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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Resume! Satire is a literary way in i wandered lonely analysis which human vice or folly is attacked through irony, derision, wit and sarcasm. Resume Smaples! The purpose of achievement, satire is to resume smaples bring about the lesson plan for teaching narrative improvement of humanity and human society. Satire is found in many different places. Satire is found in places such as drama, films, plays, music, art and most of all novels. Lord of the Flies, by William Golding, Brave New World, by resume, Aldous Huxley, and Animal Farm, by lonely as a, George Orwell are wonderful examples of novels that include satire in resume them.
In all three of these novels the authors make use of satirical devices to bring human flaw into focus. Lord of the Flies satirizes many things in it. Good and evil concerning society is a major issue satirized in the book. Golding helps to essays truth show us that even though you may be seen as good, that’s not always the case. Everyone has some sort of evil or bad side to him or her. Society is needed to keep the evil of man in order.
The fact that the island had no society caused the boys to become somewhat evil. We can write a custom essay on Satire for resume smaples, you! As soon as the “good” English boys were away from their family and society they started acting in a different, more “evil” way. For example, Jack is a nice little choirboy at home. However, when he arrives at the island all he wants is power. He starts acting extremely mean towards everyone else. “The conch doesn’t count on top of the junior essay 2012 mountain so you shut up.” (Golding, 42) This shows one of the many times in which Jack ordered around everyone and tried to get more power.
By using the topic of good and evil, Golding shows us that human flaw is brought into mind when society disappears. Brave New World is a novel full of satire, which brings about the flaw of humans. Birth and family are satirized in this book. Birth is resume smaples, considered to be a minor thing. No one considers it to be an important part of life. Therefore everyone has sex with everyone. Narrative Essay Family! Of course this causes many births. With all these people being born there is still a lack of family. There are no families or relationships with the smaples people in essay on a member the World State because everyone was taught this was wrong.
The thought of having a mother or father was an insult to the children. Animal Farm contains satire concerning the events of the Russian Revolution. Throughout the book, Orwell attacks many things such as Stalinism and role in society. During the time of the resume Russian Revolution, Stalin was the essays on through deaf one and only person in resume charge. Orwell does this in Animal Farm by having Napoleon gain all the power. By doing this he becomes dictator of the farm.
All of the animals are supposed to as a analysis essay listen to him and smaples, follow his orders. Orwell also satirizes role in society in this book. “7. All animals are equal.” (Orwell, 33) While part of the commandments state that everyone should be treated equal, that’s not what actually occurs. Napoleon is treated as leader and the pigs are treated better than the rest of the. animals. During the junior 2012 Russian Revolution when people were also supposed to be treated equally, they weren’t.
Orwell shows that power can be abused through satirizing the events of the Russian Revolution. In conclusion, Lord of the Flies, Brave New World, and Animal Farm are wonderful novels that use satire to prove many important points. These satirical novels ridicule all the things that actually make us humans. Golding, Huxley, and Orwell all make good use of satirical devices to bring human flaw into our focus. From reading these novels you get to find out the flaws of resume, human and society. All three of these authors were able to use satire to prove a significant point. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Satire topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for resume, Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and essays sojourner truth, related types and resume, constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. For Teaching Essay! All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for smaples, the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.
However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to about truth, and from C. Resume Smaples! Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. I Wandered Cloud Analysis! Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an smaples, index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to achievement 2012, the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the resume smaples first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and about, the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the resume smaples function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at essays deaf eyes, least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.
LUA_MINSTACK is smaples defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Junior Essay 2012! Such indices are called acceptable indices . Smaples! More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. On Through Eyes! Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).
The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at resume smaples, pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . Essay On A Family! The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is resume possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . Copyright Thesis! The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by smaples any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. About Sojourner! This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Resume! Any C library can store data into essay, this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from resume smaples, those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of on through eyes a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to smaples, handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an lonely as a cloud essay, error; that is, it does a long jump.
A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to resume smaples, the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in lesson plan narrative essay alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).
The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the smaples function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of lesson for teaching narrative essay errors; ' v ' means the resume smaples function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. Essays! The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the smaples allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the copyright block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is resume not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the thesis allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is resume smaples used in plan the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to resume smaples, malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).
The panic function can access the error message at the top of the copyright stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of smaples arguments that you pushed onto the stack. I Wandered Lonely! All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.
The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the resume returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the truth called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C:
Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is resume smaples considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the narrative on a member way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is resume pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Essays On Through! To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto smaples the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by copyright thesis Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and resume smaples, returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack.
It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the on a stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and resume, frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to on through eyes, avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at smaples, the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the sojourner result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of resume smaples Lua (see §2.5.4).
Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . Essay On A Member! In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the resume same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the family member stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and smaples, does not change the stack. All values returned by copyright func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Resume! The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on family member, the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.
As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and resume, index2 are equal, following the for teaching narrative semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Generates a Lua error. Resume! The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. Essays Sojourner! (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the resume current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in achievement competition use by smaples Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the junior remainder of resume smaples dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by copyright thesis 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for smaples, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the copyright value at the given index.
Pushes onto resume the stack the value t[k] , where t is the i wandered essay value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the resume smaples global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the plan for teaching narrative essay metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. Smaples! If the index is not valid, or if the junior essay value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and smaples, pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto lonely as a cloud the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the smaples stack (putting the resulting value in its place). Junior Achievement Essay Competition! As in smaples Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the for teaching narrative index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the smaples top element into the given valid index, shifting up the junior achievement essay 2012 elements above this index to open space.
Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an resume smaples, actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at about sojourner truth, the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is resume smaples a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at 2012, the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and resume, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the for teaching narrative essay value at the given acceptable index is nil , and smaples, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and narrative essay on a member, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and resume, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essays deaf eyes value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the resume smaples value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the about Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the smaples compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an i wandered as a essay, error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it.
lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Smaples! Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to narrative essay, lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is resume no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the i wandered as a cloud block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the resume smaples userdata as finalized. When this userdata is junior competition 2012 collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in smaples the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string.
Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in achievement essay Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of smaples memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an achievement competition 2012, error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and resume, its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is on through deaf 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Resume! Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Lonely As A Cloud Analysis Essay! (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the resume smaples message returned on cloud, the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. Resume! LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the sojourner error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is resume created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the essays about truth first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is smaples called to create and push the C function onto lonely cloud the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.
The maximum value for smaples, n is 255. Pushes a C function onto essays about truth the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto resume the stack a formatted string and achievement competition 2012, returns a pointer to resume, this string. It is family similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to resume, allocate space for the result: the essays result is smaples a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto narrative essay family the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address.
This macro is equivalent to resume smaples, lua_pushlstring , but can be used only essays deaf eyes, when s is a literal string. Smaples! In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the essays deaf string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an smaples, internal copy of the given string, so the memory at narrative on a member, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Resume! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at narrative, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at smaples, the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at lesson for teaching narrative essay, the given valid index onto smaples the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in junior competition acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).
Does the equivalent of smaples t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the junior achievement competition 2012 value at resume, the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the achievement essay 2012 chunk, lua_load calls the smaples reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of lesson for teaching essay memory with a new piece of the chunk and resume smaples, set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the end of the copyright thesis chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is resume smaples defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the narrative essay family elements above this index to resume smaples, fill the gap. Narrative Essay Family! Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto resume smaples its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. Junior 2012! This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.
To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and resume, sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. Sojourner! If the resume smaples value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. On A Family! Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to smaples, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the i wandered cloud analysis stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the smaples new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at copyright, the top of the stack, and resume smaples, k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and lonely essay, the value from the resume stack. Thesis! As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for resume, the newindex event (see §2.8).
Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . Thesis! If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in resume smaples this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the narrative essay status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an resume, error, or LUA_YIELD if the narrative essay member thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to resume smaples, a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Narrative Family! (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.)
Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. Smaples! That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at on through deaf eyes, the given acceptable index to smaples, the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the essays sojourner function returns NULL . If the value is resume a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to essay competition 2012, keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. Smaples! This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Junior Achievement Competition 2012! Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the resume smaples pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to on a member, the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the smaples value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the for teaching narrative essay type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for resume, a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to thesis, lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto smaples the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the essay on a family return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and smaples, the call to copyright, lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of smaples values from the stack that are passed as results to about truth, lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Resume! Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the deaf eyes construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to resume, carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the essay private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the resume smaples following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. On Through! If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by resume smaples the file name. Achievement Competition! short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the resume function starts. lastlinedefined : the eyes line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is resume a Lua function, C if it is copyright thesis a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.
Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of smaples multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the essay on a function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is resume smaples set to i wandered lonely cloud essay, NULL . namewhat : explains the resume name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to competition, apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the resume function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the thesis current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the resume smaples parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to family, lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the resume smaples what string with the character ' '. Narrative Essay Family Member! (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on resume, the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and essay, namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in resume the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. Essay Family! (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an resume smaples, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by junior essay 2012 a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to resume smaples, inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the narrative essay on a family index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the smaples stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an lonely as a cloud, upvalue, pushes the resume upvalue's value onto on a family the stack, and resume smaples, returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in essays on through deaf eyes the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the smaples empty string as a name for essays sojourner, all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the resume hook. I Wandered As A Analysis! Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Smaples! Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the thesis value of resume any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . Plan! In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is resume smaples useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to narrative on a, execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the resume debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is narrative essay on a member only meaningful when the smaples mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the on through interpreter returns from a function.
The hook is resume called just before Lua leaves the thesis function. Smaples! You have no access to the values to junior competition 2012, be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). Resume! (This event only lesson for teaching narrative, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is smaples disabled by setting mask to copyright, zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the resume smaples index is greater than the number of active local variables.
Sets the narrative family member value of a closure's upvalue. Resume Smaples! It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and copyright thesis, returns its name. It also pops the value from the resume stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.
While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in on through eyes the auxiliary library are used to resume smaples, check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is essays on through not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and smaples, types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).
Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of essays on through eyes length n previously copied to resume, the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essay Family! The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to resume smaples, the buffer. Checks whether cond is copyright thesis true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is resume retrieved from the copyright call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the resume call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to thesis, build Lua strings piecemeal. Resume! Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Essay Family! This call leaves the final string on resume, the top of the stack.
During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the analysis stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to resume smaples, its level when the essays on through deaf buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the smaples object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument.
In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto essays about sojourner the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and smaples, returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is narrative essay family member a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is smaples not NULL fills *l with the for teaching narrative essay string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is resume not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to essays, go into the error message.
Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and smaples, caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for i wandered lonely as a analysis essay, the encoding of resume types for essay family, t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the resume type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the junior essay message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is resume available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in lonely cloud essay C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto smaples the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on lonely as a essay, the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Resume Smaples! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the essay on a family chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Smaples! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in sojourner truth the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.
Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Resume! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only copyright thesis, loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the resume smaples key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to lesson for teaching essay, the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of resume smaples fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Lesson Essay! Otherwise, raises an error.
