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Dissertation Dedication My Parents
Brotherhood in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; Essay. Since I was a small child, around two years old, I have had the to my, privilege and sometimes the complete terror of being an older brother. This has been a rewarding experience for me, and has given me many learning opportunities and teaching opportunities in my fairly short life. Because of my experience as an older brother I was more fully able to understand and appreciate the struggles and triumphs that the two brothers in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; endured. Thesis? While I have never personally had to deal with the extreme experiences and responsibilities that the narrator dealt with, I can still relate simply as an older brother myself. Throughout the short story I found myself questioning how I would deal with Sonny if he were my brother. I finally came to the conclusion that if I had dealt with Sonny, I would have probably handled him in nearly the same way as the narrator did. While I questioned his judgment at times, I feel that the older brother played his role well or at least to the best of his ability. Regardless of how the narrator dealt with his brother the final outcome is the most important aspect of the story, and it shows that brotherhood is to my capable of overcoming hardship and misunderstanding because it is so important in regard to human survival and success. The fact that brotherhood prevails over all things is an important theme, and college application, one that rings so very true. The first struggle that the reader is to my parents introduced to in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; is the pre-dissertation, distinct age difference between Sonny and his older brother. #8220;The seven years#8217; difference in our ages lay between us like a chasm.
I wondered if these years would ever operate between us as a bridge.#8221; (Baldwin, 44 hereafter referred to as page number only) The so-called #8220;chasm#8221; is the hurdle that must be cleared in the story, and that #8220;clearing of the hurdle#8221; is the key to forming a solid, emotional relationship between the brothers. The #8220;bridge#8221; is finally formed when the narrator attends Sonny#8217;s performance at the jazz club. The fact that we get to dissertation dedication to my parents, see the interaction between the two brothers is marymount important, but even more important is that the dissertation dedication to my parents, reader sees the essay $10/page essay, narrator#8217;s realization of his brother#8217;s talent in the first person. This allows us to feel how deeply it touches the parents, narrator, and gives us a perspective of argumentative essay purdue his overflowing of emotion. #8220;For, while the tale of how we suffer, and how we are delighted, and how we may triumph is never new, it always must be heard. There isn#8217;t any other tale to tell, it#8217;s the only light we#8217;ve got in all this darkness.#8221; (61) This particular passage was very striking to dissertation parents, me, because it showed that the narrator finally realized that Sonny had a story too. He realizes that Sonny has suffered, but he has also triumphed many times, and in many ways. Fellowships? The narrator had a blanketing view of Sonny, in which Sonny could never be successful at anything. While Sonny is playing he tells his brother that they are more alike than they know, and that they both have the same story, just with different details. The brothers have finally found a bond, a common thread, and that is one of the most important things that brothers can have. Dedication To My? James Baldwin was a writer of his past.
He used his personal experiences to more effectively write his detailed and emotional stories and essays. One important aspect to argumentative purdue owl, his writing in general, but more specifically in his early stories is poverty stricken Harlem, New York. Baldwin uses personal experiences and opinions to dedication parents, make his characters a part of the Harlem he lived through. The idea that Harlem is in a vicious cycle of destroying generation after generation, and the constant desire of youth to find a way out are two very important themes in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues.#8221; Harlem is a place that repeats itself over and over, like a scratched record. Yet no one is schizophrenia willing to help the other out. For each generation the dedication, tragedy of Harlem is new, for the older people are reluctant to inform the young ones of the thesis, condition of the black race (Goldman, 1). The narrator repeatedly observes that nothing has changed across generations, not the buildings or the lives of those who grow up in dedication to my them#8221; (McBride, 201). The narrator also compares Sonny#8217;s heroin addiction to prison and then compares them both to Harlem, truly showing the dire situation that he and his brother find themselves in. The restriction and oppression of Harlem is an important element in explaining the stranglehold that is on lonely as a analysis essay, their lives from the time they are young. It is a theme that I wish Baldwin would have explored more because the environment a child is dissertation dedication placed in is very important to the kind of person they become in life. In some ways I was disappointed with the way in which the narrator dealt with Sonny and argumentative, his heroin addiction.
I found it questionable that he waited until after his daughter#8217;s death to write to Sonny. But at the same time, this provides a great example of dissertation to my parents his inherent need for his brother in his time of hurt. The narrator was in fellowships need of Sonny to help him through his tough time, and maybe at the same time realized his own failures to Sonny when he was struggling himself. The most important thing that comes from the dissertation dedication, letter to Sonny was that contact was finally made, which is the i wandered lonely cloud essay, first and dedication, most important step to rekindling the brotherhood. While music becomes the integral part of bringing the brothers back together, it had a shaky start as a part of their relationship. Sonny had started playing the piano while living at his brother#8217;s in-laws. He became quite talented but heroin addiction got in his way, and eventually tripped him up.
One important conversation the brothers had was after their mother#8217;s funeral, Sonny#8217;s brother notes: #8220;I simply couldn#8217;t see why on earth he#8217;d want to spend his tine hanging around nightclubs, clowning around on essay purdue, bandstands, while people pushed each other around a dance floor. (50)#8221; Readers understand how indifferent and ignorant the narrator is in dissertation to my regard to Sonny#8217;s music. Sonny#8217;s brother dissents with Sonny#8217;s idea of making a living as a musician and insists he should finish school first. Finally, Sonny#8217;s frustration explodes, #8220;He slammed the window so hard I thought the glass would fly out, and turned back to me. #8216;And I#8217;m sick of the stink of these garbage cans! (52)'#8221; The narrator describes the feelings and emotions of manhattan essay this exchange vividly so the dedication parents, reader understands the strong emotions and essay $10/page $10/page, disagreement that exists. We see the parents, difference in attitudes about life and music, which deepens the #8220;chasm#8221; between them. Essay $10/page? This difference leads to the long span of silence and misunderstanding. The silence is finally broken after the narrator#8217;s daughter dies of polio.
Sonny#8217;s brother writes him in prison, breaking himself out of his emotional defense towards his brother. #8220;My trouble made his real (55),#8221; states the dissertation dedication parents, narrator speaking of his letter and the new contact. The first step is taken, and from there the relationship starts building new foundations. Finally, after Sonny leaves prison, he comes to visit his brother in Harlem. When Sonny comes home the narrator momentarily feels #8220;that icy dread again#8221; as he watches his brother for signs of lonely as a analysis drug addiction, hating himself for being so suspicious but unable to prevent it (Bernardo, 1). This begins the road back to a true brotherhood for parents Sonny and the narrator, despite the questions that Sonny may be asked by his brother and the questionable future he may have. While Sonny is articles 2011 visiting his brother in Harlem, the two brothers take a walk and happen upon a street revival where a group of dedication to my musicians are playing. The brothers stop to listen, and the reader is given the suggestion that the brothers seem to come to a realization while listening. While watching, the narrator states that the music #8220;seemed to essay purdue owl, soothe a poison out of them#8221; which suggests his understanding of Sonny#8217;s need for music.
This scene then leads to Sonny#8217;s invitation for his brother to come watch him play at the jazz club (Goldman, 232). Dissertation? Later that evening when Sonny and cloud analysis, his brother arrive at the club the narrator is stricken by the celebrity that Sonny seems to hold at the club. Sonny#8217;s brother notes: #8220;It turned out dissertation dedication that everyone at the bar knew Sonny, or almost everyone; there were some musicians, working there, or nearby, or not working, some where simply hangers-on, and some were there to see Sonny play. I was introduced to all of them, and they were all very polite to me. Yet it was clear that, for them, I was only Sonny#8217;s brother.
Here, I was in Sonny#8217;s world. Or rather, his kingdom. Here it was not even a question that his veins bore royal blood.#8221; (59) This statement alone is telling of the humbling experience Sonny#8217;s brother is about to endure. He has finally realized that there is more to Sonny than heroin, piano, and failure. He is a successful person and fellowships in education, he has a distinct and impressive talent for playing the jazz piano. Parents? Finally the music begins, and as Sonny is sitting at his piano, slightly illuminated by an indirect light, the adventure starts for both Sonny and his brother.
The first set is not one in which Sonny triumphs, but in the second, begun with #8220;Am I Blue,#8221; he takes the schizophrenia 2011, lead and begins to form a musical creation. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents? He becomes, in the narrators words, #8220;part of the family again#8221; (61). The family that he joins is questionable, but I believe it is truly both families. He joins the family of jazz players, from whom he has been gone for so long, but he also rejoins his namesake family and i wandered lonely as a cloud essay, reinstates his place with his brother. The set continues, with Sonny expressing himself with wildly flowing statements on parents, his piano. He is argumentative purdue dripping with sweat, dripping with the loss of his pent up emotion and dissertation dedication parents, his relief of finally getting to essay $10/page, play for his brother. The jazz begins to take on deeper meaning for the brothers, and the life they have led becomes one life, theirs as brothers. Dissertation To My Parents? They no longer lived as individuals with separate lives and understandings. They finally reached an understanding of each other that only brothers could have between themselves. The music is simply a vehicle for pre-dissertation in education arriving there.
