard to improve on this characterization; under the guise of participating in counterterrorism, CAIR does its best to yahoo impede these efforts. Phd Thesis! This approach can be seen from its statements. CAIR encourages law enforcement in its work—so long as it does not involve counterterrorism.

Wissam Nasr, the head of CAIR's New York office, explains: The Muslim community in New York wants to play a positive role in protecting our nation's security, but that role is made more difficult if the questions ages, FBI is perceived as pursuing suspects much more actively than it is phd thesis, searching for essay questions ages, community partners. [52] Nasr would have the FBI get out of the unpleasant business of pursuing suspects and instead devote itself to phd thesis building social good will—through CAIR, naturally. Likewise, on the eve of the U.S. war with Iraq in March 2003, CAIR distributed a Muslim community safety kit that advised Muslims to Know your rights if contacted by the FBI. It tells them specifically, You have no obligation to talk to the FBI, even if you are not a citizen. … You do not have to permit them to enter your home. … ALWAYS have an attorney present when answering questions. On the other hand, when it comes to protecting Muslims, CAIR wants an writing on travelling as a means, active FBI. The same Muslim community safety kit advised: If you believe you have been the victim of an anti-Muslim hate crime or discrimination, you should: 1. Report the phd thesis nonverbal, incident to and other essays your local police station and FBI office IMMEDIATELY.[53] In January 2006, CAIR joined a lawsuit against the National Security Agency demanding that the phd thesis nonverbal, U.S. intelligence agency cease monitoring communications with suspected Islamist terrorists. Dummy Yahoo! Part of its complaints concerned a belief that the U.S. government monitored its communications with Rabih Haddad, the suspected Al-Qaeda financier who has since moved to Lebanon.[54] Upon learning that CAIR was a fellow plaintiff in the suit, political writer Christopher Hitchens said, I was revolted to see who I was in phd thesis nonverbal company with. CAIR is a lot to swallow.[55] Finally, CAIR discourages Americans from writing on travelling means of education, improving their counterterrorism skills. Nonverbal! Deedra Abboud, CAIR's Arizona director, approves of police learning the paragraph writing of education, Arabic language if that lowers the chances of cultural and linguistic misunderstandings. However, if they're learning it in phd thesis order to better fight terrorism, that concerns me.

Only because that assumes that the paper third point of view, only fighting we have to do is among Arabic speakers. That's not a long-term strategy.[56] Apologizing for Islamist Terrorism. CAIR has consistently shown itself to be on the wrong side of the war on terrorism, protecting, defending, and supporting both accused and even convicted radical Islamic terrorists. In October 1998—months after Osama bin Laden had issued his first declaration of war against the United States and phd thesis nonverbal had been named as the chief suspect in the bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa—CAIR demanded the dummy yahoo, removal of a Los Angeles billboard describing Osama bin Laden as the nonverbal, sworn enemy, finding this depiction offensive to Muslims. CAIR also leapt to third person point of view bin Laden's defense, denying his responsibility for the twin East African embassy bombings.

CAIR's Hooper saw these explosions resulting from misunderstandings of both sides.[57] Even after the September 11 atrocity, CAIR continued to protect bin Laden, stating only nonverbal, that if [note the if] Osama bin Laden was behind it, we condemn him by name.[58] Not until December 2001, when bin Laden on videotape boasted of his involvement in the attack, did CAIR finally acknowledge his role. CAIR has also consistently defended other radical Islamic terrorists. Rather than praise the conviction of the writing and effect essay, perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, it deemed this a travesty of justice.[59] It labeled the phd thesis nonverbal, extradition order for suspected Hamas terrorist Mousa Abu Marzook anti-Islamic and a cause and effect essay middle anti-American.[60] CAIR has co-sponsored Yvonne Ridley, the British convert to Islam who became a Taliban enthusiast and a denier that Al-Qaeda was involved in phd thesis 9-11.[61] When four U.S. civilian contractors in Falluja were (in CAIR's words) ambushed in their SUV's, burned, mutilated, dragged through the streets, and then hung from a bridge spanning the Euphrates River, CAIR issued a press release that condemned the mutilation of the corpses but stayed conspicuously silent on the actual killings.[62] During the 2005 trial of Sami Al-Arian, accused of heading Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the United States, Ahmed Bedier of CAIR's Florida branch emerged as Al-Arian's effective spokesman, providing sound bytes to the media, trying to get his trial moved out of Tampa, commenting on the jury selection, and questions so on.[63] More broadly, website pointed out that of the phd thesis, more than 3100 fatal Islamic terror attacks committed in essay for middle ages the last four years, we have only seen CAIR specifically condemn 18.[64] Ties to Extremists, Left and phd thesis nonverbal Right. The Council on American-Islamic Relations has affinities to extremists of both the left and right, sharing features with both. Its extensive ties to far-left groups include funding from the writing and effect essay middle, Tides Foundation for its Interfaith Coalition against Hate Crimes;[65] endorsing a statement issued by Refuse Resist[66] and a National Day of Protest … to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of a Generation.[67] CAIR supported the Civil Liberties Restoration Act, legislation drafted by Open Society Policy Center, an organization founded by George Soros that would obstruct U.S. Nonverbal! law enforcement from prosecuting the War on Extremism. Far-left members of Congress such as Dennis Kucinich (Democrat, Ohio) and Jim McDermott (Democrat, Washington) have turned up as featured speakers at CAIR fundraising events.

Its neo-Nazi side came out most clearly in CAIR's early years. Type! In 1996, according to testimony by Steven Emerson, Yusuf Islam—the Muslim convert formerly known as the singer Cat Stevens—gave a keynote speech at a CAIR event. The contents of the speech itself are not known but Islam wrote a pamphlet published by the Islamic Association of Palestine, CAIR's stepparent, which included these sentences: The Jews seem neither to respect God nor his Creation. Their own holy books contain the phd thesis, curse of writing as a means God brought upon them by nonverbal, their prophets on account of essay middle school their disobedience to Him and mischief in the earth. We have seen the disrespect for religion displayed by those who consider themselves to be God's Chosen People.[68] In 1998, CAIR co-hosted an event at which an phd thesis, Egyptian Islamist leader, Wagdi Ghunaym, declared Jews to be the yahoo, descendants of the apes.[69] CAIR continues to expose its fascistic side by its repeated activities with William W. Baker, exposed as a neo-Nazi in March 2002.[70] Even after that date, CAIR invited Baker to phd thesis speak at several events, for example in Florida on writing a cause essay, August 12, 2003[71] and New Jersey on October 18, 2003 . Nonverbal! [72] CAIR liked Baker's work so much, it used the writing and effect, title of his book, More in Common Than You Think , in one of its ad campaigns in March 2004 and as the phd thesis nonverbal, title of an real and other essays, Elderhostel lecture.[73] According to nonverbal filed copies of its annual Internal Revenue Service Form 990, CAIR's U.S. chapters have more than doubled their combined revenues from the $2.5 million they recorded in 2000 to $5.6 million in 2002, though the number dipped slightly to $5.3 million in 2003, the most recent year for which figures are available.

That CAIR has recorded at least $3.1 million on its year-end combined balance sheets since 2001, combined with its minimal grant-making ($27,525 was the total that all CAIR chapters granted in 2003), suggests that CAIR is building an endowment and planning for the long term. The Internal Revenue Service filings claim that the paragraph writing as a means, bulk of its funds come from direct public support[74] and its website explicitly denies that CAIR receives support from foreign sources: We do not support directly or indirectly, or receive support from, any overseas group or government.[75] However, this denial is phd thesis, flatly untrue, for CAIR has accepted foreign funding, and yahoo from many sources.[76] A press release from the Saudi Arabian embassy in Washington indicates that in nonverbal August 1999, the essay ages, Islamic Development Bank—a bank headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia—gave CAIR $250,000 to phd thesis purchase land for its Washington, D.C. headquarters.[77] CAIR's decision to accept Islamic Development Bank funding is unfortunate, given the bank's role as fund manager of the bibtex phd thesis type, Al-Quds and the Al-Aqsa Funds, established by twelve Arab countries in order to nonverbal fund the Palestinian intifada and and effect essay middle school provide financial support to phd thesis nonverbal the families of dummy yahoo Palestinian martyrs.[78] According to records made public by Paul Sperry, CAIR purchased its national headquarters in nonverbal 1999 through an unusual lease-purchase transaction with the essay questions, United Bank of Kuwait.[79] The bank was the deed holder and leased the building to CAIR; yet despite not owning the building, CAIR recorded the property on its balance sheet as a property asset valued at $2.6 million.[80] This arrangement changed in September 2002 when CAIR bought out the Kuwaiti bank with funds provided, at phd thesis least in part, by Al-Maktoum Foundation, based in research paper point Dubai and nonverbal headed by Dubai's crown prince and bibtex phd thesis defense minister, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum. The markings on the deed indicate that the foundation provided purchase money to the extent of $978,031.34 to phd thesis CAIR, or roughly one-third the value of the ages, property.[81] One only wonders what a more complete investigation of phd thesis nonverbal its real estate transactions would turn up. Materialism! In December 1999, the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY), an organization benefiting from Saudi patronage,[82] announced at phd thesis nonverbal a press conference in Saudi Arabia that it was extending both moral and financial support to CAIR [83] to help it construct its $3.5 million headquarters in Washington, D.C. WAMY also agreed to introduce CAIR to Saudi philanthropists and recommend their financial support for the headquarters project.[84] In 2002, CAIR and WAMY announced, again from Saudi Arabia, their cooperation on a $1 million public relations campaign. The Saudi Gazette , which reported the story, said that CAIR's leader, Nihad Awad, had already met leading Saudi businessmen in a cause and effect middle school order to brief them about the projects and raise funds.[85] Later that week on the same fundraising trip through the Middle East, CAIR reportedly received $500,000 from Saudi prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, reputed to be one of the world's richest men.[86] Waleed also, in May 2005, stated that he is more than prepared to work with organizations such as CAIR, and to provide needed support to phd thesis nonverbal them.[87] CAIR has received at least $12,000 from the International Relief Organization (also called the International Islamic Relief Organization, or IIRO), which itself was the paper third, recipient of nonverbal some $10 million from resume yahoo, its parent organization in Saudi Arabia. (See a 1994 check from the IIRO for $5,000, figure 2.) The International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) gave CAIR's Washington office $14,000 in 2003. According to phd thesis a court-filed affidavit, David Kane of the U.S. Customs Service determined that the IIIT receives donations from overseas via its related entities.[88] Law enforcement is looking at paragraph as a of education the IIIT connection with Operation Green Quest, the major investigation into the activities of individuals and organizations believed to be ardent supporters of the phd thesis, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Hamas, and Al-Qaeda.[89] CAIR, not surprisingly, criticized the dummy resume yahoo, probe of its donor, telling the nonverbal, Financial Times of London that the essay ages, investigation is an attack on respected Islamic institutions.[90] Despite these many foreign sources, CAIR still claims to receive no funds from outside the United States. Nonverbal! An Integral Part of the Wahhabi Lobby. CAIR has a key role in the Wahhabi lobby—the network of organizations, usually supported by donations from Saudi Arabia, whose aim is to propagate the especially extreme version of Islam practiced in essay questions Saudi Arabia.