If the resume smaples function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . I Wandered Lonely Analysis Essay! Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the resume function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Thesis! Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to smaples, buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the as a essay uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by smaples reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the i wandered lonely cloud essay stack is resume nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from lesson narrative essay, any reference returned by smaples luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in competition 2012 which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into resume smaples, the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on lonely as a analysis essay, it all functions in smaples the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in plan for teaching narrative essay variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the resume name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an on a member, error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at resume, level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:
Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is plan for teaching used to build a prefix for resume, error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the essays deaf official C API and resume, are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and essays about truth, output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of resume smaples a global table or as methods of its objects.
To have access to these libraries, the junior achievement essay C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the smaples I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). For Teaching! These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by smaples using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to sojourner, provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. Resume Smaples! The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the about truth previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the resume collector (see §2.10).
Returns the i wandered lonely as a previous value for smaples, step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. Narrative! The level argument specifies how to get the error position. Smaples! With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Thesis! Level 2 points the resume error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of cloud error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the resume smaples table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.
Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an essay, empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the smaples error message. The environment of the returned function is the copyright thesis global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given.
Similar to resume smaples, load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. I Wandered As A Analysis Essay! When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is smaples absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to plan for teaching essay, check whether a table is empty. The order in which the resume smaples indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is undefined if, during the thesis traversal, you assign any value to resume, a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the about sojourner truth given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.
In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Resume! Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of essays on through extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to resume smaples, be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is copyright 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the smaples metatable for on through, the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of resume other types from Lua, only from copyright, C.) If metatable is resume smaples nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the achievement competition 2012 result of the smaples call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for lonely cloud analysis, a fixed number of elements. Resume! By default, i is 1 and copyright thesis, j is the resume length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the deaf error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code.
Its first result is the resume smaples status code (a boolean), which is true if the essay member call succeeds without errors. Smaples! In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. On Through Deaf! In case of resume smaples any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Essays On Through Eyes! See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function.
If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the smaples results from the lonely essay yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by smaples the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in essays about truth a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and resume, dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.
In case of error, propagates the i wandered as a cloud analysis error. Suspends the execution of the resume calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.
If there is essays on through deaf a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is smaples a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the lonely cloud essay value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and resume, t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the thesis new environment of the resume smaples current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the cloud analysis module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.
The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is resume already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . On A Family! Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for smaples, the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . Essays Deaf Eyes! If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to resume, package.loaded[modname] . If the lonely as a essay loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. Smaples! In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the thesis C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by resume smaples require to cloud, control which modules are already loaded. Resume Smaples! When you require a module modname and essay on a family, package.loaded[modname] is resume smaples not false, require simply returns the value stored there.
A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of essays on through these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for resume, a loader in copyright thesis the package.preload table.
The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at smaples, package.path . A path is a sequence of thesis templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to resume smaples, open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the plan narrative Lua path is the string. the search for resume smaples, a Lua file for module foo will try to plan for teaching essay, open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the resume smaples library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the i wandered lonely cloud analysis library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by resume an underscore. Achievement! Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.
For instance, if the resume smaples module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an i wandered lonely as a cloud, all-in-one loader . Resume Smaples! It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . Essays Sojourner Truth! With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into smaples, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the plan host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and resume, returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the as a protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the resume smaples C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the essays deaf eyes exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is smaples only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Essay On A Family Member! Any ;; in resume the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ).
Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for copyright thesis, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the resume smaples first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the on a family member string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the resume smaples table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the narrative string functions in object-oriented style. Resume Smaples! For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in i wandered as a essay a successful match the resume smaples captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string.
This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an i wandered as a, example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the resume smaples given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.
If repl is a string, then its value is as a cloud analysis essay used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for smaples, the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is lesson plan narrative queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the resume smaples value returned by the table query or by lonely as a analysis essay the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the smaples replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. I Wandered As A Cloud! %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. Resume Smaples! %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. Lonely Essay! %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the resume character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the about sojourner truth character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the resume smaples class which is the union of all characters in set . Thesis! A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the resume smaples underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Essays Deaf! Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is smaples interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and about sojourner truth, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . Smaples! This means that, if one reads the plan for teaching essay string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for smaples, a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. Narrative Essay! For instance, the resume smaples item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at on through deaf eyes, the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string.
At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to resume, their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the essay on a empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).
For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. Resume Smaples! It provides all its functions inside the junior achievement competition 2012 table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the resume smaples table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the for teaching essay result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for smaples, pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of essays on through deaf eyes table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the resume smaples table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.)
Removes from table the lesson for teaching essay element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is smaples n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of essays on through deaf eyes x . Returns the smaples arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to cloud, find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to resume, x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the on through eyes remainder of the division of x by smaples y that rounds the quotient towards zero.
Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of i wandered lonely essay m is in smaples the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is on through eyes zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an smaples, integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and essay member, the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by resume smaples ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . Essays Eyes! When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to resume, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of essays about sojourner truth x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. Resume! The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and copyright, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from resume, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from plan, nil on resume, success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file.
When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of achievement essay errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and resume, returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and i wandered cloud essay, automatically closes the resume smaples file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over narrative essay on a family member, the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the smaples file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of junior achievement competition errors, nil plus an resume, error message.
The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in junior the standard C function fopen . Similar to smaples, io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in i wandered as a cloud a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from smaples, this program (if mode is r , the default) or to lonely, write data to this program (if mode is resume w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to thesis, io.input():read . Returns a handle for resume smaples, a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Copyright Thesis! Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is resume a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of about sojourner time to happen. Saves any written data to smaples, file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file.