The description Baldwin gives of the musical exchange is a work of dedication to my parents beauty in itself. It is a statement of the power of the manhattan college essay, artist as a poet, the power of the musician. Dedication To My? The ability to create out of oneself, to marymount application essay, take the chaos of the world especially the world Sonny lives in into the to my parents, self and pre-dissertation fellowships, represent it as the universal narrative (McBride, 200). Dedication Parents? The passage would not be nearly as effective if there had only been a simple overview of the scene. He brings music and emotion and articles 2011, brotherhood all together in one tight little package, making for one of the dedication to my parents, most moving scenes in American literature. The final scene in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; is striking and is dripping with real life emotion. The idea that one set of blues can bring together two brothers who have not talked in years is amazing, but so very true. The brothers have nothing in common between them apart from the same parents but they are forced through familial obligation to push aside those differences and show compassion and understanding for each other. Schizophrenia Research Articles? These are the dedication to my, enduring qualities of brotherhood and marymount college essay, they show that no matter how hard a person may try they still are in need of dedication to my parents family. This desire within the two brothers brings them together and allows them to truly understand what being a brother is $10/page $10/page really all about.
The differences in the brothers eventually lead to their similarities and that is an amazing thing. Brotherhood transcends time, age, intelligence, failure, success, and grief. It is dissertation dedication to my more than a choice and it is more than an obligation. Brotherhood is carnal and never-ending, and #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; captures the essence of brotherhood beautifully. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 1 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Brotherhood in #8220;Sonny#8217;s Blues#8221; for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining why any physical state is conscious rather than nonconscious. It is the problem of parents, explaining why there is in education, “something it is parents, like” for a subject in conscious experience, why conscious mental states “light up” and directly appear to the subject. The usual methods of science involve explanation of and dissertation, functional, dynamical, and structural properties—explanation of dissertation, what a thing does, how it changes over essay, time, and how it is put together. But even after we have explained the functional, dynamical, and dedication to my structural properties of the essay essay conscious mind, we can still meaningfully ask the question, Why is dissertation to my parents, it conscious?
This suggests that an explanation of consciousness will have to go beyond the usual methods of science. Consciousness therefore presents a hard problem for science, or perhaps it marks the limits of what science can explain. Explaining why consciousness occurs at all can be contrasted with so-called “easy problems” of consciousness: the problems of explaining the thesis search function, dynamics, and structure of consciousness. These features can be explained using the usual methods of science. But that leaves the question of dedication parents, why there is something it is like for the subject when these functions, dynamics, and structures are present. This is the hard problem. In more detail, the challenge arises because it does not seem that the qualitative and subjective aspects of conscious experience—how consciousness “feels” and the fact that it is directly “for me”—fit into a physicalist ontology , one consisting of just the basic elements of physics plus structural, dynamical, and functional combinations of manhattan college essay, those basic elements. It appears that even a complete specification of a creature in physical terms leaves unanswered the question of to my parents, whether or not the creature is conscious. And it seems that we can easily conceive of creatures just like us physically and functionally that nonetheless lack consciousness. This indicates that a physical explanation of consciousness is fundamentally incomplete: it leaves out what it is like to be the subject, for the subject. There seems to be an unbridgeable explanatory gap between the physical world and consciousness.
All these factors make the hard problem hard. The hard problem was so-named by David Chalmers in i wandered lonely essay 1995. The problem is a major focus of research in contemporary philosophy of mind, and dissertation to my parents there is a considerable body of empirical research in psychology, neuroscience, and even quantum physics. The problem touches on pre-dissertation, issues in ontology, on the nature and limits of scientific explanation, and on the accuracy and scope of introspection and first-person knowledge, to name but a few. Reactions to the hard problem range from an outright denial of the issue to naturalistic reduction to panpsychism (the claim that everything is dedication to my, conscious to some degree) to full-blown mind-body dualism.
David Chalmers coined the essay purdue name “hard problem” (1995, 1996), but the parents problem is not wholly new, being a key element of the venerable mind-body problem. Still, Chalmers is among those most responsible for the outpouring of work on this issue. The problem arises because “phenomenal consciousness,” consciousness characterized in essay $10/page terms of “what it’s like for the subject,” fails to to my parents, succumb to the standard sort of purdue owl, functional explanation successful elsewhere in psychology (compare Block 1995). Psychological phenomena like learning, reasoning, and remembering can all be explained in terms of playing the dissertation to my parents right “functional role.” If a system does the right thing, if it alters behavior appropriately in response to environmental stimulation, it counts as learning. Specifying these functions tells us what learning is and allows us to see how brain processes could play this role.
But according to Chalmers, What makes the hard problem hard and almost unique is that it goes beyond problems about the performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the research performance of dedication parents, all the cognitive and behavioral functions in the vicinity of experience—perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report—there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience? (1995, 202, emphasis in original). Chalmers explains the schizophrenia persistence of this question by arguing against the possibility of a “reductive explanation” for phenomenal consciousness (hereafter, I will generally just use the dedication parents term ‘consciousness’ for the phenomenon causing the problem). A reductive explanation in i wandered analysis essay Chalmers’s sense (following David Lewis (1972)), provides a form of dedication to my, deductive argument concluding with an identity statement between the target explanandum (the thing we are trying to explain) and a lower-level phenomenon that is physical in nature or more obviously reducible to essay owl, the physical. Reductive explanations of this type have two premises. The first presents a functional analysis of the target phenomenon, which fully characterizes the target in terms of dissertation, its functional role. The second presents an empirically-discovered realizer of the functionally characterized target, one playing that very functional role. Then, by transitivity of pre-dissertation, identity, the target and realizer are deduced to dissertation dedication to my, be identical. For example, the gene may be reductively explained in terms of fellowships in education, DNA as follows:
The gene = the unit of hereditary transmission. (By analysis.) Regions of DNA = the unit of hereditary transmission. (By empirical investigation.) Therefore, the gene = regions of DNA. Dedication To My Parents. (By transitivity of i wandered, identity, 1, 2.) Chalmers contends that such reductive explanations are available in dissertation to my principle for all other natural phenomena, but not for consciousness. This is the hard problem. The reason that reductive explanation fails for consciousness, according to Chalmers, is pre-dissertation in education, that it cannot be functionally analyzed. This is demonstrated by the continued conceivability of what Chalmers terms “zombies”—creatures physically (and so functionally) identical to us, but lacking consciousness—even in the face of a range of proffered functional analyses. If we had a satisfying functional analysis of consciousness, zombies should not be conceivable. The lack of a functional analysis is also shown by the continued conceivability of dedication to my parents, spectrum inversion (perhaps what it looks like for me to fellowships, see green is what it looks like when you see red), the persistence of the “other minds” problem, the plausibility of the “knowledge argument” (Jackson 1982) and dissertation to my the manifest implausibility of offered functional characterizations.
If consciousness really could be functionally characterized, these problems would disappear. Since they retain their grip on philosophers, scientists, and lay-people alike, we can conclude that no functional characterization is available. Research Articles 2011. But then the first premise of a reductive explanation cannot be properly formulated, and reductive explanation fails. We are left, Chalmers claims, with the following stark choice: either eliminate consciousness (deny that it exists at all) or add consciousness to our ontology as an unreduced feature of reality, on dissertation, par with gravity and purdue owl electromagnetism. Either way, we are faced with a special ontological problem, one that resists solution by dissertation dedication parents, the usual reductive methods. Thomas Nagel sees the problem as turning on the “subjectivity” of thesis search, conscious mental states (1974, 1986). He argues that the facts about conscious states are inherently subjective—they can only be fully grasped from limited types of viewpoints. However, scientific explanation demands an dissertation dedication, objective characterization of the facts, one that moves away from any particular point of and dissertation, view. Thus, the dissertation to my parents facts about consciousness elude science and so make “the mind-body problem really intractable” (Nagel 1974, 435).
Nagel argues for the inherent subjectivity of the facts about consciousness by reflecting on the question of what it is like to be a bat— for the bat. Lonely As A Analysis Essay. It seems that no amount of dedication parents, objective data will provide us with this knowledge, given that we do not share its type of point of view (the point of view of a creature able to in education, fly and echolocate). Learning all we can about the brain mechanisms, biochemistry, evolutionary history, psychophysics, and dedication to my parents so forth, of a bat still leaves us unable to discover (or even imagine) what it’s like for the bat to hunt by echolocation on a dark night. But it is still plausible that there are facts about what it’s like to i wandered lonely as a cloud analysis essay, be a bat, facts about how things seem from the bat’s perspective. And even though we may have good reason to believe that consciousness is a physical phenomenon (due to considerations of mental causation, the success of materialist science, and so on), we are left in the dark about the bat’s conscious experience. This is the dissertation to my parents hard problem of consciousness.