For one, it sends money to other parts of the lobby. According to nonverbal CAIR's Form 990 filings for 2003, its California offices invested $325,000 with the North American Islamic Trust (NAIT).[91] The NAIT was established in 1971 by the Muslim Student Association of the U.S. and Canada, which bills itself as the precursor to the Islamic Society of dummy resume yahoo North America,[92] now the largest member of the Wahhabi lobby. According to Newsweek , authorities say that over the years NAIT money has helped the Saudi Arabian sect of Wahhabism—or Salafism, as the nonverbal, broader, pan-Islamic movement is called—to seize control of hundreds of mosques in U.S. Muslim communities.[93] J. Michael Waller, a terrorism expert, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee that NAIT is believed to own 50 to 79 percent of the mosques in paragraph writing on travelling North America. Nonverbal! According to Waller, NAIT was raided as part of Operation Green Quest in 2002, on suspicions of involvement in terrorist financing.[94] CAIR affiliates regularly speak at events sponsored by the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), an umbrella organization of the Wahhabi lobby. Nabil Sadoun, a director of CAIR-DC, spoke at the ISNA's regional conference in 2003. Hussam Ayloush, executive director of as a means CAIR's Southern California chapter, and Fouad Khatib, the CAIR-California chairman, spoke at an ISNA-sponsored event.[95] Safaa Zarzour, president of CAIR-Chicago, was also an ISNA speaker, as was Azhar Azeez, a board member of CAIR-Dallas, who has spoken at several ISNA conferences.[96] In January 2003, the Saudi newspaper Ar-Riyadh reported that Nihad Awad appeared on phd thesis nonverbal, a panel along with 'Aqil ibn 'Abd al-'Aziz al-'Aqil, secretary-general of the on travelling as a of education, Saudi charity Al-Haramain Foundation[97]—despite that organization's well-known ties to terrorism and the fact that already in March 2002, long before Awad's visit with Al-Haramain, the nonverbal, U.S. and Saudi governments had jointly designated eleven of its branches financial supporter[s] of terrorism.[98] The U.S.-based branch of the organization was also subsequently designated in September 2004.[99] To fully appreciate what it means that more than half of U.S. mosques are promoting Saudi Islam, we refer to paragraph writing on travelling the Freedom House report, Saudi Publications on Hate Ideology Invade American Mosques.

It explains that Saudi documents disseminated at phd thesis nonverbal U.S. mosques are telling America's Muslims that it is a religious obligation for them to hate Christians and Jews and warning that Muslims should not have Christians and Jews as friends, nor should they help them.[100] The Freedom House report indicates that Saudi publications disseminated by U.S. mosques: say it is lawful for Muslims to physically harm and steal from adulterers and homosexuals; condemn interpretations of resume yahoo Islam other than the strict Wahhabi version preached in phd thesis nonverbal Saudi Arabia; advocate the killing of those who convert out of Islam; assert that it is a Muslim's duty to eliminate the State of Israel; and promote the idea that women should be segregated and veiled and, of course, barred from essay questions for middle, some employment and activities.[101] But not to worry; CAIR's spokesman, Ibrahim Hooper, tells us, The majority of the stuff they picked is in Arabic, a language that most people in mosques don't read.[102] CAIR's personnel are normally tight-lipped about the organization's agenda but sometimes let their ambitions slip out. CAIR's long-serving chairman, Omar Ahmad, reportedly told a crowd of California Muslims in July 1998, Islam isn't in America to be equal to any other faith, but to become dominant. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! The Koran . should be the highest authority in and other America, and Islam the only accepted religion on earth.[103] Five years later, Ahmad denied having said this and issued a press release saying he was seeking a retraction.[104] But the reporter stood behind her story, and the newspaper that reported Ahmad's remarks told WorldNetDaily it had not been contacted by CAIR.[105] In 1993, before CAIR existed, Ibrahim Hooper told a reporter: I wouldn't want to create the impression that I wouldn't like the government of the United States to be Islamic sometime in phd thesis nonverbal the future.[106] On the Michael Medved radio show in 2003, Hooper made the same point more positively: if Muslims ever become a majority in the United States, it would be safe to assume that they would want to replace the U.S. Constitution with Islamic law, as most Muslims believe that God's law is superior to man-made law.[107] Other CAIR personnel also express their contempt for the United States. Ihsan Bagby of CAIR's Washington office has said that Muslims can never be full citizens of this country, referring to bibtex phd thesis type the United States, because there is no way we can be fully committed to phd thesis the institutions and ideologies of this country.[108] Ayloush said that the war on materialism, terror has become a war on Muslims with the phd thesis, U.S. government the questions ages, new Saddam. Nonverbal! He concluded: So let's end this hypocrisy, this hypocrisy that we are better than the other dictator.[109] In a bizarre coda, Parvez Ahmed, the current CAIR chairman, touted the virtues of Islamic democracy in 2004 by portraying the dummy resume yahoo, Afghan constitutional process as superior to the U.S. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! one: The new Afghan constitution shows that the constitution of a Muslim nation can be democratic and yet not contradict the essence of Islam. During my meeting with a high-ranking Afghan delegation during their recent visit to the United States, I was told that the Afghan constitutional convention included Hindu delegates despite Hindus accounting for only 1 percent of the population. Essay! Contrast this with our own constitutional convention that excluded women and nonverbal blacks.[110] CAIR attempts to close down public debate about itself and real Islam in nonverbal several ways, starting with a string of lawsuits against public and private individuals and questions ages several publications.[111] CAIR's Rabiah Ahmed has openly acknowledged that lawsuits are increasingly an instrument for it to use.[112] In addition, CAIR has resorted to financial pressure in an effort to phd thesis nonverbal silence critics. One such case concerns ABC radio personality Paul Harvey, who on a cause essay school, December 4, 2003, described the vicious nature of phd thesis cock fighting in Iraq, then commented: Add to the [Iraqi] thirst for blood, a religion which encourages killing, and resume yahoo it is entirely understandable if Americans came to nonverbal this bloody party unprepared.[113] CAIR responded a day later with a demand for an on-air apology.

CAIR then issued a call to its supporters to contact Harvey's advertising sponsors to press them to paragraph as a means of education pull their ads until Harvey responds to Muslim concerns.[114] Although Harvey quickly and publicly retracted his remarks, CAIR continued its campaign against him. Another case of financial intimidation took place in phd thesis nonverbal March 2005, when CAIR campaigned to have National Review remove two books—Serge Trifkovic's The Sword of the Prophet [115] and J.L. Menezes' The Life and Religion of dummy Mohammed [116]—as well as the positive reviews of those books, from its on-line bookstore. CAIR claimed the books defame Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. When it did not get immediate satisfaction from National Review , it instructed its partisans to pressure the Boeing Corporation to nonverbal withdraw its advertisements from the magazine.

National Review briefly took down both books but then quickly reposted the one by Trifkovic. Trifkovic himself argued that CAIR's success here will only whet Islamist appetites and encourage their hope that the end-result will be a crescent on the Capitol a generation or two from now.[117] CAIR resorted to another form of intimidation versus Florida radio show host and Baptist pastor Mike Frazier. Real Essays! Frazier had criticized local and state officials in September 2004 for nonverbal, attending a CAIR awards dinner because, as he put it, If these people would have bothered to third person point of view check CAIR out beforehand they would have seen that it is a radical group. He termed what followed absolutely unbelievable. Within a month, he says he received six death threats and forty-seven threatening phone calls, was accosted by strangers, was labeled an nonverbal, extremist and a fundamentalist zealot, and accused of questions for middle propagating fear, terror and phd thesis nonverbal disunity by the St. Petersburg Times . Several members of his church fled his congregation because, according to Frazier, they were afraid.[118] Other CAIR targets of intimidation have included the Simon Wiesenthal Center for juxtaposing a picture of the Ayatollah Khomeini next to Adolf Hitler,[119] and the Reader's Digest for an article, The Global War on Christians,[120] which CAIR found smears Islam by citing well-documented cases of research Christian persecution. Nonverbal! CAIR's Nihad Awad faulted the Reader's Digest for leaving the impression that Islam somehow encourages or permits rape, kidnapping, torture, and forced conversion.[121] In December 2003, CAIR ruined the ages, career of an army officer and nurse, Captain Edwina McCall, who had treated American soldiers wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan but ended up resigning under a cloud of suspicion. Her crime? Using her military e-mail address on an Internet discussion board concerning the Islamist agenda. CAIR sent the comments to the secretary of defense, calling attention to her allegedly bigoted anti-Muslim comments and demanding that her extremist and phd thesis Islamophobic views be investigated and then followed by appropriate action.

The Army immediately cast the and other, officer under suspicion, leading her to phd thesis resign from a career she had loved.[122] At times, CAIR inspires its attack dogs to real and other make threats and sits back when they follow through. After Daniel Pipes published an article in July 1999 explaining the difference between moderate and radical Islam,[123] CAIR launched fifteen separate attacks on him in the space of two months, attacks widely reprinted in Muslim publications. Dozens of letters followed to the newspapers that carried Pipes' articles, some calling him harsh names (bigot and racist), others comparing him to the Ku Klux Klan and phd thesis the neo-Nazis, or characterizing his writings as an atrocity filled with pure poison and dummy outright lies. More alarmingly, the letter-writers accused the author of perpetrating a hate crime against Muslims or of promoting and abetting such crimes. One threatened: Is Pipes ready to answer the Creator for his hatred or is he a secular humanist . He will soon find out.[124] CAIR metes out even worse treatment to Muslim opponents, as the case of Khalid Duran shows. Duran taught at leading universities and wrote about Islam for think tanks; he was commissioned by phd thesis nonverbal, the American Jewish Committee to write Children of Abraham: An Introduction to Islam for Jews . Fourteen scholars of Islam endorsed the as a means of education, manuscript prior to publication; it won glowing reviews from such authoritative figures as Cardinal William Keeler of Baltimore, the phd thesis nonverbal, eminent church historian Martin Marty, and paragraph on travelling as a means of education Prince Hassan of Jordan. Then, before the book was even released, CAIR issued two press releases insulting Duran personally and phd thesis demanding that the Children of Abraham be withheld until a group of CAIR-approved academics could review the book to correct what it assumed (without having read the manuscript) would be its stereotypical or inaccurate content. Islamist publications quickly picked up CAIR's message, with Cairo's Al-Wafd newspaper announcing that Duran's book spreads anti-Muslim propaganda through its distortions of Islamic concepts. Resume Yahoo! A weekly in Jordan reported that 'Abd al-Mun'im Abu Zant—one of that country's most powerful Islamist leaders—had declared that Duran should be regarded as an apostate, and on this basis called for nonverbal, an Islamic ruling to condone Duran's death. Days later, Duran's car was broken into, and a dead squirrel and excrement were thrown inside. CAIR, far from apologizing for the evil results of third its handiwork, accused the American Jewish Committee of fabricating the death edict as a cheap publicity stunt to phd thesis nonverbal boost book sales.[125] CAIR has a long record of real materialism unreliability and deceit even in relatively minor matters.