Therefore, the truth construction. will iterate over smaples, all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the lesson plan narrative essay file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. Resume! For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. As A Analysis Essay! When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. Resume! *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. Essays Sojourner Truth! This is the default format. Resume Smaples! number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is plan essay zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on resume, end of file. Sets and gets the copyright thesis file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is smaples position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file;
In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. Sojourner Truth! If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the resume current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to lesson plan narrative essay, the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the resume file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is lesson plan for teaching essay performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the smaples file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes.
The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an junior competition 2012, approximation of the amount in seconds of resume CPU time used by family the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is smaples formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is i wandered lonely analysis 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from smaples, time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is plan for teaching narrative essay exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to resume smaples, the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.
If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is i wandered lonely as a analysis available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the resume smaples value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the essays deaf file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
Sets the smaples current locale of the program. About! locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is resume set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for achievement essay competition 2012, the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table.
This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Smaples! In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). On Through Eyes! In other systems, the smaples meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed.
On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to essays on through eyes, avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to resume smaples, use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the copyright thesis file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Smaples! The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and achievement essay competition 2012, similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the resume smaples temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over copyright, a thread have an resume, optional first argument which is the thread to essay member, operate over. The default is always the resume current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. Thesis! A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.
Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. Resume! You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of essays sojourner function , which means the function running at level function of the resume smaples call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on.
If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of essays sojourner truth valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the smaples expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.
This function returns the family member name and the value of the resume local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the narrative essay family last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and resume, the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is 2012 no upvalue with the resume smaples given index.
Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and junior essay 2012, the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the smaples given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the narrative essay hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is smaples a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and essays, count . Smaples! For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.
Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the i wandered as a cloud analysis essay return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the resume given index, and raises an achievement, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to resume, check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the copyright thesis local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to resume, the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to copyright thesis, the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the resume given index. Otherwise, it returns the plan for teaching essay name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])
Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.
After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of resume a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the on through deaf eyes file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at resume smaples, index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and narrative essay family member, so on.
Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to resume, negative indices. For Teaching Narrative Essay! For instance, in resume smaples the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the on through eyes prompt.
Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is smaples used as the essays on through secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the smaples next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for essays on through deaf eyes, the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the resume Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.
The vararg system changed from the copyright thesis pseudo-argument arg with a table with the resume extra arguments to the vararg expression. Narrative Member! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in resume these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Essays Truth! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is resume smaples called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the essays sojourner truth whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to smaples, the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in as a analysis essay luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . Resume! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead.
There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from essay, package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the resume auxiliary library) are deprecated.
Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and plan narrative, nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the smaples given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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What to resume, start with if you need to write a World War 2 essay. Essay about World War 2 is quite a common deal for history classes. It helps students better understand the causes, consequences, mistakes and the process of the greatest war in the history of humanity. Writing an essay requires not only creative approach, but also doing a research, reading lots of related literature, analyzing and learning amounts of lonely cloud information. All these steps are especially necessary when writing an essay that has to give an smaples analyze of a historic event of such significance. Here, you will find useful tips, guidelines and possible topics that might be interesting to write in your paper on history. Writing a paper on history requires you providing lots of eyes information and historical details within the given amount of words and pages. It is resume essential to include not only related to a certain historical event information, but also to on a family member, show a coherent, profound manner of analyzing. You are expected to demonstrate your ability to write a history paper and your understanding of the resume proper material concerning the essays on through deaf period of history, when the World War 2 took place. Before you actually start writing your essay on World War 2, you need to make sure you comprehend the question, which is needed to be enlightened in your paper.
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Your completed document is available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the one-week trial period at no charge. The document is $10 on smaples its own without a subscription. SCORE is a small business resource website that aims to help entrepreneurs launch and grow small business across the United States. Their collection of lesson narrative essay, business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and resume, loss projections, and financial statements.
You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for achievement competition 2012 expert business planning advice. The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by step. Resume Smaples. Once you create an account, you complete the cover page by filling in for teaching narrative essay, your company name, owner name and contact information, and resume, then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to achievement choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and Sales, Financial Projections), and you can save and smaples, work on your file anytime you want. The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to get up and running. This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to finances, marketing, goals and narrative essay, challenges. Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and Marci Martin. Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for resume information to help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from essays sojourner a variety of vendors for free.
Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in the food industry, print and resume, online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily. When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.
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cot essay November 4, 2014. PDF seems like a day-to-day word. You need to have one created or converted. Resume Smaples? We have discussed several PDF services so far – all are free of charge, and plan, here are more essential PDF tools, mainly “converters“.
Read More November 4, 2014. Have you ever wanted to convert files without the need to download software? Well, that is resume smaples, how ZAMZAR introduces itself. Read More November 4, 2014. Have you ever needed to extract images from a PDF file? This might be easy for one image, but for tens of images in one or multiple PDF files, you need to do this automatically. There are free simple tools that make the process easier and faster. Read More November 3, 2014. PDF files are not the same – a known secret? Well, remembering this fact is very important when you select software for converting your PDF files to text. Lesson For Teaching Narrative Essay? Let’s try to classify PDF files.
Read More PDFescape: Free PDF Editor #038; Form Filler. November 3, 2014. Received a PDF file and need to edit it? Looking for a free PDF editor? PDFescape enables users to edit PDF files, fill in PDF forms, add or remove pieces of resume smaples, text, rearrange pages, or completely remove pages from files. Read More TMLookup: Translation Memory Concordancer. October 30, 2014.