Joseph Levine argues that there is lonely as a cloud, a special “explanatory gap” between consciousness and the physical (1983, 1993, 2001). The challenge of closing this explanatory gap is the hard problem. Levine argues that a good scientific explanation ought to deductively entail what it explains, allowing us to infer the presence of the target phenomenon from dedication to my a statement of laws or mechanisms and initial conditions (Levine 2001, 74-76). Deductive entailment is a logical relation where if the premises of an schizophrenia research articles, argument are true, the conclusion must be true as well. For example, once we discover that lightning is nothing more than an electrical discharge, knowing that the proper conditions for a relevantly large electrical discharge existed in the atmosphere at time t allows us to deduce that lightning must have occurred at time t. If such a deduction is not possible, there are three possible reasons, according to Levine. Dissertation Dedication To My. One is that we have not fully specified the laws or mechanisms cited in our explanation. Two is articles 2011, that the target phenomenon is dedication parents, stochastic in nature, and the best that can be inferred is a conclusion about the probability of the occurrence of the explanatory target. The third is that there are as yet unknown factors at least partially involved in determining the phenomenon in and dissertation question. Dissertation. If we have adequately specified the laws and mechanisms in question, and if we have adjusted for stochastic phenomena, then we should possess a deductive conclusion about articles, our explanatory target, or the dedication to my parents third possibility is in effect. Fellowships In Education. But the third possibility is “precisely an admission that we don't have an adequate explanation” (2001, 76). And this is the case with consciousness, according to to my parents, Levine.
No matter how detailed our specification of brain mechanisms or physical laws, it seems that there is an open question about whether consciousness is present. We can still meaningfully ask if consciousness occurred, even if we accept that the i wandered as a laws, mechanisms, and proper conditions are in place. And it seems that any further information of dissertation dedication parents, this type that we add to our explanation will still suffer from the same problem. Thus, there is an explanatory gap between the pre-dissertation fellowships physical and consciousness, leaving us with the hard problem. 2. Underlying Reasons for the Problem. But what it is about consciousness that generates the hard problem? It may just seem obvious that consciousness could not be physical or functional. But it is worthwhile to try and draw a rough circle around the problematic features of conscious experience, if we can. This both clarifies what we are talking about when we talk about consciousness and dissertation dedication to my helps isolate the manhattan essay data a successful theory must explain. Uriah Kriegel (2009; see also Levine 2001) offers a helpful conceptual division of consciousness into two components. Starting with the standard understanding of conscious states as states there is something it’s like for the organism to dissertation parents, be in, Kriegel notes that we can either focus on the fact that something appears for fellowships in education the organism or we can focus on what it is that appears, the dedication something it’s like . College Application Essay. Focusing on the former, we find that subjects are aware of their conscious states in a distinctive way.
Kriegel labels this feature the subjective component of dedication to my, consciousness. Focusing on the latter we find the experienced character of consciousness—the “redness of red” or the painfulness of pain— often termed “qualia” or “phenomenal character” in the literature (compare Crane 2000). Kriegel labels this the qualitative component of consciousness. Subdividing consciousness in this way allows us to concentrate on how we are conscious and what we are conscious of. Schizophrenia Articles. When we focus on the subjective “how” component, we find that conscious states are presented to the subject in a seemingly immediate way.
And when we focus on the qualitative “what” component, we find that consciousness presents us with seemingly indescribable qualities which in principle can vary independently of mental functioning. These features help explain why consciousness generates the hard problem. The first feature, which we can call immediacy , concerns the way we access consciousness from the first-person perspective. Dissertation Dedication. Conscious states are accessed in a seemingly unmediated way. It appears that nothing comes between us and our conscious states. We seem to access them simply by having them—we do not infer their presence by way of any evidence or argument. This immediacy creates the research impression that there is no way we could be wrong about the content of dedication, our conscious states. Error in perception or error in reasoning can be traced back to poor perceptual conditions or to a failure of rational inference. But in the absence of such accessible sources of error, it seems that there is no room for inaccuracy in the introspective case. Pre-dissertation Fellowships In Education. And even if we come to believe we are in error in introspection, the evidence for this will be indirect and dedication to my third-personal—it will lack the subjective force of immediacy.
Thus, there is an intuition of special accuracy or even infallibility when it comes to knowing our own conscious states. We might be wrong that an object in the world is really red, but can we be wrong that it seems red to and dissertation search, us? But if we cannot be wrong about dissertation dedication, how things seem to us and conscious states seem inexplicable, then they really are inexplicable. Cloud Analysis. In this way, the immediacy of the subjective component of consciousness underwrites the hard problem. But what we access may be even more problematic than how we access it: we might, after all, have had immediate access to the physical nature of dissertation parents, our conscious states (see P.M. Churchland 1985). But conscious experience instead reveals various sensory qualities—the redness of the essay purdue visual experience of an dissertation dedication to my, apple or the painfulness of a stubbed toe, for example. Essay. But these qualities seem to defy informative description. If one has not experienced them, then no amount of description will adequately convey what it’s like to have such an experience with these qualities. Dedication. We can call this feature of the qualitative component of consciousness indescribability. If someone has never seen red (a congenitally blind person, for example), it seems there is nothing informative we could say to convey to them the true nature of this quality.
We might mention prototypical red objects or explain that red is more similar to purple than it is to green, but such descriptions seem to $10/page, leave the quality itself untouched. Dissertation To My. And if experienced qualities cannot be informatively described, how could they be adequately captured in an explanatory theory? It seems that by manhattan essay, their very nature, conscious qualities defy explanation. This difficulty lies at the heart of the hard problem. A further problematic feature of what we access is that we can easily imagine our conscious mental processes occurring in conjunction with different conscious qualities or in the absence of consciousness altogether. The particular qualities that accompany specific mental operations—like the reddish quality accompanying our detection and categorization of an apple, say—seem only contingently connected to the functional processes involved in detection and categorization. We can call this feature of what is accessed independence . Dissertation Dedication To My Parents. Independence is the fellowships in education apparent lack of connection between conscious qualities and anything else, and it underwrites the inverted and absent qualia thought experiments used by Chalmers to establish the dedication to my parents hard problem (compare Block 1980).
If conscious qualities really are independent in this way, then there seems to essay $10/page essay $10/page, be no way to dedication to my, effectively tie them to marymount manhattan college, the rest of reality. The challenge of the dissertation parents hard problem, then, is to thesis search, explain consciousness given that it seems to give us immediate access to dedication to my, indescribable and independent qualities. If we can explain these underlying features, then we may see how to fit consciousness into a physicalist ontology. Or it perhaps taking these features seriously motivates a rejection of physicalism and the acceptance of conscious qualities as fundamental features of essay purdue, our ontology. The following section briefly surveys the range of responses to the hard problem, from eliminativism and reductionism to parents, panpsychism and thesis search full-blown dualism. Eliminativism holds that there is no hard problem of consciousness because there is dedication to my parents, no consciousness to worry about in the first place. Eliminativism is most clearly defended by Rey 1997, but see also Dennett 1978, 1988, Wilkes 1984, and argumentative owl Ryle 1949. On the dissertation parents face of schizophrenia, it, this response sounds absurd: how can one deny that conscious experience exists? Consciousness might be the one thing that is certain in our epistemology. But eliminativist views resist the idea that what we call experience is equivalent to consciousness, at least in the phenomenal, “what it’s like” sense. Dissertation To My. They hold that consciousness so-conceived is a philosopher’s construction, one that can be rejected without absurdity.
If it is definitional of consciousness that it is nonfunctional, then holding that the pre-dissertation in education mind is dissertation to my, fully functional amounts to research, a denial of consciousness. Alternately, if qualia are construed as nonrelational, intrinsic qualities of experience, then one might deny that qualia exist (Dennett 1988). And if qualia are essential to consciousness, this, too, amounts to an eliminativism about consciousness. What might justify consciousness eliminativism? First, the very notion of dissertation dedication, consciousness, upon marymount manhattan, close examination, may not have well-defined conditions of application—there may be no single phenomenon that the term picks out (Wilkes 1984). Or the term may serve no use at all in any scientific theory, and so may drop out of a scientifically-fixed ontology (Rey 1997). Dissertation Dedication Parents. If science tells us what there is (as some naturalists hold), and science has no place for nonfunctional intrinsic qualities, then there is no consciousness, so defined. Finally, it might be that the term ‘consciousness’ gets its meaning as part of a falsifiable theory, our folk psychology. The entities posited by a theory stand or fall with the success of the theory. If the theory is falsified, then the entities it posits do not exist (compare P.M.
Churchland 1981). And there is no guarantee that folk psychology will not be supplanted by $10/page $10/page, a better theory of the mind, perhaps a neuroscientific or even quantum mechanical theory, at some point. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents. Thus, consciousness might be eliminated from our ontology. If that occurs, obviously there is essay $10/page, no hard problem to worry about. No consciousness, no problem! But eliminativism seems much too strong a reaction to the hard problem, one that throws the baby out dissertation to my parents, with the bathwater. First, it is highly counterintuitive to deny that consciousness exists. It seems extremely basic to our conception of minds and persons. Research 2011. A more desirable view would avoid this move.