To begin with, it has the audacity to phd thesis claim to be America's largest civil rights group,[126] ignoring much larger groups by far, such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Anti-Defamation League. In May 2005, CAIR published its annual report on the violations of Muslim civil rights in America which purported to document a significant rise in the number of hate crimes directed at Muslims. According to the report, anti-Muslim hate crimes in the United States have gone up dramatically: from 42 cases in 2002, to 93 cases in 2003, to 141 in 2004.[127] The mainstream media dutifully recycled CAIR's press release, effectively endorsing this study by reporting it as a serious piece of research.[128] But closer inspection shows that of twenty anti-Muslim hate crimes for which CAIR gives information, at type least six are invalid.[129] David Skinner points out a further problem with the 2004 report: its credulity in reporting any incident, no matter how trivial, subjective or unsubstantiated. One anecdote concerns a Muslim college student who encountered flyers and posters with false and degrading statements about the nonverbal, Qur'an and the prophet Muhammad; another concerns a student at Roger Williams in Rhode Island who wrote that a true Muslim is taught to real materialism and other slay infidels. Also, any reluctance to phd thesis accommodate Muslim women wearing a headscarf or veil was tallied as a bias incident, even in essays the case of phd thesis genuine quandaries (such as veiled athletes or drivers applying for their licenses).[130] Nor is real materialism and other, this the nonverbal, first unreliable CAIR study. Referring to the 1996 version, Steven Emerson noted in congressional testimony that a large proportion of the complaints have been found to be fabricated, manufactured, distorted, or outside standard definitions of hate crimes.[131] Jorge Martinez of the U.S. Department of Justice dismissed CAIR's 2003 report, Guilt by bibtex phd thesis, Association , as unfair criticism based on a lot of misinformation and nonverbal propaganda.[132] CAIR's manipulative habits assert themselves even in petty ways. Dummy Resume! For example, CAIR is not above conducting straw polls in an effort to forward its political agenda and may even be willing to exaggerate its own outreach efforts. This seems to be the phd thesis nonverbal, case in CAIR's library project, where it claims to have sent thousands of packages of books and tapes to American libraries. An inquiry turned up the curious fact that while CAIR claimed the research paper of view, District of Columbia had received thirty-seven such packages, records showed only one such copy being recorded.[133] Maybe the mailmen lost the remaining thirty-six?

In September 2005, CAIR indulged in some Stalinist revisionism: as Robert Spencer revealed, CAIR doctored a photo on its website to make it more Islamically correct by manually adding a hijab onto a Muslim woman.[134] Despite all this, CAIR's statements continue to gain the phd thesis, respectful attention of uncritical media outlets. The few hard-hitting media analyses of CAIR generally turn up in resume the conservative press.[135] Otherwise, it generally wins a pass from news organizations, as Erick Stakelbeck has documented.[136] The mainstream media treat CAIR respectfully, as a legitimate organization, avoiding the less salutary topics explored here, even the multiple connections to terrorism. One telling example of the phd thesis, media's negligence in investigating CAIR occurred when Ghassan Elashi—a founding board member of CAIR's Texas chapter—was indicted and phd thesis type convicted of supporting terrorism by sending money to nonverbal Hamas and Mousa Abu Marzook. Reporting on this, not one single mainstream media source mentioned Elashi's CAIR connection. Worse, the media went to CAIR and quoted it on Elashi's arrest, without noting their close connection.[137] The Washington Post seems particularly loath to expose CAIR's unsavory aspects.

For example, on January 20, 2005, it ran a story about the opening of CAIR's new Virginia office on Grove Street in person of view Herndon. The article not only passed up the opportunity to consider CAIR's presence in a town notorious for Islamist organizational connections to phd thesis nonverbal Al-Qaeda and to the Wahhabi network,[138] but it was also remarkably similar in bibtex phd thesis tone and style to CAIR's own press release on phd thesis, the same subject.[139] (A later Washington Post article did mention that the research paper third person point, new CAIR offices are located on the very street where federal agents had conducted a major raid in phd thesis March 2002.[140]) There is much else for the press to look into. For Middle Ages! One example: CAIR-DC lists the Zahara Investment Corporation as a related organization on its IRS Form 990. Curiously, Zahara Investment Corporation was listed as a tax-exempt entity in phd thesis 2002; in 2003, it became a non-tax-exempt entity.[141] This prompts several questions: how is a tax-exempt like CAIR related to an investment company, much less a corporation? How does an investment corporation become a tax-exempt? And how does it change itself into a non-exempt?

And why did CAIR-DC invest $40,000 of the bibtex phd thesis, public's money in 1998 in securities that it would have to write off less than three years later? Whose securities were these? The usual databases have nothing on Zahara Investment Corporation; all this took place under the radar screen. That the U.S. government, the mainstream media, educational institutions, and others have given CAIR a free pass amounts to a dereliction of duty. Yet, there appear to be no signs of change. How long will it be until the establishment finally recognizes CAIR for what it is and denies it mainstream legitimacy? Daniel Pipes is director of the Middle East Forum. Sharon Chadha is the co-author of Jihad and International Security . [1] Columbus Dispatch (Ohio), Jan. 1, 2002. [3] FDCH Political Transcripts , Sept. 10, 2003. [4] Bad CAIR Day: Ex-staffer pleads guilty to terror charges, Senate asks questions on 9/11 anniversary, Center for Security Policy, accessed Jan.

9, 2006. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! [5] Joseph Farah, Between the Lines: The Real CAIR, WorldNetDaily , Apr. 25, 2003; Steve Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society, The Journal of essay questions ages Counterterrorism Security International , Spring 1998. [6] Estate of John P. O'Neill, Sr. Nonverbal! et al. Phd Thesis! vs. Al Baraka Investment and Development Corporation ,, accessed Jan. 9, 2006. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! [7] Steven Emerson, Re: Terrorism and the Middle East Peace Process, prepared testimony before the essay for middle, U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Subcommittee on Near East and South Asia, Mar. 19, 1996. [8] The Jerusalem Post , Mar. 5, 1999. [9] Personal communication from Jamal Hasan to Daniel Pipes, July 25, 2003. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! [11] Melissa Radler , A Different Face of Islam, Jerusalem Post International Edition , July 18, 2003. [12] Stephen Schwartz, An Activist's Guide to Arab and Muslim Campus and Community Organizations in North America, , May 26, 2003. [14] Colin Powell, remarks at Iftaar dinner, Benjamin Franklin Room, Washington, D.C., Nov. 18, 2002. [17] Partial List of CAIR's Work with Local State and Federal Law Enforcement Authorities, CAIR website, accessed Jan.

9, 2006. [18] The Connection Newspapers , July 8, 2004. Phd Thesis! [19] Muslim-American Activism: CAIR Marks Decade of Dedication, The Washington Report on Middle East Affairs , Oct. 2004, p. 76. Phd Thesis! [20] CAIR-Chicago Extends Lecture Series on Islam, 'Building Bridges to Islam' Events Co-hosted by Edlerhostel, CAIR, Feb. 1, 2005. [21] United States of America v. Randall Todd Royer, et al , United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Alexandria Division, June 2003. Real And Other! [23] CNN, June 27, 2003. [24] FDCH Political Transcripts , June 27, 2003. [27] U.S. Phd Thesis! Department of essay Justice, news release, Apr. 9, 2004. [28] All Things Considered, National Public Radio, Nov. 22, 2005. [29] U.S. Department of phd thesis Justice, news release, July 8, 2004. [31] U.S. Department of Justice, news release, July 27, 2004. [35] Articles of paragraph as a means of education Incorporation of a Colorado Nonprofit Corporation, 931135840, Dec.

8, 1993. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! [38] Matthew Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism in the United States, testimony before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology, and resume Homeland Security, Sept. 10, 2003. [40] The Post-Standard (Syracuse), Jan. 23, 2004. [41] CAIR et al v. Ashcroft and phd thesis Mueller complaint, p. 13. And Effect Essay School! [42] U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Oct. Phd Thesis! 18, 2002. [43] Ibrahim Hooper, CAIR Responds to Daniel Pipes' Anti-Muslim Hysteria, Middle East News World Report , Aug.

25, 2000. [44] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [47] Epstein, Saudi Support for materialism, Islamic Extremism. [48] Text from Lawsuit Response, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Inc. v. Andrew Whitehead , law no. CL04-926, Virginia: In the Circuit Court for the City of Virginia Beach, Apr. 30, 2004. [50] Steven Emerson, American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us (New York: Free Press, 2003); Deposition of Nihad Awad , Oct. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! 22, 2003, In the bibtex type, Matter of: Stanley Boim, et al. Nonverbal! v. Quranic Literacy Institute, et. al , p. 58. [54] ACLU et al. vs. National Security Agency , U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Michigan, Southern Division, Jan. 17, 2006, pp.

30-1. [55] The New York Sun , Jan. 18, 2006. [56] The Arizona Republic (Phoenix), Mar. 25, 2004. [58] Steven Emerson, statement to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States, July 9, 2003. Essay Questions For Middle Ages! [59] Jake Tapper, Islam's Flawed Spokesmen, Salon , Sept. 26, 2001. [60] Newsletter of the Marzuk Legal Fund , June 1996. [61] The Oracle (University of phd thesis South Florida), Mar. 31, 2004. [62] CAIR Condemns Mutilation of essay questions Bodies in Iraq, CAIR, Mar.

31, 2004. [65] The Tides Community Responds to 9/11/01,, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [66] February 20, 2002—National Day of Solidarity with Muslim, Arab and South Asian Immigrants, Refuse and Resist, New York, N.Y., accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [67] The Call for a National Day of Protest on October 22nd, 2002, to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and the Criminalization of a Generation, October 22 Coalition, accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [68] Steven Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years after the World Trade Center Bombing, statement before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on phd thesis nonverbal, Terrorism, Technology and Government Information, Feb.

24, 1998. [69] Pomerantz, Counterterrorism in a Free Society; Schwartz, An Activist's Guide. Questions For Middle Ages! [71] The Palestine Chronicle (Mountlake Terrace, Wash.), Aug. 4, 2003. [72] CAIR Promotes and Hosts William W. Phd Thesis! Baker, Neo-Nazi,, Mar. 9, 2004. [73] A Day of Discovery: Building Bridges to Islam in Arizona, program guide, Islamic Community Center, Tempe, Ariz., May 31, 2005 and June 14, 2005. [74] The IRS offers several choices under the item Revenues, including direct public support, indirect public support, government contributions (grants), membership dues and assessments, and type net income or (loss) from phd thesis nonverbal, special events or rental properties—the categories in which CAIR has classified its revenues. [76] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. [79] Paul Sperry, Chapter 13: The 9/11 Imam, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. 10, 2006. [81] Deed of Trust, Doc. # 2002105143, Commercial Settlements, Inc., Washington, D.C., Aug. 7, 2002, SperryFiles , accessed Jan. Writing A Cause And Effect School! 10, 2006. [82] WAMY's relationship to Saudi Arabia was described this way by its secretary general: The Kingdom provides us with a supportive environment that allows us to work openly within the society to collect funds and phd thesis spread activities. It also provides us with protection abroad through Saudi embassies and consulates, in addition to financial support.

WAMY Team in Afghanistan Risks Life to Deliver Aid, Middle East Newsfile, Nov. 20, 2001. [83] WAMY Spends SR12m on New Mosques, Middle East Newsfile, Dec. 23, 1999. [85] Epstein, Saudi Support for Islamic Extremism. Writing Essay Middle School! [87] Kingdom Holding Company, news release, May 20, 2005. [88] David Kane, (Proposed Redacted) Affidavit in Support of Application for Search Warrant (October 2003), United States District Court, Eastern District of Virginia. [89] Operation Green Quest, brochure, U.S. Customs Service, Office of Investigations, Washington, D.C. Nonverbal! [90] Financial Times (London), Mar. Dummy Yahoo! 28, 2002. Phd Thesis Nonverbal! [92] A Little Taste of History, Muslim Student Association of the and other essays, United States and Canada website, accessed Jan. 11, 2006. [94] J. Michael Waller, statement before the U.S. Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security, Senate Committee on nonverbal, the Judiciary, Oct. 14, 2003. [95] Muslims and the Information Superhighway (MSIC 2000), Hilton Long Beach, Long Beach, Calif., July 14 -16, 2000. Essay Questions For Middle Ages! [98] U.S.-Saudi Arabia Terrorist Financing Designations, U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Mar. 11, 2002.

[99] Office of Foreign Assets Control, U.S. Department of the Treasury, news release, Sept. 9, 2004. [100] New Report on Saudi Government Publications, Center for Religious Freedom, Freedom House, accessed Jan. 11, 2006. [102] Dallas Morning News , Feb. 5, 2005. [104] National Review , Apr.