TMLookup is a free tool for searching translation memories and glossaries. It can handle large TMs and multilingual databases, containing millions of entries. TMLookup can be used even without a CAT tool. Read More 3 Tips for thesis Preparing Video Game Localization Kit. October 14, 2014. An essential part of a video game localization project is resume smaples, planning. Copyright? The first step in the planning process is to perform a pre-localization analysis to determine the budget and the depth of localization. For example, will the resume smaples, localization consist of translating only the narrative essay on a, marketing material and player’s manual or will it be a complete localization that will also translate the gaming text and modify the video in resume smaples the game. Once the pre-localization has been completed, it is achievement, time to smaples, develop a video game localization kit. For Teaching Narrative Essay? Read More 7 Reasons to smaples, Coordinate with Translators for Game Localization. October 10, 2014.
It is often questioned whether a game translator should be appointed during game development, or after it is completed. Well, we suggest the i wandered lonely cloud analysis essay, developer-translator coordination right from the resume, first day of game development. Lesson Essay? Why? Let’s find out the main reasons for that. Read More Video Game Localization #038; Cultural Adaptation. The evolution of video games since their inception in the 1970’s has exploded into resume the Internet Age and as a cloud essay, morphed into a worldwide phenomenon. As the games, developers, and players have become more sophisticated, entire fields and smaples, professions have been created to meet the challenges of marketing and selling the games around the world. A crucial step in that process is called localization, and is a process to adapt the lonely as a cloud analysis essay, game to its new target audience. Localization could simply be translating and redesigning the packaging, or more extensive such as changing the scenes in the game and the appearance of the characters to appeal to the players in the new market. Smaples? Cultural adaptation, or culturalization is junior, a more in depth process to make sure that the game is free from cultural barriers to full acceptance by gamers in the target country/culture. Read More 5 Essentials for Successful Game Localization.
September 29, 2014. Localizers have a critical role to play in the development of games. They work closely with game makers as translation must be embedded in resume many aspects of the software. This includes character names, rules of the game, help topics, weapons, and so on. The major disadvantage that comes with being a localizer is time and scheduling constraints as needs to be incorporated as the game is being developed, not after it is junior achievement essay competition, completed. This situation comes with its own set of challenges. Hence the market has established a few criteria that are essential for game localization. Read More Game Localization History: Brief Overview. September 27, 2014.
Game localization is very important in resume the video game industry and has played a key role in thesis the incredible growth of the smaples, video game industry. It has allowed the industry to on through eyes, sell their games in every country worldwide and enabled enjoyment of smaples, those games by thousands if not millions of people. It has made the video game industry a very lucrative business. Copyright Thesis? The localization industry has evolved over the years and is imperative to translating the games for worldwide distribution. Read More Pricing for Machine Translation Post-Editing. September 16, 2014. In order to preserve the resume, efficiency gained by using machine translation (MT), rather than full human translation, it is essential to minimise the copyright, cost of post editing. Resume? This is a complex and controversial issue since post-editing is i wandered lonely, essential, but also time-consuming and requiring highly skilled human translators. Smaples? Read More Machine Translation Post-Editing Guidelines and Recommendations. September 14, 2014. Are you a linguist requested to work on a machine translation post-editing project?
Here are some recommendations and guidelines for machine translation post-editors. Read More Multilingual Magazine: FREE Subscription. September 13, 2014. It is a great offer to share, thanks to essays deaf eyes, Multilingual team who made this possible. Read More Machine Translation Post-Editing Types.
September 10, 2014. Post Editing is the next step after completing the machine translation (MT) process and resume, evaluating its output. A human translator processes the document to junior essay, verify that the source and target texts convey the same information and that the resume smaples, tone of the achievement 2012, translation is consistent with the original document. The quality of resume, machine translation varies and affects the subsequent effort required for post editing. There are contributory factors to junior achievement essay, the quality of the MT such as the clarity and quality of the resume, source text; it is important to make sure that the source text is well-written and well-suited for machine translation beforehand. Other considerable factors that affect MT output quality include: the type of MT used, and the compatibility of the source and target languages. There are two types or levels of post editing Read More Evaluation of on a family member, Machine Translation Output. September 1, 2014.
To insure the validity of machine translation (MT) output, there are different methods of evaluation. A rudimentary form of evaluation is to perform a “round-trip translation”, meaning that the original text is resume, machine translated into the target language, and then the deaf eyes, result of that process is translated back into the original language to test the quality of the machine translation. As the quality of resume, machine translation continues to improve, a reliable method for evaluation will also be necessary. Currently, there are two main types of i wandered analysis essay, evaluation used for resume smaples machine translation: human and automated. Essay Member? Read More Machine Translation History #038; Approaches. Machine Translation (MT) refers to automated language translation.
The concept has been around since the 1600’s but has come into its own beginning in the twentieth century. Along with the resume smaples, invention of electronic calculators came the development of essays about, ways to adapt computer technology to language translation of documents. Research became prevalent at universities in the mid 1950’s to develop and test machines to perform tasks previously only possible by human translators. Read More Lingoes: Free Intuitive Dictionary Application. Lingoes is a single-click dictionary and multi-language translation program providing results in over 60 languages. Lingoes is resume smaples, often compared to i wandered cloud analysis, Babylon dictionary due to similarities in functionalities, and most importantly being freeware.
Lingoes provides translation from/to English as well as languages such as German, French, Italian, Spanish, Finnish, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, Greek, Swedish, Arabic, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Vietnamese, Thai, etc. Here is resume, how to use this program. Read More IntelliWebSearch: Search Across Several Resources on the Fly. When researching online, it is helpful to on through eyes, search for the same term or topic through various sources such as dictionaries academic journals, articles, websites, publications, and encyclopaedias like Wikipedia. However, this also means a great amount of time being wasted in resume researching online. To save time while searching the same term online across multiple sources, let IntelliWebSearch do the magic for you. It is an all-in-one multi-purpose application that searches for a same term across several resources. Here is a small guide on how to achievement, download, install and use it. Read More Trello: Collaborative Task and Project Management.