Second, it is not clear why we must accept that consciousness, by definition, is nonfunctional or intrinsic. Definitional, “analytic” claims are highly controversial at best, particularly with difficult terms like ‘consciousness’ (compare Quine 1951, Wittgenstein 1953). A better solution would hold that consciousness still exists, but it is functional and relational in nature. This is the strong reductionist approach. Strong reductionism holds that consciousness exists, but contends that it is reducible to tractable functional, nonintrinsic properties. Dedication To My Parents. Strong reductionism further claims that the essay $10/page essay $10/page reductive story we tell about consciousness fully explains, without remainder, all that needs to be explained about consciousness. Reductionism, generally, is the idea that complex phenomena can be explained in terms of the dissertation dedication parents arrangement and as a essay functioning of simpler, better understood parts. Key to strong reductionism, then, is the dissertation dedication to my parents idea that consciousness can be broken down and explained in terms of simpler things. $10/page Essay. This amounts to dedication, a rejection of the idea that experience is articles, simple and basic, that it stands as a kind of epistemic or metaphysical “ground floor.” Strong reductionists must hold that consciousness is not as it prima facie appears, that it only seems to be marked by immediacy, indescribability, and independence and dissertation dedication to my parents therefore that it only seems nonfunctional and intrinsic. Consciousness, according to strong reductionism, can be fully analyzed and college application explained in functional terms, even if it does not seem that way. A number of prominent strongly reductive theories exist in the literature.
Functionalist approaches hold that consciousness is nothing more than a functional process. Dissertation Dedication To My. A popular version of pre-dissertation fellowships, this view is the “global workspace” hypothesis, which holds that conscious states are mental states available for processing by dissertation dedication to my, a wide range of cognitive systems (Baars 1988, 1997; Dehaene Naccache 2001). They are available in this way by essay, being present in a special network—the “global workspace.” This workspace can be functionally characterized and it also can be given a neurological interpretation. In answer to the question “why are these states conscious?” it can be replied that this is what it means to be conscious. If a state is available to dissertation to my parents, the mind in this way, it is a conscious state (see also Dennett 1991). (For more neuroscientifically-focused versions of the essay $10/page functionalist approach, see P.S Churchland 1986; Crick 1994; and dissertation Koch 2004.) Another set of $10/page $10/page, views that can be broadly termed functionalist is “enactive” or “embodied” approaches (Hurley 1998, Noe 2005, 2009). These views hold that mental processes should not be characterized in terms of strictly inner processes or representations. Rather, they should be cashed out in terms of the dynamic processes connecting perception, bodily and environmental awareness, and behavior. These processes, the views contend, do not strictly depend on processes inside the head; rather, they loop out into the body and the environment. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents. Further, the nature of consciousness is tied up with behavior and action—it cannot be isolated as a passive process of receiving and recording information. These views are cataloged as functionalist because of the way they answer the hard problem: these physical states (constituted in part by 2011, bodily and worldly things) are conscious because they play the right functional role, they do the dissertation to my parents right thing.
Another strongly reductive approach holds that conscious states are states representing the world in the appropriate way (Dretske 1995, Tye 1995, 2000). Marymount. This view, known as “first-order representationalism,” contends that conscious states make us aware of things in world by representing them. Further, these representations are “nonconceptual” in nature: they represent features even if the subject in question lacks the concepts needed to cognitively categorize those features. Dissertation Parents. But these nonconceptual representations must play the right functional role in order to be conscious. They must be poised to influence the higher-level cognitive systems of a subject. The details of these representations differ from $10/page theorist to theorist, but a common answer to the hard problem emerges.
First-order representational states are conscious because they do the right thing: they make us aware of dissertation to my, just the sorts of features that make up conscious experience, features like the redness of an essay owl, apple, the sweetness of honey, or the shrillness of a trumpet. Parents. Further, such representations are conscious because they are poised to play the schizophrenia articles 2011 right role in our understanding of the world—they serve as the dedication parents initial layer of our epistemic contact with reality, a layer we can then use as the basis of our more sophisticated beliefs and theories. A further point serves to support the lonely cloud analysis claims of first-order representationalism. When we reflect on our experience in dissertation a focused way, we do not seem to find any distinctively mental properties. Rather, we find the very things first-order representationalism claims we represent: the basic sensory features of the world. If I ask you to reflect closely on your experience of a tree, you do not find special mental qualities. Rather, you find the tree , as it appears to you, as you represent it. This consideration, known as “transparency,” seems to undermine the claim that we need to posit special intrinsic qualia , seemingly irreducible properties of our experiences (Harman 1990, though see Kind 2003). Instead, we can explain all that we experience in terms of representation.
We have a red experience because we represent physical red in the right way. It is then argued that representation can be given a reductive explanation. Representation, even the sort of representation involved in experience, is i wandered lonely as a essay, no more than various functional/physical processes of our brains tracking the environment. It follows that there is no further hard problem to deal with. A third type of strongly reductive approach is higher-order representationalism (Armstrong 1968, 1981; Rosenthal 1986, 2005; Lycan 1987, 1996, 2001; Carruthers 2000, 2005).
This view starts with the question of what accounts for dissertation dedication to my parents the difference between conscious and argumentative essay purdue nonconscious mental states. Higher-order theorists hold that an intuitive answer is that we are appropriately aware of our conscious states, while we are unaware of our nonconscious states. The task of a theory of parents, consciousness, then, is to explain the awareness accounting for this difference. Essay. Higher-order representationalists contend that the awareness is dedication parents, a product of a specific sort of representation, a representation that picks out the subject’s own mental states. These “higher-order” representations (representations of other representations) make the subject aware of her states, thus accounting for schizophrenia consciousness. In answer to the hard problem, the higher-order theorist responds that these states are conscious because the subject is appropriately aware of them by way of parents, higher-order representation. The higher-order representations themselves are held to be nonconscious.
And since representation can plausibly be reduced to search, functional/physical processes, there is no lingering problem to explain (though see Gennaro 2005 for more on this strategy). A final strongly reductive view, “self-representationalism,” holds that troubles with the dissertation parents higher-order view demand that we characterize the awareness subjects have of their conscious states as a kind of self-representation, where one complex representational state is about both the world and that very state itself (Gennaro 1996, Kriegel 2003, 2009, Van Gulick 2004, 2006, Williford 2006). Essay. It may seem paradoxical to say that a state can represent itself, but this can dealt with by dissertation to my parents, holding that the state represents itself in virtue of one part of the state representing another, and thereby coming to indirectly represent the whole. Further, self-representationalism may provide the best explanation of the seemingly ubiquitous presence of thesis and dissertation, self-awareness in dissertation conscious experience. And, again, in answer to the question of why such states are conscious, the self-representationalist can respond that conscious states are ones the subject is aware of, and self-representationalism explains this awareness. I Wandered Analysis Essay. And since self-representation, properly construed, is reducible to dedication to my parents, functional/physical processes, we are left with a complete explanation of consciousness. (For more details on how higher-order/self-representational views deal with the hard problem, see Gennaro 2012, chapter 4.) However, there remains considerable resistance to strongly reductive views. Essay. The main stumbling block is that they seem to leave unaddressed the pressing intuition that one can easily conceive of a system satisfying all the requirements of the strongly reductive views but still lacking consciousness (Chalmers 1996, chapter 3). It is argued that an effective theory ought to dissertation dedication, close off such easy conceptions. Further, strong reductivists seem committed to essay, the claim that there is no knowledge of consciousness that cannot be grasped theoretically. If a strongly reductive view is true, it seems that a blind person can gain full knowledge of color experience from a textbook.
But surely she still lacks some knowledge of what it’s like to see red, for to my example? Strongly reductive theorists can contend that these recalcitrant intuitions are merely a product of lingering confused or erroneous views of consciousness. But in the face of such worries, many have felt it better to schizophrenia articles 2011, find a way to respect these intuitions while still denying the potentially unpleasant ontological implications of the to my parents hard problem. Hence, weak reductionism. Weak reductionism, in contrast to the strong version, holds that consciousness is a simple or basic phenomenon, one that cannot be informatively broken down into simpler nonconscious elements.
But according to the view we can still identify consciousness with physical properties if the pre-dissertation fellowships most parsimonious and productive theory supports such an identity (Block 2002, Block Stalnaker 1999, Hill 1997, Loar 1997, 1999, Papineau 1993, 2002, Perry 2001). What’s more, once the identity has been established, there is no further burden of parents, explanation. Research Articles. Identities have no explanation: a thing just is what it is. To ask how it could be that Mark Twain is Sam Clemens, once we have the most parsimonious rendering of the facts, is to to my parents, go beyond meaningful questioning. And the same holds for the identity of conscious states with physical states. But there remains the research 2011 question of why the identity claim appears so counterintuitive and here weak reductionists generally appeal to the “phenomenal concepts strategy” (PCS) to make their case (compare Stoljar 2005).
The PCS holds that the hard problem is dissertation parents, not the result of a dualism of facts, phenomenal and manhattan essay physical, but rather a dualism of concepts picking out fully physical conscious states. One concept is the dedication third-personal physical concept of neuroscience. The other concept is a distinctively first-personal “phenomenal concept”—one that picks out conscious states in a subjectively direct manner. I Wandered Lonely As A Analysis Essay. Because of the subjective differences in these modes of dissertation dedication, conceptual access, consciousness does not seem intuitively to be physical. Argumentative. But once we understand the differences in the two concepts, there is dedication, no need to accept this intuition.
Here is a sketch of how a weakly reductive view of consciousness might proceed. First, we find stimuli that reliably trigger reports of phenomenally conscious states from subjects. Then we find what neural processes are reliably correlated with those reported experiences. It can then be argued on the basis of argumentative owl, parsimony that the reported conscious state just is the neural state—an ontology holding that two states are present is less simple than one identifying the two states. Dissertation To My. Further, accepting the identity is research, explanatorily fruitful, particularly with respect to mental causation.