8, 2003. [106] Star Tribune (Minneapolis), Apr. 4, 1993. [107] Personal communication from Michael Medved, Oct. 21, 2004. [108] Quoted in Steve A. Johnson, Political Activities of phd thesis Muslims in America, in Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, ed., The Muslims of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. Essays! 115. [109] Associated Press, May 8, 2004. [110] Orlando Sentinel , Feb. 23, 2004. [115] Regina Orthodox Press, 2002. [116] Sands Publishers, 1912. Phd Thesis! [117] Srdja Trifkovic, Caving in to Jihad: National Review , CAIR, and My Book, Chronicles Magazine , Apr.

6, 2005. [118] Erick Stakelbeck, Jihad at a cause and effect essay school the St. Petersburg Times , , Nov. 3, 2004. [119] Muslims Exchange Letters with Wiesenthal Center about Possible Changes to Museum of Tolerance, CAIR, Jan. 6, 1998. [120] Ralph Kinney Bennett, The Global War on phd thesis nonverbal, Christians, Reader's Digest , Aug.

1997. [122] Andrew Whitehead and Lee Kaplan, CAIR's War from Within, , Mar. 9, 2004. [126] Interview with Ahmed Bedier, Fox Hannity Co ., Fox News Network, Feb. 15, 2005. [129] Daniel Pipes and Sharon Chadha, CAIR's Hate Crime Nonsense, , May 18, 2005. [131] Emerson, Foreign Terrorists in America. [134] Robert Spencer, Stalinism at CAIR: Photo Doctored for real materialism and other, Islamic Correctness, Jihad Watch , Sept. Nonverbal! 15, 2005. [135] Zev Chafets, Beware the Wolves Among Us, The New York Daily News , Sept. 28, 2001; editorial, CAIR and Terrorism, The Washington Times , July 24, 2004; David Frum, The Question of CAIR, The National Post , Nov. 23, 2004; Eli Lake, Me Rethinks a CAIR Event, The New York Sun , Nov. 12, 2003; Daniel Pipes, CAIR: 'Moderate' Friends of Terror, The New York Post , Apr. 22, 2002; Michael Putney, Pressure May Smother Dialogue, The Miami Herald , Sept. 10, 2003; Stephen Schwartz, Not So Holy after All; The Bush Administration Takes on a Hamas Front Group, The Weekly Standard , Dec. 17, 2001; and Glenn Sheller, Muslim Group's Conflict with Discrimination Is Uphill Fight, The Columbus Dispatch , Aug.

31, 2004. [137] 4 Indicted in phd thesis type Texas Terror Probe, The Boston Globe , Dec. 19, 2002; 5 Brothers Charged with Aiding Hamas, The New York Times , Dec. Nonverbal! 19, 2002; Hamas Arrests Called Unfair, Fort Worth Star-Telegram , Dec. 20, 2002; Aid Sought for materialism essays, 5 Suspected of Terror Ties, Associated Press, Feb. 15, 2003; Muslim Leader Criticizes Prosecution, United Press International, July 9, 2004; Muslim Leaders Blast Brothers' Convictions, The Dallas Morning News , July 10, 2004. [141] CAIR's DC office is required to make its Form 990 available to the public upon request.

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killing essay THE KILLING OF THE INNOCENT. JEFFRIE G. MURPHY. Suarez, The Three Theological Virtues. Fight on land and on sea. All men want to be free. If they don't, never mind. We'll abolish all mankind. Peter Weiss, Marat/Sade. Murder, some may suggest, is to be defined as the intentional and uncoerced killing of the innocent; and it is true by definition that murder is wrong. Yet wars, particularly modern wars, seem to require the killing of the nonverbal innocent, e.g., through antimorale terror bombing.

Therefore war (at least modern war) must be wrong. The above line of argument has a certain plausibility and seems to lie behind much philosophical and theological discussion of writing a cause such problems as the Just War and the nature of war crimes. 1 If accepted in full, it seems to entail the nonverbal immorality of type war (i.e., the position of pacifism) and the moral blameworthiness of those who participate in war (i.e., warmakers and phd thesis nonverbal uncoerced soldiers are all murderers). To avoid these consequences, some writers will challenge some part of the argument by maintaining that there are no innocents in war or that modern war does not in fact require the dummy killing the innocent or that war involves the suspension of phd thesis nonverbal moral considerations and thus stands outside the domain of moral criticism entirely or that contributing to dummy resume, the death of innocents is phd thesis nonverbal, morally blameless so long as it is only foreseen but not intended by those involved in bringing it about (the Catholic principle of the Double Effect) or that the prohibition against killing the person point innocent is phd thesis nonverbal, only prima facie 2 and can be overridden by even more important moral requirements, e.g., the defense of freedom. In this paper I want to come to terms with at least some of the important issues raised by paragraph on travelling of education the killing of innocents in time of phd thesis war. The issues I shall focus on are the following: What does it mean, in a context of war, to describe an individual as innocent ? Why is it morally wrong to kill individuals so described? Is the moral wrongness merely prima facie (i.e., subject to being overridden by dummy other, more weighty, moral considerations) or is it absolute?

I shall avoid making any final judgments on the morality of war (modern wars or otherwise) since such judgments would involve not just philosophical claims but also empirical claims, e.g., the claim that in fact modern wars cannot be waged so as to avoid the phd thesis nonverbal killing of the a cause and effect essay school innocent. However, certain abswers to the questions I shall explore will, when coupled with empirical premises, clearly have moral consequences. For example: If the killing of' innocents is absolutely and not just prima facie immoral (a philosophical claim), and if modern wars necessarily involve the killing of nonverbal innocents (an empirical claim), then war for modern times must be absolutely condemned, i.e., pacifism is the required moral posture for the twentieth century. I shall, leave it to sociologists and military historians, however, to supply the correct factual premises. I shall, then, mainly be concerned to seek answers to the above three questions. However, before launching into my discussion, I want to make one thing clear. Just because I am focusing upon bibtex phd thesis type, the killing of innocents, it should not be thought that I am confident that it is right to kill the phd thesis guilty and thus that it is resume yahoo, only the killing of the innocent that stands in need of analysis and justification. I have no such confidence. Phd Thesis? I am starting with what any man who is not a moral imbecile must admit to essay questions ages, be, at the very least, an obvious prima facie objection to indiscriminate war. In so doing, I do not mean to suggest that there may not be strong nonobvious objections to be made against nonverbal discriminate war. THE CONCEPT OF INNOCENCE.

The notions of innocence and guilt seem most at home in a legal context and, somewhat less comfortably, in a moral context. Legally, a man is innocent if he is not guilty, i.e. if he has not engaged in conduct explicitly prohibited by rules of the criminal law. Resume? A man may be regarded as morally innocent if his actions do not result from a mental state (e.g., malice) or a character defect (e.g., negligence) which we regard as morally blameworthy. In any civilized system of criminal law, of course, there will be a close connection between legal guilt and innocence and moral guilt and nonverbal innocence, e.g., murder in the criminal law has as one of its material or defining elements the blameworthy mental state ( mens rea ) of paragraph writing on travelling malice aforethought. But this close connection does not show that the legal and moral concepts are not different. The existence of strict liability criminal statutes is sufficient to show that they are different. Under a strict liability statute, a man can be guilty of a criminal offense without having, at the time of his action, any blameworthy mental state or character defect, not even negligence. 3 However, the phd thesis nonverbal notion of strict moral responsibility makes little sense; for dummy yahoo, an inquiry into moral responsibility for the most part just is an inquiry into phd thesis nonverbal, such matters as the agent's motives, intentions, beliefs, etc. Dummy Resume Yahoo? 4 Also, the issue of legal responsibility is much more easily determinable than that of moral responsibility. For example: It is noncontroversial that negligence can make one legally responsible. Anyone who doubts this may simply be given a reading assignment in any number of penal codes.

5 But whether or not negligence is a mental state or a character defect for which one is morally responsible is a matter about which reasonable men can disagree. No reading assignment or simple inquiry into phd thesis, the facts will lay this worry to rest. 6. Now our reasonably comfortable ability to operate with these concepts of guilt and innocence leaves us when we attempt to apply them to the context of war. Of course, the legal notions will have application in a limited number of cases, i.e., with respect to those who are legally war criminals under international law. But this will by yahoo no means illuminate the nonverbal majority of cases. For example: Those who have written on dummy yahoo the topic of nonverbal protecting innocents in war would not want to regard the killing of an enemy soldier engaged in an attack against a fortified position as a case of killing the innocent. He is surely, in dummy yahoo, the right sense (whatever that is), among the guilty (or, at phd thesis least, among the noninnocent) and is thus a fitting object for violent death.

But he is in no sense legally guilty. There are no rules of international law prohibiting what he is doing; and, even if such rules were created, they would surely not involve the setting up of a random collection of soldiers from the other side to act as judges and executioners of this law. Thus the legal notions of guilt and dummy yahoo innocence do not serve us well here. What, then, about moral guilt or innocence? Even to make this suggestion slausible in phd thesis nonverbal, the context of person point of view war, we surely have to attempt to narrow it down to moral innocence or guilt of the war or of something within the war -- not just moral innocence of guilt simpliciter . That is, we surely do not want to say that if a bomb falls (say) on phd thesis a man with a self-deceiving morally impure leart who is a civilian behind the lines that this is not, in the relevant sense, a case of killing an innocent. Phd Thesis Type? Similarly, I think it would be odd for us to phd thesis, want to say that if a soldier with a morally admirable character is killed in action that this is third of view, a case of killing an innocent and is to be condemned on those grounds.

If we take this line, it would seem that national leaders should attempt to phd thesis nonverbal, make some investigation of the motives and characters of both soldiers and civilians and kill the unjust among both classes and spare the. just. (Only babes in arms would be clearly protected.) Now this sort of judgment, typically thought to essay for middle, be reserved for God if for anyone, is surely a very disquieting thing if advocated for generals and other war leaders. Thus the notions of nonverbal moral innocence and essay ages guilt simpliciter must be dropped in this context. Suppose, then, we try to make use of the phd thesis notions of moral innocence of the war or moral guilt of the war (or of something within the war). A Cause Essay Middle? Even I here we find serious problems. Consider the octogenarian civilian in Dresden who is an avid supporter of Hitler's war effort (pays taxes gladly, supports warmongering political rallies, etc.) and contrast his case with that of the poor, frightened, pacifist frontline soldier who is only where he is because of duress and who intends always to fire over the heads of the enemy.

It seems reasonable to say that the former is much more morally guilty of the war than the latter; and yet most writers on the topic would regard killing the former, but not the latter, as a case of killing an innocent. What all this suggests is that the classical worry about protecting the innocent is really a worry about protecting noncombatants . Nonverbal? And thus the distinction between combatants and noncombatants is what needs to be illucidated. Research Paper Third Point Of View? Frontline soldiers are clearly combatants; babes in arms clearly are not. And we know this without judging their respective moral and legal guilt or innocence. And thus the worry, then, is the following: Under what circumstances is an phd thesis nonverbal individual truly a combatant? Wars may be viewed as games (terrible ones of course) between enemies or opponents. Who, then, is an enemy or opponent? One suggestion for defining a combatant might be the following: Only soldiers engaged in fighting are combatants. But this does not seem adequate. For if killing an enemy soldier is research paper person point, right, then it would also seem to be right to phd thesis, kill the man who orders him to ages, the frontline.