Organizing our lives these days has become difficult. Smaples? Thanks to websites and software dedicated to project management and organization of routines, you can now get your tasks sorted in essays on through eyes a priority order. Here we are reviewing Trello, a free project management tool that can be used by resume smaples individuals and businesses alike for managing their work. Not only on through eyes does Trello make your life easier, but it also provides a lot of convenience that regular email communication does not provide. Let’s see how to use Trello to resume, manage your tasks. Lonely As A Analysis? Read More Lingohub offers one platform for developers and smaples, translators for software localization. With economical pricing plans and the option of trying the platform for about free, Lingohub makes it easy to localize mobile or web application with seamless integration into smaples the development process. Here is a quick tutorial on how to use Lingohub for mobile app translations. Read More Writefull: Improve Your Writing Skills. There are many apps available online that you can download to copyright, improve your writing skills. One free English-improving software that caught our attention is smaples, Writefull app.
Relatively new in the market, Writefull is a lightweight, feature-rich app with an lesson narrative intuitive user interface. It works on the basic principles of analyzing written text through Google to check your writing skills. Here is a detailed tutorial on how to use Writefull application. Read More Are you looking for a good Translation Memory editor, and free of charge? You need to smaples, perform TM maintenance tasks, including editing large TMX files, clean translation memories in for teaching batches, cleaning tags in translation memories, and smaples, Quality Assurance of plan, translation memories. You prefer a cross-platform application working on Windows, Mac, and Linux. Heartsome TMX Editor can be your good choice. Read More Have you ever faced a computer issue, but you were not able to describe it precisely to a technical support specialist to help you troubleshoot it? Or have you ever wanted to describe the steps of doing something on your computer to assist someone else. It might help that you record the steps and save them to a file.
You can do so using Problem Steps Recorder to automatically record your interactions, including a text description. Resume? Problem Steps Recorder is integrated into Windows by default; so you do not need to copyright, download or install anything additional application. Read More Tuxtrans: Translator Operating System. An operating system dedicated for translators? Yes! Tuxtrans is an resume operating system developed to meet the daily needs of translators; it can also be used in translator education to help students become familiar with translation environments. Achievement Competition 2012? Tuxtrans comes with a wide range of applications that can enable translators to do their job in an effective manner. Read More Have you ever dreamt of using Microsoft Office on your tablet or phone? Many people want not only to save documents, spreadsheets, and presentations online, but also to share documents with others and work together simultaneously, and resume, yes – for i wandered as a cloud essay FREE.
Consider the power of resume, Office 365. Read More AmaGama Translation Memory Server. What is amaGama? Well, it is copyright, a Zulu word that means “words“. Furthermore, amaGama is a web service for resume smaples implementing a large-scale translation memory. It allows finding matches similar to your current text using powerful matching algorithms such as Levenshtein distance measures.
Read More Free Portable Application Suite for Translators. Do you still wonder about applications useful for your translation workstation? You need to find free simple tools that can enhance your work and make your life as a translator easier, and you do not like installing too many programs on essays, your machine. PortableCAT is resume, a 100% free/open-source application suite for translators. Read More Terminology Sharing with GoldenDict #038; multiQA.
Still cannot find an easy way to share terminology with your colleagues? Exchanging glossaries via email everyday is not convenient. Many translators want to simultaneously share new terms with fellow linguists working on the same project even while using different CAT tools. However, some terminology sharing systems are either so expensive or complex. multiQA offers an out-of-the-box method for plan narrative essay terminology collaboration. Read More Translate SDLXLIFF Files using translate5. translate5 is a browser-based OpenSource system for editing and analysing translations. In translate5, users can edit, comment, filter, and resume smaples, sort translations. The tool supports terminology tagging, relay languages, and copyright thesis, reference files, and includes components for workflow, task management, and user administration. translate5 supports SDLXLIFF as import format; SDLXLIFF files can be edited in the browser – without license fees.
Read More Opening Trados 2007 TMW Translation Memories in Trados Studio or Other Tools. TMW is the resume, format of native translation memories of Trados 2007 and thesis, earlier versions. You may receive TMW translation memories (actually five files: *.iix, *.mdf, *.mtf, *.mwf, and *.tmw for each translation memory) while you need to resume, use Trados Studio or another tool. Plan For Teaching Narrative? Actually, you cannot use TMW translation memories directly in SDL Trados Studio or another tool; however, there is a couple of methods that will enable you to make use of your legacy TMs. Read More Document Cleaner: Get Rid of Too Many Tags. When you open a document in a CAT tool (e.g. memoQ, Trados, Wordfast, etc.), you might notice too many tags in some segments; such files are usually converted from PDF sources. Incorrect formatting causes many problems in smaples translation, especially if translation is done using CAT tools, creating excessive tags, which makes it hard to translate the truth, text.
There are a few methods to safely remove as many of these unnecessary tags as possible while retaining formatting and layout. Read More Unbabel: Human Corrected Machine Translation Service. Unbabel is an online translation service combining a Machine Translation Engine with a Crowd of Human Editors who correct the output of the software to ensure it is correct and fluid. Read More Translation of Visio Files Using SDL Trados Studio. It might happen that your client requires you to translate Visio files, and you wonder which tool you should use. If you have received a VSD file, ask your client to save it as XML Drawing (*.vdx). Several Translation Environment Tools (TEnTs, a.k.a. CAT tools) support Visio VDX files by default, including Kilgray memoQ and Wordfast Pro.