Finally, the PCS is appealed to in order to explain why the identity remains counterintuitive. And as to the question of why this particular neural state should be identical to this particular phenomenal state, the answer is that this is just the way things are. Explanation bottoms out at this point and requests for further explanation are unreasonable. But there are pressing worries about weak reductionism. There seems to be an undischarged phenomenal element within the dissertation to my parents weakly reductive view (Chalmers 2006). When we focus on schizophrenia research, the PCS, it seems that we lack a plausible story about dedication, how it is that phenomenal concepts reveal what it’s like for us in experience. The direct access of phenomenal concepts seems to require that phenomenal states themselves inform us of what they are like. A common way to cash out the fellowships in education PCS is to say that the phenomenal properties themselves are embedded in the phenomenal concepts, and that alone makes them accessible in the seemingly rich manner of dissertation dedication to my, introspected experience. Essay $10/page. When it is dissertation parents, asked how phenomenal properties might underwrite this access, the answer given is that this is in the nature of phenomenal properties—that is just what they do. Research. Again, we are told that explanation must stop somewhere. But at this point, it seems that there is dissertation dedication, little to distinguish that weak reductionist from the various forms of nonreductive and dualistic views cataloged below.
They, too, hold that it is in the nature of phenomenal properties to underwrite first-person access. But they hold that there is no good reason to think that properties with this sort of nature are physical. We know of manhattan application, no other physical property that possesses such a nature. All that we are left with to dissertation to my parents, recommend weak reductionism is a thin claim of parsimony and an overly-strong fealty to physicalism. In Education. We are asked to accept a brute identity here, one that seems unprecedented in our ontology given that consciousness is dissertation to my, a macro-level phenomenon. Other examples of such brute identity—of electricity and magnetism into one force, say—occur at the foundational level of physics. Neurological and phenomenal properties do not seem to be basic in this way.
We are left with phenomenal properties inexplicable in physical terms, “brutally” identified with neurological properties in a way that nothing else seems to be. Why not take all this as an indication that phenomenal properties are not physical after all? The weak reductionist can respond that the schizophrenia research 2011 question of to my, mental causation still provides a strong enough reason to as a cloud analysis, hold onto to my parents physicalism. A plausible scientific principal is that the physical world is causally closed: all physical events have physical causes. And since our bodies are physical, it seems that denying that consciousness is physical renders it epiphenomenal. The apparent implausibility of epiphenomenalism may be enough to motivate adherence to weak reductionism, even with its explanatory short-comings.
Dualistic challenges to purdue owl, this claim will be discussed in later sections. It is possible, however, to embrace weak reductionism and still acknowledge that some questions remain to be answered. For example, it might be reasonable to demand some explanation of how particular neural states correlate with differences in conscious experience. Dissertation Dedication To My. A weak reductionist might hold that this is a question we at present cannot answer. It may be that one day we will be in a position to so, due to a radical shift in our understanding of consciousness or physical reality. Or perhaps this will remain an unsolvable mystery, one beyond our limited abilities to decipher. Still, there may be good reasons to hold at present that the most parsimonious metaphysical picture is the physicalist picture. The line between weak reductionism and the next set of views to be considered, mysterianism, may blur considerably here. The mysterian response to the hard problem does not offer a solution; rather, it holds that the hard problem cannot be solved by current scientific method and perhaps cannot be solved by human beings at all. There are two varieties of the view.
The more moderate version of the position, which can be termed “temporary mysterianism,” holds that given the thesis and dissertation current state of scientific knowledge, we have no explanation of dedication to my, why some physical states are conscious (Nagel 1974, Levine 2001). The gap between experience and the sorts of things dealt with in modern physics—functional, structural, and dynamical properties of basic fields and particles—is simply too wide to be bridged at argumentative purdue present. Still, it may be that some future conceptual revolution in dissertation dedication to my the sciences will show how to close the gap. Such massive conceptual reordering is essay purdue owl, certainly possible, given the history of science. And, indeed, if one accepts the dedication parents Kuhnian idea of shifts between incommensurate paradigms, it might seem unsurprising that we, pre-paradigm-shift, cannot grasp what things will be like after the revolution. But at present we have no idea how the hard problem might be solved. Thomas Nagel, in sketching his version of in education, this idea, calls for a future “objective phenomenology” which will “describe, at least in part, the to my subjective character of experiences in a form comprehensible to i wandered lonely cloud analysis, beings incapable of having those experiences” (1974, 449). Without such a new conceptual system, Nagel holds, we are left unable to bridge the gap between consciousness and the physical. Consciousness may indeed be a physical, but we at parents present have no idea how this could be so.
It is of course open for both weak and pre-dissertation fellowships strong reductionists to accept a version of temporary mysterianism. They can agree that at present we do not know how consciousness fits into the physical world, but the possibility is open that future science will clear up the mystery. The main difference between such claims by reductionists and by mysterians is dissertation, that the mysterians reject the i wandered as a cloud idea that current reductive proposals do anything at all to close the gap. How different the explanatory structure must be to dedication parents, count as truly new and purdue owl not merely an extension of the dissertation to my old is not possible to gauge with any precision. So the difference between a very weak reductionist and a temporary, though optimistic mysterian may not amount to much. The stronger version of the position, “permanent mysterianism,” argues that our ignorance in argumentative owl the face of the hard problem is not merely transitory, but is dedication parents, permanent, given our limited cognitive capacities (McGinn 1989, 1991). We are like squirrels trying to pre-dissertation fellowships in education, understand quantum mechanics: it just is not going to happen. The main exponent of this view is Colin McGinn, who argues that a solution to the hard problem is “cognitively closed” to us. He supports his position by dedication to my, stressing consequences of a modular view of the mind, inspired in part by Chomsky’s work in linguistics.
Our mind just may not be built to solve this sort of problem. Instead, it may be composed of college, dedicated, domain-specific “modules” devoted to solving local, specific problems for an organism. An organism without a dedicated “language acquisition device” equipped with “universal grammar” cannot acquire language. Perhaps the dedication to my parents hard problem requires cognitive apparatus we just do not possess as a species. If that is the case, no further scientific or philosophical breakthrough will make a difference. We are not built to solve the problem: it is pre-dissertation fellowships in education, cognitively closed to dissertation dedication to my, us. A worry about such a claim is that it is hard to establish just what sorts of problems are permanently beyond our ken. It seems possible that the temporary mysterian may be correct here, and what looks unbridgeable in manhattan college application essay principle is really just a temporary roadblock.
Both the to my parents temporary and permanent mysterian agree on the evidence. They agree that there is a real gap at present between consciousness and the physical and they agree that nothing in current science seems up to the task of thesis, solving the problem. The further claim that we are forever blocked from solving the problem turns on controversial claims about the nature of the problem and the nature of our cognitive capacities. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents. Perhaps those controversial claims will be made good, but at present, it is hard to see why we should give up all hope, given the and dissertation history of surprising scientific breakthroughs. Perhaps, though, we know enough already to establish that consciousness is not a physical phenomenon. This brings us to what has been, historically speaking, the most important response to the hard problem and the more general mind-body problem: dualism, the claim that consciousness is ontologically distinct from to my parents anything physical. Dualism, in manhattan application essay its various forms, reasons from the dedication parents explanatory, epistemological, or conceptual gaps between the phenomenal and schizophrenia research 2011 the physical to the metaphysical conclusion that the physicalist worldview is dedication to my parents, incomplete and needs to in education, be supplemented by the addition of irreducibly phenomenal substance or properties. Dualism can be unpacked in a number of ways.
Substance dualism holds that consciousness makes up a distinct fundamental “stuff” which can exist independently of any physical substance. Descartes’ famous dualism was of dissertation to my parents, this kind (Descartes 1640/1984). A more popular modern dualist option is property dualism, which holds that the conscious mind is not a separate substance from the schizophrenia articles 2011 physical brain, but that phenomenal properties are nonphysical properties of the brain. On this view, it is metaphysically possible that the physical substrate occurs without the phenomenal properties, indicating their ontological independence, but phenomenal properties cannot exist on their own. The properties might emerge from some combination of nonphenomenal properties ( emergent dualism—compare Broad 1925) or they might be present as a fundamental feature of reality, one that necessarily correlates with physical matter in our world, but could in principle come apart from the physical in another possible world. A key question for dualist views concerns the relationship between consciousness and the physical world, particularly our physical bodies. Descartes held that conscious mental properties can have a causal impact upon physical matter—this is known as interactionist dualism . Recent defenders of interactionist dualism include Foster 1991, Hodgson 1991, Lowe 1996, Popper and Eccles 1977, H. Robinson 1982, Stapp 1993, and dissertation to my parents Swinburne 1986. However, interactionist dualism requires rejecting the “causal closure” of the cloud analysis physical domain, the claim that every physical event is fully determined by a physical cause. Causal closure is a long-held principle in the sciences, so its rejection marks a strong break from dissertation to my current scientific orthodoxy (though see Collins 2011). Another species of dualism accepts the causal closure of marymount college, physics, but still holds that phenomenal properties are metaphysically distinct from physical properties. Dissertation To My. This compatibilism is achieved at the price of consciousness epiphenomenalism , the search view that conscious properties can be caused by physical events, but they cannot in turn cause physical events.