If anything, the nonverbal case for bibtex phd thesis type, killing (say) a general seems better, since the soldier is presumably simply acting in some sense as his agent, i.e., the general kills through him. Perhaps the way to phd thesis nonverbal, put the point, then, is as follows: The enemy is represented by those who are engaged in an attempt to destroy you. 7 And thus all frontline combat soldiers (though not prisoners, or soldiers on leave, or wounded soldiers, or chaplains, or medics) are enemies and all who issue orders for destruction are enemies. Thus we might try the following: Combatants are those anywhere within the chain of command or responsibility -- from bottom to top. Dummy Yahoo? If this is phd thesis, correct, then a carefully planned attack on the seat of government, intended to destroy those civilians (and only those) directing the war effort, would not be a case of killing noncombatants or, in real essays, the relevant sense, innocents. But what is a chain of command or responsibility?

It would be wrong to regard it solely as a causal chain, though it is at least that. That is, the phd thesis notion of dummy yahoo responsibility has to be stronger than that expressed in the sentence The slippery pavement was responsible for the accident. For to regard the chain here as solely causal in character would lead to the following consequence: If a.combatant is understood solely as one who performs an action which is a causally necessary condition for the waging of war, then the following are going to be combatants: farmers, employees at a city water works, and anyone who pays taxes. Obviously a country cannot wage war if there is no food, no management of the nonverbal basic affairs of its cities, and no money to resume yahoo, pay for phd thesis, it. And of course the list of persons responsible for the war in this sense could be greatly extended. But if all these persons are in the class of combatants, then the rule protect noncombatants is going to amount to little more than protect babies and the senile. But one would, I think, have more ambition for it than that, e.g., one would hope that such a rule would protect housewives even if it is true that they help the essay for middle ages war effort by writing consoling letters to nonverbal, their soldier husbands and by feeding them and providing them with emotional and essay sexual relief when they are home on leave. Thus I think that it is wrong to regard the phd thesis notion of chain here as merely causal in character. What kind of chain, then, is it?

Let us call it a chain of agency . What I mean by this is that the links of the bibtex phd thesis type chain (like the links between motives and phd thesis actions) are held together logically and not merely causally, i.e., all held together, in this case, under the notion of who it is that is engaged in an attempt to destroy you. The farmer qua farmer is, like the general, performing actions which are causally necessary conditions for your destruction; but, unlike the research paper of view general, he is not necessarily engaged in an attempt to destroy you. Perhaps the point can better be put in this way: The farmer's role bears a contingent connection to the war effort whereas the general's role bears a necessary connection to the war effort, i.e., his function, unlike the farmer's, is not logically separable from the waging of war. Or, following Thomas Nagel, 8 the point can perhaps be put in yet another way: The farmer is aiding the soldier qua human being whereas the general is aiding the soldier qua soldier or fighting man. Nonverbal? And since your enemy is the soldier qua soldier, and not qua human being, we have grounds for letting the farmer off. If we think of a justified war as one of self-defense, 9 then we must ask the question Who can be said to be attacking us such that we need to dummy yahoo, defend ourselves against him? Viewed in this way, the farmer seems an unlikely candidate for combat status. This analysis does, of course, leave us with borderline cases. Nonverbal? But, since there are borderline cases, this is a virtue of the analysis so long as it captures just the right ones.

Consider workers in a munitions factory. Are they or are they not combatants? At least with certain munitions factories (making only bombs, say) it is certainly going to be odd to on travelling as a of education, claim that their activities bear only a contingent connection to the war effort. What they make, unlike food, certainly supports the fighting man qua fighting man and not qua human being. Thus I should be inclined to say that they are properly to be regarded as combatants and thus properly subject to nonverbal, attack. But what about materialism, workers in phd thesis nonverbal, munitions factories that only in essay questions for middle ages, part supply the war effort, e.g., they make rifles both for soldiers and for hunters? Or workers in nonmunitions factories that do make some war products, e.g., workers in companies, like Dow. Chemical, which make both Saran Wrap and Napalm?

Or workers in ball bearing factories or oil refineries, some of their product going to war machines and some not? Here, I submit, we do have genuine borderline cases. And with respect to these, what should we do? I should hope that reasonable men would accept that the burden of proof lies on those claiming that a particular group of persons are combatants and properly vulnerable. Phd Thesis Nonverbal? I should hope that men would accept, along with the famous principle in the criminal law, the principle noncombatant until proven otherwise and third would attempt to look at the particular facts of each case as carefully and disinterestedly as possible. I say that I hope this, not that I expect it. Who, then, is a combatant?

I shall answer this question from the point of phd thesis view of one who believes that the only legitimate defense for war is self-defense. 10 It is, in this context, important to remember that one may legitimately plead self-defense even if one's belief that one's life is being threatened is dummy, false. Phd Thesis Nonverbal? The only requirement is that the belief be reasonable given the resume yahoo evidence that is available. If a man comes to my door with a toy pistol and says, pointing the phd thesis nonverbal pistol at real and other essays me, Prepare to meet your Maker for your time has come, I act in nonverbal, my self-defense if I kill him even if he was joking so long as my belief was reasonable, i.e., I had no way of knowing that the materialism gun was a toy or that he was joking. Thus: combatants may be viewed as all those in the territory or allied territory of the enemy of whom it is reasonable to believe that they are engaged in nonverbal, an attempt to destroy you. What about our Dresden octogenarian? Is he a combatant on this analysis? Since he does not act on a cause and effect essay middle authority, it is at least prima facie odd to phd thesis nonverbal, regard him as part of a chain of command literally construed -- the concept of command being most at home in a context of authority. He does not, of course, have much to do with the war effort; and dummy yahoo so we might find his claim that he is helping to defeat the Americans quaint on purely factual grounds.

And yet none of this prevents its being true that he can properly be said to be engaged in phd thesis nonverbal, an attempt to destroy the enemy. Resume? For people can attempt even the impossible so long as they do not know it is impossible. Thus I am prepared to say of him that he is, in nonverbal, fact, engaged in materialism and other essays, an attempt to destroy the enemy. But I would still say that killing him would count as a case of killing a noncombatant for the following reason: that the concept of attempt here is to be applied, not from the phd thesis nonverbal agent's point of view, but from the point of view of the spectator who proposes to plead self-defense in materialism and other essays, defense of his acts of killing. Combatants are all those who may reasonably be regarded as engaged in an attempt to destroy you. This belief is reasonable (though false) in the case of the frontline soldier who plans always to shoot over the heads of the enemy and unreasonable (even if true) in the case of nonverbal our octogenarian. It would be quite unreasonable to dummy, plan a bombing raid on a nonmilitary and nonindustrial city like Dresden and say, in defense of the raid, that you are just protecting yourself or your country from all those warmongering civilians who are attempting to destroy you. For making such a judgment imposes upon you a burden of proof which, given the circumstances of war, you could not satisfy. You probably could not get any evidence for your claim.

You certainly could not get what the law calls a preponderance of the evidence -- much less proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Combatants, then, are all those of whom it is reasonable to believe that they are engaged in an attempt at your destruction. Phd Thesis? Noncombatants are all those of whom it is not reasonable to believe this. Having the distinction, we must now inquire into its moral importance. WHY IS IT WRONG TO KILL THE INNOCENT? From what I have said so far, it should be obvious that this question cannot adequately be answered unless one specifies the sense of innocence that one has in mind. First, with respect to moral innocence, we can take babes in arms as paradigms. Here I should argue that no reasons can be given for why it is research third person point, wrong to kill babies: neither are any reasons needed.

If anything can be taken as a brute datum for moral philosophy, surely the principle Do not kill innocent babies is a very good candidate -- much more plausible for an ethical primitive than, say, promote your self-interest or maximize the general utility (other candidates that have been offered for ethical primitives). The person who cannot just see that there is something evil about killing babies could not, I suspect, be made to see anything else about morality and phd thesis nonverbal thus could not understand any reasons that one might attempt to give. And any ethical theory which entailed that there is nothing wrong at all with killing babies would surely deserve to be rejected on the basis of this counterexample alone. Miss G. E. M. Anscombe puts the writing and effect point in the following way: If someone really thinks, in phd thesis, advance, that it is open to question whether such an action as procuring the judicial execution of the innocent should be quite excluded from writing a cause and effect middle consideration -- I do not want to argue with him; he shows a corrupt mind. 11.

Consider an example from literature: If a reader of Melville's Billy Budd cannot see why Captain Vere is phd thesis nonverbal, deeply troubled because he has a legal obligation to point of view, execute Billy, a morally innocent (thought legally guilty) man, what would one say to him? What could one do except repeat, in a louder tone of voice perhaps, But, don't you see, Billy is morally innocent! What I am saying is phd thesis, that, though it is reasonable to expect ethical theories to correct some of our moral intuitions or pretheoretical convictions, we cannot reasonably expect these theories to correct all of writing them -- since there is a class of phd thesis such intuitions or convictions which makes ethical theory itself possible and dummy resume testable. 12 Kant, I think, was perhaps one of the phd thesis nonverbal first to essay for middle, begin to see this when he argued that utilitarianism cannot be correct because it cannot account for the obvious wrongness of making slaves of people, punishing the innocent, etc. Now with respect to legal innocence (when this does not, as it often does, overlap moral innocence) a set of reasons for not killing (or punishing) the innocent can be given. These reasons will be in terms of utility (it makes people insecure to live in nonverbal, a society which punishes them whether they obey the rules or not), justice (it is not fair to phd thesis type, punish people who conform their conduct to phd thesis, the rules), and general observations about the purposes and techniques of the criminal law as a system of control through rules. As John Rawls has argued, 13 a system of criminal law can be viewed minimally as a price system for controlling conduct (i.e., the rules state a price that has to dummy resume, be paid for certain bits of phd thesis behavior in the hope that most people will regard the writing a cause middle school price as too high to pay). Phd Thesis? And obviously this sort of of education system is going to work only if the price is generally charged when and only when the commodity (i.e., the behavior) is phd thesis nonverbal, purchased. When we move to war, however, difficulties begin to dummy resume yahoo, present themselves.

We have seen that what people have had in mind when they have argued for nonverbal, the protection of innocents in war was neither clearly moral innocence nor clearly legal innocence. Rather it was noncombatant protection. But when we put the principle as Do not kill noncombatants we lose the background of moral and legal thinking which makes the principle seem plausible when formulated in terms of innocence. Why, then, should we worry about killing noncombatants and real essays think it wrong to do so -- especially when we realize that among the noncombatants there will be some, at any rate, who are morally and/or legally guilty of various things and that among the combatants there will be those who are morally and/or legally innocent? What I suggest is the following: If one believes (as I do) that the only even remotely plausible justification for war is self-defense, then one must in waging war confine one's hostility to those against whom one is defending oneself, i.e., those in the (both causal and logical) chain of command or responsibility or agency, all those who can reasonably be regarded as engaged in phd thesis, an attempt to destroy you. If one does not do this, then one cannot be said merely to bibtex phd thesis type, be defending oneself.

And insofar as one is not defending oneself, then one acts immorally in killing one's fellow human beings. The enemy can plausibly be expanded to include all those who are criminal accomplices -- those who, in Judge Learned Hand's phrase, have a stake in phd thesis nonverbal, the venture. 14 But it cannot be expanded to include all those who, like farmers, merely perform actions causally necessary for the attack -- just as in domestic law I cannot plead self-defense if I kill the one (e.g., the wife or mother) who feeds the man who is phd thesis type, engaged in an attempt to kill me. 15. In passing, I should note why I described my position as weakly as I did -- namely, that self-defense is the only remotely plausible defense of war. I do this because, with respect to nations, the whole idea of nonverbal self-defense is strongly in need of analysis. Paper Third Person Point? What, for example, is it for a state to nonverbal, die or to be threatened with death? Can nations, like individuals, fear death and act compulsively on the basis of questions for middle that fear? And, insofar as the nonverbal death of a state is not identical with the ages deaths of individual human beings, why is the death of a state a morally bad thing? Answering these questions (left notably unanswered in the Just War Theory) 16 would be an object for another paper.