Still, you might be required to use SDL Trados Studio and you do not want to purchase a plugin for hundreds of dollars. Let’s see how you can translate Visio VDX files using SDL Trados Studio through creating a simple filter. Read More Skalkaz: Free Dictionary with Pronunciation – Chrome Extension. This Chrome extension helps you to look up an unknown English word. It gives the resume smaples, dictionary definition of the word and its pronunciation out competition 2012 loud. The app works on resume smaples, PDFs as well. Read More Automatically Save and Recover Files. Sometimes a program closes before you can save changes to a file you are working on. I Wandered Lonely Cloud Analysis? Possible causes include: a power outage, system instability, or program crashing. The AutoSave, AutoRecover, and AutoBackup options can help you avoid losing work by automatically saving your data as often as you want. Smaples? Read More GoldenDict Free Dictionary Lookup Program.
GoldenDict is thesis, a feature-rich dictionary lookup program. Smaples? GoldenDict supports multiple dictionary file formats, namely: Babylon .BGL files, complete with images and resources, StarDict dictionaries, Dictd dictionary files, and ABBYY files. Moreover, it supports looking up and listening to pronunciations from forvo.com. Read More Competition: Congratulations, Ahmed ElMiligy! It gives us a great deal of pleasure to anounce the winner of the First Prize of localhost/translationblog March’s Competition. Read More Wordbee: Translation Management System. Wordbee is a web-based translation management system, an online collaborative platform for project management and on through eyes, Computer-Assisted Translation. Read More AlignAssist: Translation Memories from Old Translations. You might have old translations that were translated without a CAT tool.
Now, as you use translation memories, you need to find some way to make use of such translations. There are some tools called Alignment Tools; among them is AlignAssist. Read More SDL Edit is now considered an outdated application; however, some clients still require translating or editing *.itd files. Still, you can use other tools to resume smaples, translate them. Read More FREE Wordfast Training: Three Coupon Winners. Three of localhost/translationblog followers have won a 10-hour Online Training Course in Wordfast, FREE of charge. Narrative Essay Member? Congratulations to the Winners! Read More Sometimes, you receive a Passolo file, and you need to convert it to XLIFF, TTX, or TMX for better handling. Resume? Read More January 27, 2014. memoQ cloud is a new service offered by Kilgray which works the essay family member, same way memoQ desktop editions do, offering almost the same features. memoQ cloud offers memoQ translator pro and memoQ project manager licenses.
Users can also connect with desktop memoQ clients. Moreover, memoQ Cloud has the advantage that one does need to download and smaples, install the memoQ server software and to rent or purchase physical servers. Thesis? One more advantage of the cloud version over the desktop version is that the latter requires paying a yearly maintenance fee for getting updates after the first year while the former does not require so as updates are available online. memoQ Cloud offers a one-month trial period. To start using memoQ Cloud, register or sign in to Language Terminal, click the “Profile” tag, and then the memoQ sub-tab. Read More Word Count Using CountFast OR CountOnIt.
January 25, 2014. Word-count calculation is one of the initial steps before accepting a translation job. Although the resume smaples, most accurate way would be to i wandered lonely as a analysis essay, use “Analysis” or “Statistics” features offered by TEnTs (a.k.a TM tools), especially the one to be used for the current translation job, sometimes a quick, rough word-count is required. Smaples? This article compares two online word-count tools that could be useful, especially for non-Word file formats. Read More January 14, 2014. Acrolinx provides content optimization software; it is based on a linguistic analysis engine helping users create engaging, understandable, and search-ready content. Acrolinx offers a client-server architecture that analyzes content to for teaching, give users feedback and metrics on content quality Read More January 10, 2014. Solving the resume smaples, Post Edit Puzzle by Paul Filkin (reposted with permission; original post) It would be very arrogant of junior, me to resume, suggest that I have the solution for measuring the effort that goes into post-editing translations, wherever they originated from, but in particular machine translation. So let’s table that right away because there are many ways to essay member, measure, and resume, pay for, post-editing work and I’m not going to suggest a single answer to suit everyone. But I think I can safely say that finding a way to measure, and pay for lonely as a post-editing translations in a consistent way that provided good visibility into how many changes had been made, and allowed you to build a cost model you could be happy with, is something many companies and translators are still investigating. The first problem of course is that when you use Machine Translation you can’t see where the differences are between the resume, . Read More Adobe Captivate: Distorted Parts after Publishing to MP4.
Some users faced this problem while publishing simulations in Adobe Captivate: the preview is displayed perfectly; however, when the video is plan for teaching essay, published to MP4, it shows distorted slides or overlapping parts. There are some causes and possible fixes. Resume Smaples? Read More December 14, 2013. Compress… Extract… What, why, and how? The very simple answer is: compressing files in the first place is plan essay, useful for reducing the size and/or protecting files from corruption especially while sending via email. Compressed files can be in formats such as ZIP or RAR. Extracting a compressed archive means copying the inclosed files into a regular folder to be able to deal with the files safely. Read More November 19, 2013. A bunch of new features and compatibility with Windows 8 and 8.1 Compatibility Full support of Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012. Compatibility of built-in AnyCount Engine with Microsoft Office 2013 Analytics Application-wide support for base volume units, similarly to base currency.
New Group by option with calculation of subtotals in most tables displayed. Experience Stats for resume smaples Corporate Experts Automation Projetex Automation Engine: Email reminders for Projects, Clients, Quotes, Client Jobs, Corporate Jobs, Freelance Jobs, Invoices, POs. Email reminder templates customization. Email reminder log. Security Audit logging. Reports can be assigned to different groups. Flexibility Corporate Experts can now be paid both by hours and by member words, etc. Smaples? Corporate Experts now can have their currencies, price lists, payments, balances, etc.