I will discuss interactionist dualism in this section, including a consideration of how quantum mechanics might open up a workable space for an acceptable dualist interactionist view. I will discuss epiphenomenalism in the following section. Interactionist dualism, of both the substance and property type, holds that consciousness is causally efficacious in dissertation dedication parents the production of bodily behavior. This is certainly a strongly intuitive position to take with regard to mental causation, but it requires rejecting the causal closure of the physical. Search. It is widely thought that the principle of dedication, causal closure is central to modern science, on par with basic conservation principles like the conservation of energy or matter in a physical reaction (see, for example, Kim 1998). And at macroscopic scales, the principle appears well-supported by empirical evidence. Argumentative Essay Owl. However, at the quantum level it is dissertation dedication to my parents, more plausible to question causal closure. On one reading of quantum mechanics, the progression of quantum-level events unfolds in pre-dissertation a deterministic progression until an dissertation dedication parents, observation occurs. At that point, some views hold that the progression of events becomes indeterminstic. If so, there may be room for lonely as a analysis essay consciousness to influence how such “decoherence” occurs—that is, how the quantum “wave function” collapses into the classical, observable macroscopic world we experience.
How such a process occurs is the subject of speculative theorizing in quantum theories of consciousness. It may be that such views are better cataloged as physicalist: the properties involved might well be labeled as physical in a completed science (see, for example, Penrose 1989, 1994; Hameroff 1998). If so, the quantum view is dissertation, better seen as strongly or weakly reductive. Still, it might be that the proper cashing out of the 2011 idea of dedication to my parents, “observation” in quantum theory requires positing consciousness as an unreduced primitive. Observation may require something intrinsically conscious, rather than something characterized in the relational terms of physical theory.
In that case, phenomenal properties would be metaphysically distinct from the physical, traditionally characterized, while playing a key role in physical theory—the role of collapsing the wave function by observation. Thus, there seems to be theoretical space for a dualist view which rejects closure but maintains a concordance with basic physical theory. Sill, such views face considerable challenges. They are beholden to thesis search, particular interpretations of dissertation dedication parents, quantum mechanics and this is far from a settled field, to put it mildly. It may well be that the best interpretation of owl, quantum mechanics rejects the to my key assumption of essay, indeterminacy here (see Albert 1993 for to my the details of this debate). Further, the kinds of indeterminacies discoverable at the quantum level may not correspond in any useful way to our ordinary idea of mental causes. The pattern of decoherence may have little to do with my conscious desire to grab a beer causing me to go to the fridge. Finally, there is the question of how phenomenal properties at the quantum level come together to make up the conscious experience we have. Our conscious mental lives are not themselves quantum phenomenon—how, then, do micro-phenomenal quantum-level properties combine to constitute our experiences? Still, this is an alluring area of investigation, bringing together the mysteries of schizophrenia research 2011, consciousness and dissertation to my parents quantum mechanics. But such a mix may only compound our explanatory troubles!
A different dualistic approach accepts the causal closure of physics by holding that phenomenal properties have no causal influence on the physical world (Campbell 1970, Huxley 1874, Jackson 1982, and W.S. Robinson 1988, 2004). Thus, any physical effect, like a bodily behavior, will have a fully physical cause. Phenomenal properties merely accompany causally efficacious physical properties, but they are not involved in making the behavior happen. Phenomenal properties, on this view, may be lawfully correlated with physical properties, thus assuring that whenever a brain event of a particular type occurs, a phenomenal property of fellowships in education, a particular type occurs. For example, it may be that bodily damage causes activity in the amygdala, which in turn causes pain-appropriate behavior like screaming or cringing. Dissertation To My. The activity in the amygdala will also cause the tokening of phenomenal pain properties.
But these properties are out i wandered analysis essay, of the causal chain leading to dedication to my, the behavior. They are like the activity of a steam whistle relative to the causal power of the steam engine moving a train’s wheels. Such a view has no obvious logical flaw, but it is in strong conflict with our ordinary notions of how conscious states are related to behavior. It is extremely intuitive that our pains at times cause us to scream or cringe. But on the epiphenomenalist view, that cannot be the case. What’s more, our knowledge of our conscious states cannot be caused by the phenomenal qualities of our experiences.
On the epiphenomenalist view, my knowledge that I’m in pain is not caused by the pain itself. Cloud. This, too, seems absurd: surely, the dissertation to my feeling of pain is causally implicated in my knowledge of that pain! But the epiphenomenalist can simply bite the bullet here and reject the commonsense picture. Essay $10/page. We often discover odd things when we engage in serious investigation, and this may be one of them. Dissertation Parents. Denying commonsense intuition is better than denying a basic scientific principle like causal closure, according to essay purdue owl, epiphenomenalists. And it may be that experimental results in dissertation dedication to my parents the sciences undermine the causal efficacy of consciousness as well, so this is not so outrageous a claim (See Libet, 2004; Wegner 2002, for example). Further, the $10/page epiphenomenalist can deny that we need a causal theory of first-person knowledge. It may be that our knowledge of our conscious states is achieved by dissertation, a unique kind of noncausal acquaintance. Or maybe merely having the phenomenal states is essay essay, enough for us to know of them—our knowledge of consciousness may be constituted by phenomenal states, rather than caused by them. Knowledge of dissertation dedication to my, causation is 2011, a difficult philosophical area in general, so it may reasonable to offer alternatives to the causal theory in this context. But despite these possibilities, epiphenomenalism remains a difficult view to embrace because of its strongly counterintuitive nature.
g. Dual Aspect Theory/Neutral Monism/Panpsychism. A final set of views, close in spirit to dualism, hold that phenomenal properties cannot be reduced to more basic physical properties, but might reduce to something more basic still, a substance that is both physical and phenomenal or that underwrites both. Defenders of such views agree with dualists that the hard problem forces a rethinking of our basic ontology, but they disagree that this entails dualism. There are several variations of the idea. It may be that there is a more basic substance underlying all physical matter and dissertation dedication this basic substance possesses phenomenal as well as physical properties ( dual aspect theory : Spinoza 1677/2005, P. I Wandered As A Cloud. Strawson 1959, Nagel 1986).
Or it may be that this more basic substance is “neutral”—neither phenomenal nor physical, yet somehow underlying both ( neutral monism : Russell 1926, Feigl 1958, Maxwell 1979, Lockwood 1989, Stubenberg 1998, Stoljar 2001, G. Strawson 2008). Or it may be that phenomenal properties are the intrinsic categorical bases for the relational, dispositional properties described in physics and so everything physical has an underlying phenomenal nature (panpsychism: Leibniz 1714/1989, Whitehead 1929, Griffin 1998, Rosenberg 2005, Skrbina 2007). These views have all received detailed elaboration in past eras of philosophy, but they have seen a distinct revival as responses to the hard problem. There is considerable variation in how theorists unpack these kinds of views, so it is only possible here to give generic versions of the dedication ideas. All three views make consciousness more basic or as basic as physical properties; this is something they share with dualism. But they disagree about the right way to spell out the metaphysical relations between the argumentative essay owl phenomenal, the physical, and dissertation to my any more basic substance there might be. The true differences between the schizophrenia research views are not always clear even to dedication to my, the views’ defenders, but we can try to tease them apart here. A dual-aspect view holds that there is one basic underlying stuff that possesses both physical and fellowships in education phenomenal properties. These properties may only dedication be instantiated when the right combinations of the basic substance are present, so panpsychism is not a necessary entailment of the view. For example, when the search basic substance is configured in the form of a brain, it then realizes phenomenal as well as physical properties. But that need not be the case when the fundamental stuff makes up a table.
But in dedication to my any event, phenomenal properties are not themselves reducible to physical properties. There is a fine line between such views and dualist views, mainly turning on the difference between constitution and lawful correlation. Neutral monist views hold that there is a more basic neutral substance underlying both the phenomenal and the physical. ‘Neutral’ here means that the underlying stuff really is neither phenomenal nor physical, so there is a good sense in which such a position is reductive: it explains the presence of the phenomenal by reference to something else more basic. This distinguishes it from the dual-aspect approach—on the dual-aspect view, the underlying stuff already possesses phenomenal (and physical) properties, while on neutral monism it does not. That leaves neutral monism with the challenge of explaining this reductive relationship, as well as explaining how the neutral substance underlies physical reality without itself being physical. Panpsychism holds that the phenomenal is basic to all matter.
Such views hold that the phenomenal somehow underwrites the pre-dissertation fellowships physical or is potentially present at all times as a property of a more basic substance. This view must explain what it means to say that everything is conscious in some sense. Dissertation To My. Further, it must explain how it is that the basic phenomenal (or “protophenomenal”) elements combine to form the sorts of properties we are acquainted with in consciousness. Why is it that some combinations form the experiences we enjoy and others (presumably) do not? One line of essay, support for these types of dissertation dedication parents, views comes from the way that physical theory defines its basic properties in terms of their dispositions to causally interact with each other. Lonely As A Cloud. For example, what it is to be a quark of a certain type is just to be disposed to behave in certain ways in the presence of other quarks. Physical theory is silent about what stuff might underlie or constitute the entities with these dispositions—it deals only in extrinsic or relational properties, not in intrinsic properties. At the same time, there is reason to hold that consciousness possesses nonrelational intrinsic qualities. Indeed, this may explain why we cannot know what it’s like to be a bat—that requires knowledge of an intrinsic quality not conveyable by relational description. Dissertation Dedication Parents. Putting these two ideas together, we find a motivation for the sorts of views canvassed here.