I mention them here to point up latent problems and to further explain my unwillingness, expressed earlier, to affirm that even the phd thesis killing of the guilty (combatants) is morally justified. I am certainly inclined to writing on travelling of education, suspect the Just War Theory's willingness to regard war as an activity giving rise to autonomous moral problems (i.e., problems solely about war and not reducible to ordinary moral problems) and thus to make moral capital out of phd thesis nonverbal suspect notions like national honor and national interests and national self-defense. Though I am obviously inclined to regard the concept of self-defense as having an important application in materialism essays, the context of war, I am sceptical that the self to phd thesis, be legitimately defended must always be the nation or state. It is at least worth considering the possibility that the research paper point only moral problems arising in phd thesis, war are the oldest and dummy yahoo most common and most important -- namely, are human beings being hurt and killed, who are they, and why are they? IS KILLING THE INNOCENT ABSOLUTELY IMMORAL? That is, is killing the innocent a prima facie immorality that can be overridden by other, more weighty, moral requirements or is it absolutely immoral, i.e., incapable of phd thesis nonverbal being overridden by writing and effect essay any other moral requirements? Miss Anscombe 17 holds that the prohibition against killing the innocent is absolute in this sense. And one would suspect that she would echo Kant's sentiments that we should do no injustice though the heavens fall. Unfortunately, she tends simply to assert her position rather than argue for it and phd thesis nonverbal so fails to come to terms with the worry that might bother anti-Kantians -- namely, does it not matter upon whom the paper person heavens fall?

I agree with Miss Anscombe that no argument can be given to demonstrate that there is something wrong with killing babies, but it does not follow from this alone that this something is not capable of being overridden by another something -- saving the lives of even more babies, perhaps. Now in trying to come to grips with this issue, I propose to start with the case of killing babies as a clear example of killing creatures innocent in every possible sense. If a case can be made out that it is sometimes right to nonverbal, kill them, then I assume it will follow a fortiori that it is sometimes right to kill those who may be innocent in a less rich sense, e.g., merely noncombatant. Of course if it is not ever right to kill babies, this will not in itself show that it is not ever right to kill noncombatants; for essay ages, it may be the special kind of phd thesis nonverbal innocence found in babies (but not necessarily in noncombatants) which protects them. First of all, we need to ask ourselves the question What is it deliberately to kill a baby? I am certain that Miss Anscombe does not mean the following: that one deliberately kills a baby whenever one pursues a policy that one knows will result in the deaths of dummy yahoo some babies. If anyone meant this, then that person would have to regard the construction of highways as absolutely immoral. Phd Thesis Nonverbal? For it is a statistical fact that on every completed highway a certain number of babies meet their deaths in real essays, accidents. Yet normally we do not regard this as a moral case against highways or as a moral proof that highway engineers are murderers. Phd Thesis? What is done is to weigh the social value of a highway against the knowledge that some deaths will occur and judge that the former outweighs the research paper third point latter. Nonverbal? (If we did not make this judgment, and if this judgment was not reasonable, then we would be acting immorally. Dummy Resume Yahoo? For example: Suppose we let people blast with dynamite whenever and wherever they felt like it -- conduct with little or no social value -- in spite of our knowledge that this would result in many children dying.) Of course, situations comparable to the highway example arise in war.

For example, consider the pinpoint bombing of a military installation in a war reasonably believed to nonverbal, be necessary and just coupled with the paper third point knowledge that bombs will occasionally go off target and phd thesis nonverbal that occasionally a wife, with baby in arms, may be visiting her husband on the base. The natural way to interpret Miss Anscombe's view is as follows: One kills a baby deliberately either when one (a) brings about the death of a baby as one's final purpose or (b) brings about the death of a baby as a means to dummy resume yahoo, one's final purpose. 18 Since war is hardly to phd thesis nonverbal, be regarded as motivated by fetishistic infanticide, it is (b) which is bibtex, crucial. And (b) lets off the highway engineer. For the highway engineer, whom we do not want to regard as a murderer, will not be a murderer on (b). The deaths of babies in highway accidents are in no sense means to the socially useful goal of phd thesis nonverbal good transportation but are rather accidental byproducts. That is, highway transportation is not furthered by these deaths but is, if anything, hindered by them. And so it is unreasonable to suppose that highway engineers desire the deaths of babies because they want to writing a cause and effect school, use their deaths as a means to nonverbal, their goal of transportation. Similarly with the accidental deaths of babies resulting from a pinpoint bombing raid on a military installation. But consider the following kind of case: One knows that one is fighting a war in defense of phd thesis civilization itself. (It was not unreasonable to regard the phd thesis war against Hitler in such terms.) 19 Suppose also that one knows that the only way (causally) to bring a power like Hitler's to a collapse is to undercut his support among the type German people by achieving their total demoralization.

Further suppose that one knows that the only way to do this is by the obliteration terror bombing of civilian centers (e.g., Dresden) so that, by killing many German babies among others, one can create a desire on the part of the German people to abandon the venture. I am not suggesting that we could ever in fact know these things (they might be false) or that we should ever even let ourselves believe such things. 20 But my worry here is phd thesis nonverbal, one of principle -- namely, assuming the factual situation is as described, would it be wrong on principle to initiate a campaign of antimorale obliteration bombing? Here I take it that Miss Anscombe will say that, even in such circumstances, those making a decision to initiate such a campaign are murderers. For they will be deliberately killing the innocent as a means to paragraph as a means, their goal and that (no matter how good the goal) is absolutely wrong. But why?

Miss Anscombe fails to bring fully into the open a latent issue that is absolutely crucial here -- namely, are we as morally responsible for our omissions (e.g., failing to phd thesis nonverbal, save lives) as for our commissions (e.g., killing people)? Of course there are differences between the two expressions, but are they morally relevant differences? If our basic value here is the sanctity of life, or the sanctity of innocents, or the writing a cause and effect school sanctity of babies, then -- as Jonathan Bennett has pointed out 21 -- it is hard to see their moral difference. For consider the following kind of case: Suppose we know that a victory by Hitler would mean the extermination of phd thesis all or a great many non-Aryan babies. And further suppose that these babies far outnumber the German babies to be killed in an obliteration bombing campaign. Essay For Middle? 22 Now, given this knowledge, what would a man who really values the nonverbal lives of paragraph on travelling as a means of education babies do? Is the moral case to phd thesis, rest upon the different descriptions killing babies and letting babies die? If so, why? If the argument is that by not positively killing we will at least be preserving our own moral purity, then it is resume yahoo, important to note that this argument, in phd thesis nonverbal, addition to being rather selfish, is question-begging.

For to assume that one remains morally pure if one does nothing is to beg the question of whether we are as responsible for bibtex phd thesis type, omissive as for commissive conduct. If moral purity means never choosing anything which one will have to regard as in some sense wrong and regret for all one's days, then moral purity may be impossible in phd thesis nonverbal, a complex world. Albert Camus based this theory of rebellion on this kind of claim -- a theory which Howard Zinn summarizes as follows: Camus spoke in The Rebel of the absurdities in which we are trapped, where the very acts with which we seek to do good cannot escape the imperfections of the real essays world we are trying to change. And so the rebel's only virtue will lie in never yielding to the impulse to be engulfed in nonverbal, the shadows that surround him, and in obstinately dragging the chains of evil, with which he is bound, toward the good. The issue here is not over whether we should ever allow ourselves to be persuaded by any argument that killing the materialism and other essays innocent is in phd thesis nonverbal, fact necessary; and I am certainly not suggesting that I find plausible such arguments as have actually been given in the past. Real And Other? For a practical maxim I am much in favor of the slogan. Never trade a certain evil for a possible good. However, this does not solve the issue of principle. Nonverbal? If the good (e.g., saving the materialism and other lives of scores of babies) is certain and not just possible, is it anything more than dogmatism to assert that it would never be right to phd thesis nonverbal, bring about this good through evil means?

The maxim Never trade a certain evil for a certain good is by no means self-evidently true and, indeed, does not even seem plausible to many people. Thus I do not think that it has yet been shown that it is always absolutely wrong, whatever the bibtex phd thesis type consequences, to kill innocent babies. And thus it has not yet been shown that it is absolutely wrong to kill those innocent in a less rich sense of the term, i.e., noncombatants. Of course we may feel differently about actually killing innocents and simply letting innocents die; but I do not think that this phenomenological evidence in itself proves anything. Bomber pilots no doubt feel differently about dropping bombs on phd thesis nonverbal babies from thirty thousand feet than they would about shooting a baby face to materialism and other essays, face, but surely this does not show that the acts differ in moral quality. Feelings do not prove anything in morality; but they sometimes point to something.

And it is at phd thesis least possible that we have not yet captured the worry which motivates the writing a cause essay middle school responses of people like Kant, Miss Anscombe, and nonverbal those ho want to defend some version of the doctrine of the Double Effect. If what they really value is the lives of babies and other innocents simpliciter, then -- as Bennett argues -- it does not seem that the distinction between killing babies and letting babies die will help them to save their principle, But perhaps this is to conceive their position too teleologically. Essay Questions For Middle Ages? That is, we have so far (with Bennett) been assuming that the person who says never kill babies says this because he sees the maxim as instrumental to nonverbal, something else that he values -- namely, the lives of babies. But it is at least possible that he does not hold this principle to be instrumentally right (in which case he would be subject to Bennett's refutation) but intrinsically right, i.e. right in bibtex, itself or from its very description. The problem is to explicate this notion of intrinsic rightness in such a way that it does not involve either of the phd thesis nonverbal two following pitfalls noted by Bennett: Authoritarianism , e.g., God commands not killing babies. Dogmatism , e.g., It is phd thesis, just absolutely wrong to kill babies; and, if you do not see this, you are just too corrupt to phd thesis, talk to. Now the reason why (a) is a bad move is obvious -- namely, it is an real appeal authority rather than reason and thus has no place in phd thesis nonverbal, a philosophical discussion of moral questions. But (b) is more problematical. For I have said that I am willing to essay questions for middle, accept such a move if made in the name of there being something wrong with killing babies. Why will I not accept such a move in favor of its being absolutely wrong to kill babies?

Roughly, I should argue as follows: That there is phd thesis nonverbal, something wrong with killing babies (i.e., that A is a case of killing a baby must count as a moral reason against A) explicates, in part, what may be called the moral point of view. To be worried about real materialism essays, moral issues just is, among other things, to be worried about killing innocents. But the judgment Never kill babies under any circumstances does not explicate the moral point of phd thesis nonverbal view but is, rather, a controversial moral judgment -- or, if you prefer, explicates a moral point of paragraph writing of education view rather than the moral point of view. And so, to build it into the moral point of phd thesis nonverbal view is to research paper person point of view, beg a controversial question of moral substance -- something which presumably metaethics should not do. Someone who said I see nothing at all wrong with killing babies so let's bomb Dresden would be an a moral monster -- one with whom it would be senseless to conduct a moral argument. Nonverbal? But one who sincerely said Of course it is terrible to kill babies but I believe, to save more lives, we must regretfully do it in this case is not such a monster. He is one with whom, if we think him wrong ( im moral), we should hope to be able to argue. Means Of Education? 24 Since, among war supporters, there are (one would hope) few of the former sort but many of the latter sort, being able to argue with and phd thesis persuade the latter has some practical importance. It will hardly do simply to say to them But I can just see the absolute wrongness of what you contemplate and, if you do not, I refuse to discuss the matter with you. We know, alas, what will then happen. Now I am not going to pretend that I can give anything resembling a proof that it is absolutely wrong to kill the innocent (though not to and effect school, allow them to nonverbal, die), but I hope at least to be able to elaborate a way of thinking which (a) does give some sense to such a prohibition and bibtex phd thesis type (b) cannot be condemned as simple dogmatism or authoritarianism, i.e., is a way of thinking . 25.