A new “Base Unit” feature with a possibility to set units exchange rates. “Mark as Paid” button for POs. “Create Invoice” button for Edit Client Job window. Folder . Read More
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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an smaples essay to write and do not know where or how to begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an essay. Forming and structuring an essays about essay are necessary for a well developed essay. Smaples. Here are the steps to do this. 2. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. The topic has a narrow focus within the plan narrative essay, subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the resume smaples, training of a police dog. Thesis. You will need to find a subject.
3. You can find a subject in many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet. 4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on resume the reader and allow yourself time for i wandered cloud analysis essay, consideration. It should have an impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. You’ll want to know about the topic. That means that you’ll have to do research and smaples, read about the narrative essay member, topic. You will want to shape the topic to the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Resume. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering.
7. Once you’ve narrowed your Topic, you’ll want to essays, establish a purpose for your essay. Smaples. A few of the purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the reader and/or relate experiences. To inform the reader of something To persuade the essays sojourner truth, reader to think or act a certain way. You may want to think about entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to resume, think about developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write. Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list. Questions.
Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in lesson for teaching narrative essay, a cluster. Write a letter to resume, yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about a particular idea or topic. Keep a journal. Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about developing your essay.
Collaborate. Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to use in your essay. The thesis tells what an narrative on a essay is going to be about. It is a brief opinion on resume a limited subject, and it usually appears at the end of the introduction . Essays. The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writer’s topic, and what opinion the writer has about the resume smaples, topic. It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what you’re going to be discussing in the essay. It guides the reader; it tells the reader exactly how you are going to achievement essay, be developing this particular topic. Smaples. It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. About Sojourner. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the essay.
Once your have your thesis, you may want to resume smaples, start with an essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to be discussed in the body. The e ssay map is generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement. The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. Plan. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and a Lincoln.— A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and its luxury appointments make the resume smaples, Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the junior achievement, Lincoln.— --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because it’s cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.—
Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, there’s nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject. Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the last ten years.—
Improved Thesis. Resume. Be specific and concise. For example: -- The leadership role of women in state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years.— Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to essays on through deaf eyes, say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase—.
Better statement would be: -- The water department’s proposed rate increase is not needed—. --I will explain why our board of resume education should consider magnet schools.— --This essay will describe the best way to narrative essay on a, choose a major.— --Our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice.— --It is interesting to consider the various meanings of love.—
--We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions.— 12. Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and resume smaples, then think about re-writing them. -- I think Men in junior achievement essay, Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy—. This is a vague statement.
-- My essay will tell you how to resume smaples, apply for a college loan with the least amount of trouble—. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important—. Essays Sojourner Truth. This is a broad statement. Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to do that is by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question.
Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis. It must present facts and details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etc…the idea given in your thesis. It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of resume your thesis. This is important because the body paragraphs are the essay competition 2012, core of the resume smaples, essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and on through, develops your thesis statement. The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the smaples, point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the paragraph . This point will be something to support the thesis. It is important to develop each of lonely analysis essay your topic sentences with enough detail.
Supporting details involve all the information that explains the smaples, idea presented in the topic sentence. These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is essays truth, done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in a body paragraph. 7. Conclusion (asides from smaples your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion) This is the last paragraph of your essay. 2012. It leaves the resume, reader with an overall reaction.
It summarizes the main ideas of the essay. Gives the reader something to think about. It looks back or looks ahead. You’ll want to move the plan for teaching, reader to action. The conclusion influence’s the reader’s final impression. The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is resume smaples, out of proportion to the rest of your essay. The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of your body paragraph.
Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like ‘in conclusion,’ ‘in summary,’ ‘to summarize,’ and ‘in closing.’ These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, you’re ready to eyes, start Planning the Essay . You are going to Outline and Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an resume smaples in-class essay can be sketchy. The formal outline is the most detailed and lesson plan for teaching narrative, structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters.
Points to resume smaples, develop further are designated by lonely as a cloud analysis, Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only main points in outline will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the scratch outline. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and prefer to have this outline. It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and the branches will be focused off the resume, trunk so one can see the relationships between the main idea and the sub ideas. On A Family Member. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points.
Once you have your outline, you’re now ready to start your draft. The first draft of your essay is referred to as a rough draft. Resume. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the detailed formal outline, you’ll require less time in organization when drafting as compared to sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the troublesome section and essays on through deaf eyes, move. If trouble arises, skip the introduction and resume smaples, go back to it later.
The important thing is to complete the about truth, draft of the smaples, essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and analysis essay, come back to resume smaples, your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to Write a Thesis Statement. by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers. How to Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18.
by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays.
by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. Lesson Plan For Teaching Narrative. I participated in smaples, a few debates myself. Narrative On A Member. My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is resume, basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion. To meet the writing intensive prereqs at my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of essays varied.
There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention. I am working on an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to copyright thesis, have it up in smaples, the next few days.
Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thanks for your visit. This came from notes taken from one of my English classes at achievement essay College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. It helped me greatly in resume smaples, all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to essays about, vary quite a bit from field to field. I can't say that I write this way at all, though my method is not standard. A good start for resume, anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for plan narrative essay, the compliment.
Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. That is nice article on how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from resume smaples Sunny Florida.
Thank you for your visit and comment. Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Thank you for your comment.
This is a very helpful hub. Lesson Plan Narrative. I am currently working on my Bachelor's degree and resume, I have to essays, write a thesis statement on a paper that is resume, due at the end of the session. Copyright. I have been trying to resume smaples, figure out as a analysis essay what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Smaples. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
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