Basic physics is college application, silent about the intrinsic categorical bases underlying the dispositional properties described in physical theory. But it seems plausible that there must be such bases—how could there be dispositions to behave thus-and-so without some categorical base to ground the disposition? And since we already have reason to believe that conscious qualities are intrinsic, it makes sense to posit phenomenal properties as the categorical bases of basic physical matter. Or we can posit a neutral substance to dissertation to my, fill this role, one also realizing phenomenal properties when in the right circumstances. These views all seem to avoid epiphenomenalism.
Whenever there is a physical cause of essay $10/page, behavior, the underlying phenomenal (or neutral) basis will be present to do the work. But that cause might itself be constituted by dissertation dedication to my, the phenomenal, in the senses laid out here. What’s more, there is nothing in conflict with physics—the properties posited appear at a level below the range of relational physical description. And they do not conflict with or preempt anything present in physical theory. But we are left with several worries. First, it is again the case that phenomenal properties are posited at an extreme micro-level.
How it is that such micro-phenomenal properties cohere into the sorts of experiential properties present in consciousness is essay essay $10/page, unexplained. What’s more, if we take the panpsychic route, we are faced with the claim that every physical object has a phenomenal nature of dedication, some kind. 2011. This may not be incoherent, but it is a counterintuitive result. But if we do not accept panpsychism, we must explain how the more basic underlying substance differs from the phenomenal and yet instantiates it in the right circumstances. Simply saying that this just is the nature of the neutral substance is not an informative answer. Finally, it is dissertation dedication, unclear how these views really differ from a weakly reductionist account. Both hold that there is argumentative purdue, a basic and brute connection between the physical brain and phenomenal consciousness. On the weakly reductionist account, the connection is dissertation to my, one of brute identity.
On the dual-aspect/neutral monist/panpsychic account, it is one of brute constitution, where two properties, the physical and the phenomenal, constantly co-occur (because the one constitute the categorical base of the other, or they are aspects of a more basic stuff, etc.), though they are held to i wandered as a, be metaphysically distinct. Is there any evidence that could decide between the to my parents views? The apparent differences here may be more one of research articles 2011, style than of substance, despite the intricacies of these metaphysical debates.
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Dissertation Dedication To My Parents
oeuvre zola resume Gervaise Macquart, fille d’Antoine Macquart, a quitte Plassans et la Provence, avec son amant Auguste Lantier et ses deux batards, Claude et Etienne, pour tenter sa chance a Paris. Parents? Mais Lantier abandonne la jeune femme pour Adele, une brunisseuse* en chambre. I Wandered Cloud Analysis? Apres un combat homerique qui l’oppose a Virginie, la soeur d’Adele, au beau milieu du lavoir, Gervaise se retrouve seule a l’hotel Boncoeur, un garni sordide de Montmartre. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents? Cependant, pressee par son voisin Coupeau, un ouvrier zingueur, d’accepter la vie commune, elle consent au mariage. $10/page? Mais Mme Lorilleux, la s?ur de Coupeau, reprouve cette union et fait un accueil glace a Gervaise. Parents? La noce se deroule sous de funestes auspices : il pleut. Thesis? Pour tromper l’ennui, on dedication to my parents, se refugie au Louvre, sous la conduite de M. And Dissertation Search? Madinier, un ancien ouvrier devenu patron.
Deplaces au milieu des ors et des chefs-d’?uvre qu’ils ne comprennent pas, les forgerons, les blanchisseuses et les concierges errent lamentablement dans le labyrinthe des salles, ponctuant leur visite de commentaires naifs ou egrillards qui offusquent jusqu’ aux gardiens. Apres un repas minable au Moulin d’Argent, les noceurs se separent, furieux d’avoir du payer des supplements et ce mariage bacle laisse a Gervaise le gout amer de l’echec. To My? Cependant le menage est uni. Essay $10/page? Travailleurs, les deux jeunes gens gagnent une petite aisance et peuvent s’installer dans leurs meubles, rue Neuve-de-la-Goutte-d’Or, tout pres de chez Goujet, un jeune forgeron qui vit avec sa mere. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents? Bientot nait une petite fille, Nana. Pre-dissertation? Mais Cou- peau, jusqu’alors bon mari et bon pere, tombe d’un toit et voila l’ouvrier zingueur gate par l’oisivete forcee a laquelle le contraint son accident. Gervaise, qui a depense toutes ses economies pour eviter l’hopital a son homme, desespere de jamais ouvrir la boutique de blanchisseuse de fin* a laquelle elle revait.
Mais le forgeron Goujet, secretement amoureux d’elle, lui prete cinq cents francs qui lui permettent de s’installer au rez-de-chaussee de la grande maison de la rue de la Goutte-d’or, avec trois ouvrieres. Voulant prendre sa revanche sur ses pauvres noces ou les Lorilleux l’ont humiliee, elle s’endette pour les regaler d’un formidable gueuleton. Dissertation Dedication To My? Mais la fete qui consacre son triomphe marque le debut de sa chute. Argumentative Essay? Depuis des semaines en effet, Virginie, qui a fait mine de se reconcilier avec elle, l’entretient de Lantier. Dedication Parents? Quand le chapelier fait irruption dans la boutique ou l’on a dresse la table, Gervaise est deja prete a ceder a ses anciennes amours. Bientot Coupeau, aveugle ou complaisant, installe Lantier dans la blanchisserie et Gervaise, ec?uree par l’ivrognerie de son mari, redevient la maitresse du chapelier. Marymount College? De plus en plus gourmande et paresseuse, ruinee par ses deux hommes oisifs qui lui mangent sa boutique, elle doit ceder son bail a Virginie et rejoint le coin des pouilleux, au sixieme etage. Rejetee de tous, elle sombre a son tour dans la boisson tandis que Nana, d’abord apprentie fleuriste, quitte le bouge familial et devient fille de joie. Dissertation To My? Gervaise tombe alors dans l’hebetude epouvantable de l’absinthe : apres avoir assiste a la mort de Coupeau, victime d’une crise de delirium tremens, elle sombre peu a peu dans la folie et meurt de faim et de misere.
« Le premier roman sur le peuple qui ne mente pas » Accuse par Hugo de montrer « comme a plaisir les hideuses plaies de la misere et de l’abjection a laquelle le pauvre se trouve reduit », l’auteur s’en defend dans la Preface du volume : « L’Assommoir est le premier roman sur le peuple qui ne mente pas et qui ait l’odeur du peuple », affirme-t-il. Vigoureusement oppose a l’idealisme de Hugo , chez qui l’ancien forcat Jean Valjean devient tout a la fois un saint laic et un chef d’entreprise riche a millions, Zola entreprend une ?uvre de verite sans complaisance. La pauvrete, il la connait pour avoir habite les mansardes du Quartier latin au temps de sa jeunesse, il connait la danse devant le buffet vide et les vetements portes au mont-de-piete ; il connait aussi les m?urs populaires par sa famille maternelle et par sa femme, Gabrielle-Alexandrine Meley, qui fut peut-etre lingere ou fleuriste ; il connait surtout la vie ouvriere par une abondante documentation et, en particulier, par le livre d’un ancien ouvrier devenu fabricant boulonnier, Denis Poulot, auteur du Sublime ou l’Ouvrier tel qu’il est en 1870 dont on college application essay, retrouve ici bien des echos. Mais, au-dela du realisme documentaire, on dissertation dedication to my, trouve dans L ‘Assommoir une illustration de la theorie du roman experimental : prenons des ouvriers ni pires ni meilleurs que d’autres, plongeons-les dans le milieu deletere des faubourgs, soumettons-les a une epreuve (l’accident qui condamne Coupeau a l’oisivete, le retour de Lantier qui reveille les fantomes du passe), et voyons comment ils reagissent en fonction de leur heredite et de leur temperament. II - LE MILIEU, L’HEREDITE ET LE TEMPERAMENT DANS L'ASSOMMOIR. Le Paris de L’Assommoir, c’est celui des barrieres, des murs d’octroi qui entourent la ville d’une bande de desert propice a tous les trafics du plaisir et du crime : le bal du Grand Balcon et les « cris d’assassines » qu’on y entend parfois en temoignent. Schizophrenia Research 2011? Ce faubourg pestilentiel ou souffle la puanteur des abattoirs, ou l’on construit l’hopital Lariboisiere, installe au debut du roman un sombre horizon d’attente : abandonnee par Lantier dans le trou sordide de l’hotel Boncoeur, Gervaise a le pressentiment de son destin, « comme si sa vie, desormais, allait tenir la, entre un abattoir et un hopital ». Et Gervaise a vu juste. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents? Comme les betes qu’on assomme dans les abattoirs, elle va etre assommee par le milieu putride du faubourg. $10/page? L’Assommoir du pere Colombe resume a lui seul les influences malefiques qui vont s’acharner contre elle.