The way of thinking I want to elaborate is one in which the notion of nonverbal people's having rights plays a predominate role. (Kant's ethical theory, in broad outline, is paragraph writing on travelling as a means of education, one such way of thinking.) And an ethical outlook in which the notion of rights looms large will want to draw a distinction between the following two claims: Doing A to Jones would be to violate one of his rights. It would be bad to do A to phd thesis, Jones. To use Kant's own examples: 26 If I have made a promise to Jones, he has a right to expect me to keep it, can properly regard me as having wronged him if I do not keep it, and could properly expect that others (the state) should coerce me into keeping it. Kant's opaque way of paragraph writing on travelling means putting this is to say that keeping a promise is a perfect duty. A quite different situation is the following: If Jones is in distress (assuming I have not put him there) and phd thesis I could help him out research point, without extraordinary sacrifice, he would certainly want me to help him and I would be doing something bad if I did not help him. But he does not have a right to expect my help, is phd thesis, not wronged if I fail to research paper person of view, help him, and it would be unreasonable to expect the state or anyone else to coerce me into nonverbal, helping him. Dummy Resume? Helping him is phd thesis nonverbal, beneficence and (unlike justice) is a comparatively weak moral demand. Paragraph On Travelling? Kant's opaque way of phd thesis nonverbal putting this is to say that the duty to help others in distress is imperfect . When'a man has a right, he has a claim against a cause essay middle school interference. Simply to refuse to be beneficent to him is phd thesis nonverbal, not an invasion of his rights because it is not to interfere with him at all. Bibtex Type? When a person uses his freedom to invade the rights of others, he forfeits certain of phd thesis nonverbal his own rights and dummy renders interference by others legitimate. (Kant calls this a moral title or authorization -- Befugnis -- to place obstacles to obstacles to freedom.) 27 Thus if I have an imperfect duty to help others, I may interfere with those trying to harm those others because, by such an attempt, they have forfeited their right against interference. Phd Thesis? Here I have the imperfect duty; and, since those attacking have by the attack forfeited certain of their rights, I violate no perfect duty in interfering with them.

Thus there is no conflict here. However, if the only way I could save someone from harm would be by interfering with an innocent person (i.e., one who has not forfeited his rights by paper third point initiating attack against others) then I must not save the person, for nonverbal, this would be to violate a perfect duty. And, in cases of conflict, perfect duties override imperfect duties. Suppose that Jones is being attacked by Smith. In such a case it is certainly true to say that Jones's rights to liberty, security, etc. are being threatened and that Smith, therefore, is real essays, acting wrongly and nonverbal thereby forfeits his right to be left free from interference. Thus I would not be acting wrongly (i.e., against Smith's rights) if I attacked him to prevent his attack on Jones. Similarly, Jones would not be acting wrongly if he defended himself. However, it does not follow from any of this that I have a duty to help Jones or even that Jones has a duty to a cause and effect middle school, defend himself. Defense, though permissible, is not obligatory. This being so, it does not follow that Jones has a right to nonverbal, be saved by me.

Thus, since it is far from obvious that Jones has a right to be saved even from an attack by the guilty, it is and other essays, even more implausible to nonverbal, assert that he has a right to for middle ages, be saved if so doing would involve killing the innocent. (Consider the following: We are all, at this very moment, sitting and phd thesis nonverbal talking philosophy and are thus omitting to writing as a of education, save the lives of countless people we might save throughout the world. Are we acting wrongly in phd thesis nonverbal, so doing? If we are, is this because all these people have a right to means of education, be saved by us?) Now what sort of nonverbal a moral view could one hold that would make one accept the research paper point principle that perfect duties, resting on rights, override imperfect duties, not resting on nonverbal rights? I think it is this: a view which makes primary the status of persons as free or choosing beings who, out of respect for writing essay school, that status, are to nonverbal, be regarded as having the right to be left alone to work out writing means of education, their own lives -- for better or worse. This is nonverbal, a basic right that one has just because one is a person. Third Point? Respecting it is what Kant calls respecting the phd thesis nonverbal dignity of humanity by not treating people as means only.

Part of respecting them in this sense is not to dummy, use them as a means in one's calculations of what would be good for phd thesis nonverbal, others. It is fine (indeed admirable) for a person to sacrifice himself for others by his own choice; but it is presumptuous (because lacking in respect for his choices) if I choose to sacrifice him. This is his business and of education not mine. I may only interfere with the person who, by his own evil actions, has forfeited his right against interference. Phd Thesis Nonverbal? Innocent persons by definition have not done this. And therefore it is absolutely wrong to sacrifice the innocent, though not to and effect middle, kill aggressors. On this view there is something terribly perverse in phd thesis, arguing, as many do, that a defense of freedom requires a sacrifice of those who in no way give their free consent to real materialism and other essays, the sacrifice. 28. Of course babies are not yet, in the full sense, free or choosing beings who clearly have rights. They are, perhaps, only potential or dispositionai persons and enjoyers of phd thesis rights. But if one accepts the maxim Innocent until proven otherwise they may be regarded as equally protected in resume, the above way of thinking.

For they certainly cannot be described in the only way which, on this view, makes harmful interference permissible -- namely, described as having, through their own deliberate acts of phd thesis aggression, forfeited their right to be left in peace. Now this view that what is type, central in morality involves notions like rights, dignity, freedom, and choice (rather than notions like maximizing the nonverbal general utility) cannot be proven. But it is a plausible view which may lie behind the maxim Never kill the innocent and a cause and effect school is a view which would be sacrificed. I (at least greatly compromised) by the maxim Kill the innocent to phd thesis, save the innocent. I am myself deeply sympathetic to this way of thinking and would make neither the compromise nor the dummy sacrifice. But I cannot prove that one ought not make it. Neither, of course, can my teleological opponent prove his case either. For we lie here at the boundaries of nonverbal moral discourse where candidates for ultimate principles conflict; and it is part of the logical character of an ultimate principle that it cannot be assessed by some yet higher (more ultimate?) principle. 29 You pays your money and you takes your choice.

It is simply my hope that many people, if they could see clearly what price they have to pay (i.e. the kind of moral outlook they have to give up and what they have to real materialism, put in its place) would make the nonverbal choice against killing the innocent. Consider the following example: Suppose that thousands of babies could be saved from a fatal infant disease if some few babies were taken by the state and given over to a team of medical researchers for a series of experiments which, though killing the babies, would yield a cure for the disease. In what way except degree (i.e., numbers of babies killed) does this situation differ from the rationale behind antimorale obliteration bombing raids, i.e., is there not a disturbing parallel between Allied raids on Dresden and Tokyo and. Nazi medicine? With respect to either suggestion, when we really think about it, do we not want to real essays, say with the poet James Dickey Holding onto another man's walls.

My hat should crawl on my head. In streetcars, thinking of phd thesis nonverbal it, The fat on my body should pale. Means? 30 How can any such thing be in the interest of humanity when its practice would change the very meaning of phd thesis humanity and prevent us from unpacking from it, as we now do, notions like rights, dignity, and respect? No matter how good the consequences, is there not some point in saying that we simply do not have the bibtex right to do it? For there is, I think, an insight of secular value in the religious observation that men are the children of God. For this means, among other things, that other people do not belong to me.

They are not mine to be manipulated as resources in my projects. Phd Thesis? It is hard to imagine all that we might lose if we abandoned this way of thinking about materialism essays, ourselves and others. My appeal here, of course, is in a sense emotive. But this in my judgment is not an phd thesis objection. Emotive appeals may rightly be condemned if they are masquerading as proofs. But here I am attempting to prove nothing but only to say -- Here, look, see what you are doing and what way of thinking your doing it involves you in. If one sees all this and still goes forth to do it anyway, we have transcended the bounds of what can be said in resume, the matter. What about noncombatants? Though they are not necessarily innocent in all the senses in which babies are, they clearly are innocent in nonverbal, the sense I have elaborated above -- namely, they have not performed actions which forfeit their right to be free from execution (or, better: it is not reasonable for the enemy to real materialism essays, believe this of them). Thus, in a very tentative conclusion, I suggest the following: I have not been able to phd thesis nonverbal, prove that we should never kill noncombatants or innocents (I do not think this could be proven in any ordinary sense of proof): but I do think that I have elaborated a way of thinking which gives sense to the acceptance of such an absolute prohibition.

Thus, against Bennett, I have at least shown that one can accept the phd thesis principle Never kill the innocent without thereby necessarily being an authoritarian or a dogmatic moral fanatic. AUTHOR'S NOTE: Many people were kind enough to comment on phd thesis nonverbal this manuscript in various stages of its preparation, and writing on travelling as a means I should like to take this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation for the help that they provided. In particular, I should like to thank the following: Lewis White Beck, Robert L. Holmes, Gareth Matthews, Ronald Milo, Richard Wasserstrom, Donald Wells, Peter Winch, and Anthony D. Woozley. I should also like to thank the members of my graduate seminar on nonverbal war at the University of Arizona for stimulating discussion. Since I have perversely gone my own way on several points in spite of advice to the contrary, I alone am to be held responsible for any errors that remain. In setting a philosophical framework for a discussion of the problem of killing the ages innocent in war, I have been greatly influenced by Richard Wasserstrom's On the Morality of War: A Preliminary Inquiry in his useful collection of essays War and Morality (Belmont. Calif: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1970). I am presupposing that the reader is familiar with Miss G. E. M. Anscombe's two articles Modern Moral Philosophy, Philosophy , 33, No. 124 (January 1958), and phd thesis War and Murder (in the Waserstrom collection). I am also presupposing a familiarity with Jonathan Bennetts' Whatever the Consequences, Analysis , 26, No. 3 (January 1966).

1 Murder, writes Miss Anscombe, is the deliberate killing of the innocent, whether for its own sake or as a means to some further end (War and Murder, p. Writing Of Education? 45). Deliberate killing of the innocent (or noncombatants) is prohibited by the Just War Theory and is a crime in national law. Nonverbal? A traditional account of the paragraph means Catholic Just War Theory may be found in Chapter 35 of Austin Fagothey's Right and Reason: Ethics in Theory and Practice (St. Nonverbal? Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1963). A useful sourcebook for essay, inquiry into the nature ot war crimes is the anthology Crimes of War , ed. by Richard A. Falk, Gabriel Kilko, and Robert Jay Lifton (New York: Random House, 1971). 2 By prima facie wrong I mean can be overridden by other moral requirements— not , as a literal translation might suggest, only phd thesis nonverbal, apparently wrong. 3 For example: In the criminal offense of statutory rape, the essay ages defendant is strictly liable with respect to his knowledge of the age of nonverbal a girl with whom he has had sexual relations, i.e., no matter how carefully he inquired into bibtex type, her age, no matter how reasonable (i.e., nonnegligent) his belief that she was of legal age of consent, he is liable if his belief is in fact mistaken. For a general discussion of such offenses, see Richard Wasserstrom's Strict Liability in phd thesis, the Criminal Law, Stanford Law Review , 12 (July 1960). 4 In discussion, Richard Wasserstrom has expressed scepticism concerning my claim that there is something unintelligible about the concept of strict moral responsibility. One could regard the Old Testament and Oedipus Rex as containing a strict liability conception of morality. Now I should be inclined to argue that the third person point primitiveness of the Old Testament and of Oedipus Rex consists in phd thesis nonverbal, these peoples not yet being able to resume yahoo, draw a distinction between legality and morality.

However, I am prepared to admit that it might be better to weaken my claim by maintaining simply that no civilized or enlightened morality would involve strict liability. 5 In California criminal law, for example, vehicular manslaughter is defined as vehicular homicide in the commission of an unlawful act, not amounting to felony, with gross negligence; or in the commission of phd thesis a lawful act which might produce death, in an unlawful manner, and with gross negligence . . . ( California Penal Code , 192, 3, a). 6 For an excellent discussion of moral and research person point of view legal responsibility for negligence, see H. L. A. Hart's Negligence, Mens Rea and Criminal Responsibility, in his Punishment and Responsility: Essays in the Philosophy of phd thesis nonverbal Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963). 7 I say engaged in an attempt rather than attempting for the following reason: A mortar attack on an encampment of combat soldiers who happen to be sleeping is surely not a case of killing noncombatants even though persons who are asleep cannot be attempting anything. Sleeping persons can, however, be engaged in an attempt -- just as sleeping persons can be accomplices in crime and parties to a criminal conspiracy. Being engaged in an attempt, unlike attempting, is not necessarily a full time job. Dummy Resume Yahoo? I am grateful to Anthony Woozley for pointing this out to me. 8 Thomas Nagel, War and Massacre. Philosophy and Public Affairs , 2 (Winter 1972). Phd Thesis Nonverbal? In the phd thesis type same issue, Richard Brandt replies to Nagei in his Utilitarianism and phd thesis the Rules of War.

I am grateful to Professors Nagel and writing a cause essay school Brandt for allowing me to read their articles prior to phd thesis, publication. 9 For reasons of dummy resume simplicity in later drawing upon important and instructive principles from the criminal law, I shall use the phrase self-defense. (I shall later want to nonverbal, draw on the notion of reasonable belief in the law of self-defense.) However, what I really want to focus on essay ages is the nonverbal concept of defense and not the materialism concept of phd thesis self. For it seems to me that war can be justified, not just to defend oneself or one's nation, but also to questions ages, defend others from phd thesis threats that transcend nationality, e.g., genocide. If one wants to speak of self-defense even here, then it must be regarded as self-defense for the human, not just national, community. Real Materialism And Other Essays? The phrase self-defense as it occurs in phd thesis, what follows should always be understood as carrying this qualification. And, of course, even clear cases of self-defense are not always necessarily justified.

Given the dummy resume morally debased character of Nazi Germany, it is by no means obvious that it acted rightly in trying to nonverbal, defend itself near the end of Worlrl War II (i.e., after it had ceased to research third of view, be an aggressor). 10 Remember that this carries the qualification stated in note 9. For a survey of the law of self-defense, the reader may consult any reliable treatise on the criminal law, e.g., pp. Phd Thesis Nonverbal? 883 ff. of Rollin M. Perkins's Criminal Law (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1957). The criminal law is a highly moralized institution, and it is useful (though by writing essay middle school no means always definitive) for the moral philosopher in phd thesis, that it provides an real materialism essays accumulated and systematized body of reflection on phd thesis vital moral matters of our culture. For my purposes, I shall in of view, what follows focus upon the reasonable belief condition in nonverbal, the law of real and other self-defense. Other aspects of the law of self-defense (e.g., the so-called retreat requirement), have, I think, interesting implications for war that I cannot pursue here. 11 Modern Moral Philosophy, p. 17.

For reasons I shall note later, Miss Anscombe weakens her point by adding the word judicial . 12 See William H. Gass, The Case of the Obliging Stranger, Philosophical Review , 66 (April 1957). 13 John Rawls, Two Concepts of phd thesis nonverbal Rules, Philosophical Review , 64 (January 1955). 14 See, fo example, United States v. Falcone , United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, 1940, 109 F:2d 579. 15 Consider the case of the homicidal diabetic: He is chasing you through the woods of an enclosed preserve, attempting to kill you for sport with a pistol. However, because of his medical condition, he must return to a cabin in the middle of the preserve every hour in order that his aged mother can give him an dummy resume insulin shot. Without it, he will take ill or will die and nonverbal will thus be forced to essay questions for middle ages, abandon his attempt to kill you. Even if blocking that insulin shot seems your only hope, killing the mother in order to do it would be a very doubtful case of phd thesis nonverbal selt-defence. 16 Austin Fagothey, in his well-known statement of the questions for middle Just War Theory cited previously, allows injury to national honor to count as a ground for a war of self-defense. I cite Fagothey's book because of its influence. It was, for example, appealed to by Justice Douglas in the 1971 Gillette case where the defendant refused induction on phd thesis the grounds of real essays his belief that the Vietnam War is unjust ( Gillette v. United States , 401 U.S.

437. 17 Moswern Moral Philosophy. 18 Another factor, relevant both to war and to the highway example, is the following: acting with the nonverbal knowledge that deaths could be prevented by taking reasonable precautions and yet not taking those precautions. Such grossly negligent or reckless behavior, while perhaps not deliberate in the strict sense, is surely immoral in either context. 19 See Michael Walzer, World War II: Why Was This War Different?, Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1, No. Bibtex Type? 1 (Fall 1971). 20 As the phd thesis citizens of London and resume yahoo Hanoi have illustrated, for example, terror bombing has a tendency to backfire. Rather than demoralizing the enemy, it sometimes strengthens their courage and will to resist. 21 Jonathan Bennett, Whatever the Consequences, Analysis , 26, No. Nonverbal? 3 (January 1966).

22 I take it that, from a moral point of view, their being German babies is bibtex, irrelevant. As Howard Zinn has argued, we should accept the principle that all victims are created equal ( Disobedience and Democracy: Nine Fallacies on Law and Order [New York: Random House, 1968], p. 50). 24 One important metaethical inquiry that has been conducted in recent years concerns the nature of moral judgments and phd thesis nonverbal the moral point of view or language game. The task here is to distinguish the moral from the non moral or a moral. Normative ethics, on the other hand, is concerned to distinguish the moral from the immoral. This is too large a dispute to enter here, but I can at least make my own commitments clear. Unlike the resume so-called formalists (e.g., R. M. Hare, The Language of Morals [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952]), I am inclined to nonverbal, believe that the moral point of view must be defined, in part, in terms of the content of the writing on travelling means of education judgments it contains. Here I am siding, if I understand them correctly, with such writers as H. L. A. Hart ( The Concept of Law [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961]), and G. Nonverbal? J. Warnock ( The Object of Morality [London: Methuen, 1971]).

Someone who does not see that A is a case of person point killing an innocent is a relevant reason against phd thesis doing A, does not understand what moral discourse is all about, what it is research paper third point, necessarily concerned with. And this is so no matter how much he is prepared to nonverbal, universalize and regard as overriding his own idiosyncratic imperatives. If this is true, then the gulf between metaethics and normative ethics is not quite as wide as many have supposed, since the relevance of on travelling as a of education certain substantive judgments is now going to nonverbal, be regarded as part of the meaning of morality as a point of view, language game, or form of writing a cause essay middle school life. There still is phd thesis, some gulf between metaethics and normative ethics, however, since I should argue that only the relevance, and not the decisiveness, of certain substantive judgments (e.g., do not kill the innocent) can be regarded as a defining feature of the materialism and other essays moral point of view. Normative ethics, however, is primarily interested in which of the relevant moral considerations are, in certain circumstances, decisive. (I am grateful to Ronald Milo for discussing these matters with me. Phd Thesis? He is totally responsible for whatever clarity is to be found in my views.) 25 Though I shall not explore it here, I think that the religious acceptance of the principle could be elaborated as a way of thinking and so distinguished from the authoritarianism and dogmatism that Bennett so rightly condemns. The view I shall develop also has implications (though I shall not draw them out a cause and effect essay school, here) for the abortion issue. For more on this, see Philippa Foot's Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect, Oxford Review (1967). This has been reprinted in Moral Problems: A Collection of Philosophical Essays , ed. by James Rachels (New York: Harper and phd thesis nonverbal Row, 1971), and in my An Introduction to Moral and Social Philosophy: Basic Readings in on travelling as a means, Theory and Practice (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1973). She sees the doctrine of the Double Effect as groping in a confused way toward an phd thesis nonverbal insight of moral importance: There is worked into materialism and other, our moral system a distinction between what we owe people in the form of aid and what we owe them in the way of non-interference.

26 These well-known examples are drawn from Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals , trans, by Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1959), pp. 39 ff.; pp. 421 ff. of the Academy edition of Kant's works. Nonverbal? Kant distinguishes perfect duties (duties of respect) and imperfect duties (duties of love) in many places. See, for example, The Doctrine of Virtue , trans, by Mary J. Gregor (New York: Harper and essay Row, 1964), pp. 134-35; p. 463 of the nonverbal Academy edition. 27 Kant, Metaphysical Elements of research of view Justice , trans, by John Ladd (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1965), pp.

35 ff.; pp. 230 ff. of the Academy edition. Nonverbal? See also pp. 94 ff. and 107-9 of my Kant: The Philosophy of Right (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970). 28 Someone (e.g., Jan Narveson in his Pacifism: A Philosophical Analysis, Ethics , 75 [1965]) might say the following: If what you value are the rights of people, does this not entail (as a part of what it means to paragraph on travelling as a, say that one values something) that you would recognize an obligation to phd thesis, take steps to secure those rights against interference? Perhaps. But take steps does not have to mean do whatever is causally necessary. Such an obligation will presumably be limited by (a) what I can reasonably be expected to do or sacrifice and paper third (b) my moral judgment about the permissibility of the phd thesis means employed. It does seem perverse for a person to paper third point, say I value the rights of people above all else but I do not propose to do anything to secure those rights. However, it by no means seems to me equally perverse to say the nonverbal following: I deplore interferences with human rights above all else and I will do everything in my power to prevent such interferences -- everything, of course, short of being guilty of such interferences myself.

29 See Brian Barry, Justice and the Common Good, Analysis , 21-22 (1960-61). Questions For Middle Ages? Though the existentialists tend to overdo this sort of claim, there is phd thesis, truth in their claim that there are certain moral problems that are in principle undecidable by any rational decision procedure. Such cases are not perhaps as numerous as the existentialists would have us believe, but they do arise, e.g. Research Paper? when candidates for ultimate moral principles conflict. In such cases, we find it impossible to nail down with solid arguments those principles which matter to us the most. Perhaps this even deserves to be called absurd. In his article The Absurd ( Journal of Philosophy , 68, No. Phd Thesis? 20 [October 21, 19711), Thomas Nagel suggests that absurdity in human life is found in the collision between the seriousness with which we take our lives and bibtex phd thesis the perpetual possibility of regarding everything about phd thesis nonverbal, which we are serious as arbitrary, or open to doubt. It is here that talk about faith or commitment seems to have some life. 30 James Dickey, The Firebombing, in Poems 1957-1967 (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1967), p. 185.

Reprinted with the permission of the publisher.

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We may, however, disclose Your information to writing on travelling of education, unaffiliated third-parties as follows: With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. Phd Thesis Nonverbal. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through “click-through” agreements; when You accept the terms of disclosures for certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password.

To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and paper of view marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection.

We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and phd thesis products (including to research paper person point, collection agencies in order to phd thesis, obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the for middle, appropriate calculation of nonverbal, taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an bibtex phd thesis, emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over nonverbal, the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against essays the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels.

Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy.

We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by nonverbal, a Partner. With the real and other, first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to phd thesis, the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the paragraph on travelling as a means, Referral’s total order price.

All money earned with the phd thesis nonverbal, Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is dummy, possible to phd thesis nonverbal, transfer the sum to and effect essay, the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).