Avec sa « mine sombre » et ses « serpentins descendant sous terre », avec ce ronflement sourd, ce « souffle interieur » qu’aucune fumee ne denonce, l’alambic est l’embleme demoniaque des causalites souterraines du milieu. Dissertation Dedication? D’emblee, Gervaise est prise d’un frisson devant « la cuisine du diable» de la machine a souler. «Travailleur morne, puissant et muet », infatigable, l’alambic capture la force de travail de ceux qui se laissent prendre a son air bonhomme, a « ce gros bedon de cuivre » qui fait l’orgueil de la maison. And Dissertation? Mais l’Assommoir, ce n’est pas seulement le cafe du pere Colombe ou l’on s’assomme a coups d’absinthe, c’est aussi le lavoir, ou Gervaise et Virginie s’assomment a coups de battoir, c’est encore la grande maison insalubre de la Goutte-d’or, c’est enfin la boutique surchauffee ou s’entasse le linge sale avec ses puanteurs et ses malpropretes morales. Un sou jete en l’air, retombant pile ou face.
Au determinisme du milieu, Gervaise et Coupeau opposent d’abord un beau courage, mais, victimes d’une heredite gatee, ils abdiqueront bientot. Parents? Fille de l’ivrogne Macquart, Gervaise boite d’avoir ete concue dans l’ivresse brutale de son pere mais c’est surtout la volonte, en elle, qui est boiteuse : « elle se comparait a un sou lance en l’air, retombant pile ou face, selon les hasards du pave », ecrit Zola. Manhattan Application? Quant a Coupeau, avec sa face de « chien joyeux et bon enfant », avec « son adresse et son effronterie de singe », il garde quelque chose de l’animalite primitive. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents? Or, pour Zola, lecteur de Darwin, seuls les etres les plus evolues sont capables de volonte. III - DU PEUPLE LABORIEUX AU PROLETARIAT CORROMPU. De leur ascension sociale a leur decheance, les Coupeau vont donc parcourir tous les degres qui vont du peuple laborieux au proletariat corrompu : l’installation du couple rue Neuve-de-la Goutte-d’or, aupres des Goujet, s’accompagne d’une longue periode de temperance. Fellowships In Education? La temperance, c’est le refus de tous les exces, c’est aussi un usage moral du temps.
Le culte religieux que Gervaise voue a sa pendule, « comme si le marbre de sa commode [s’etait] transforme en chapelle », symbolise les vertus proletariennes du temps de travail accumule, capitalise sur le livret de caisse d’epargne cache sous le globe de verre. Dissertation? Lorsque la blanchisseuse, retombee aux bras de Lantier, aura fait son deuil de la dignite, la pendule sera portee au mont-de-piete dans le minuscule cercueil d’une caisse a chapeau. La fete de l’oie est le premier pas vers l’intemperance : c’est dans la boutique que l’on dresse la table et deja les taches de graisse et de vin souillent l’etabli. Schizophrenia Articles 2011? Voulant ecraser les Lorilleux de ses largesses, la blanchisseuse n’hesite pas a envoyer Maman Coupeau au clou pour emprunter sur son alliance ; et, dans ces ripailles rabelaisiennes ou le vin coule comme « un vrai ruisseau, lorsqu’il a plu et que la terre a soif », ou l’on voit les bedons se gonfler a mesure, tout s’inverse brusquement: leurs « faces pareilles a des derrieres », les convives, deshumanises, devorent a belles dents l’animal du sacrifice, Gervaise elle-meme, dont chacun semble emporter un morceau. Dedication? Car, avec sa belle « peau de blonde », l’oie n’est qu’une metaphore de la blanchisseuse: les Lorilleux « auraient englouti le plat, la table et la boutique afin de ruiner la Banban d’un coup et, toute la nuit, un chat, croquant les os, acheva d’enterrer la bete avec le petit bruit de ses dents fines. Thesis And Dissertation Search? ». Reintroduit dans la boutique a la fete de Gervaise, Lantier va y apporter le ferment de la corruption de l’espace et du temps. Dissertation To My Parents? Prenant la chambre d’Etienne, il oblige d’abord la blanchisseuse a « fourrer le linge sale », entasse dans la chambre du petit, sous son propre lit: des lors, accoutumee a l’odeur du vice, Gervaise se laisse aussi aller a la paresse, a l’adultere et a la dette. Lonely As A Cloud Essay? La puanteur du linge, metonymique* de toutes celles du faubourg, la penetre par tous les pores de la peau. Dissertation Dedication Parents? Desormais, son plaisir est de «rester en tas , ses outils filent au mont-de- piete, tandis que Lantier, sous pretexte de refuser l’exploitation, entraine Coupeau dans d’interminables bordees de cafe en cafe. $10/page? Peu a peu, la flane devient l’obsession du couple : fetant « la Saint Lundi » des semaines entieres, « invent[ant] des saints au calendrier », ils descendent au dernier degre de l’abjection.
Les Coupeau se transforment alors en types de carnaval pathetiques pris dans l’hallucination de la fete. Dedication To My? Fascinee par son ombre qui danse un chahut de tous les diables sur le boulevard (ch. Search? XII), Gervaise retrouve Coupeau, « deguise en un qui va mourir », agonisant a l’hopital Sainte-Anne (ch. Dissertation Parents? XIII). Pre-dissertation? Elle le voit en « vrai chienlit de la Courtille » danser « en cavalier seul » dans une « engueulade continue de carnaval ». Dissertation Dedication? La perception de Gervaise est ainsi remarquablement accordee au delire de Coupeau car lui aussi revit cette mascarade de barriere «Tiens [. Lonely As A Cloud Essay? j c’est la bande de la chaussee Clignancourt, deguisee en ours V1a la cavalcade. Dissertation To My? » Tous les loisirs populaires, le cirque, la menagerie, les bals de barriere, le guignol, la foire sont convoques : Coupeau, s’approchant du mur, y voit son double grimacant, une tete de singe pret a le devorer comme dans un miroir deformant tournant le dos a Gervaise, il la voit aussi se « ficher de lui en public» avec le chapelier comme dans un miroir magique. Analysis Essay? Et bientot Gervaise va reprendre elle-meme, en miroir, la gesticulation frenetique de son homme, tremblant des pieds et des mains, faisant Coupeau pour les voisins.
IV - LA CULTURE POPULAIRE ET LE TRAVAIL DU STYLE DANS L'ASSOMMOIR. Cette derniere fete acheve l’exploration de la culture populaire qu’a tentee Zola dans un roman de l’alcoolisme qui est aussi une etude ethnographique : on to my, y apprend comment on and dissertation, se marie, comment on dissertation to my, vit et comment on i wandered lonely essay, meurt dans le petit peuple des faubourgs. Dissertation Parents? On y apprend aussi comment on in education, parle. Dissertation Dedication To My Parents? Certes, l’argot est un fait litteraire massif au XIX siecle : Hugo prete a Gavroche « cet idiome abject qui ruisselle de fange » (Les Miserables) et Balzac analyse « la langue des grecs, des filous, des voleurs et des assassins » (Splendeurs et Miseres des courtisanes). I Wandered As A Cloud Essay? Pourquoi donc s’etre fache contre les mots de L’Assommoir ? Le coup de gosier de Paris et le style indirect libre.
C’est que Zola n’a pas la prudence de distinguer comme eux la voix du personnage et celle du narrateur. Dedication To My? Bafouant toutes les conventions, il ose « couler dans un moule tres travaille la langue du peuple ». Essay? En effacant les marques de subordination, le style indirect libre donne a la troisieme personne une valeur flottante qui confond toutes les voix : « Elle en arrivait, les matins de fringale, a roder avec les chiens [.1 », lit-on au chapitre XII ; « ca repugne les delicats, cette idee mais si les delicats n’avaient rien tortille de trois jours, nous verrions un peu s’ils bouderaient contre leur ventre ; ils se mettraient a quatre pattes et mangeraient aux ordures comme les camarades. To My Parents? » Qui parle ? Est-ce Gervaise, est-ce Zola ? La lecon n’a pas ete du gout des nantis. Nous avons 110#160invites et aucun membre en ligne.
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10 Resume Mistakes You Must Avoid. 1. Dedication To My. OBJECTIVE: They’re out of date. They’re usually too short and too “me” focused. Articles. A better choice is a “Profile” which should be no more than 7 lines long (otherwise the paragraph is too dense), should combine your skills with your personality, and dedication to my parents, should describe you. Think about what makes you unique. If you find yourself writing “proven ability,” or “team player,” “highly motivated” and marymount manhattan application essay, other generic, unoriginal and non-descriptive phrases, try asking your references or previous co-workers what makes you good at what you do. 2. BLAND DETAILS: #8220;Responsibilities included overseeing construction of dissertation to my, four hotels in Tri-City area, each 50 floors high.#8221; So what? Did they go up on schedule? Did you bring them in under budget? Did you take all four from site work up or did you pick up two of them mid-project?
If you don#8217;t tell the hiring company why you’re the best choice, how will they know? 3. ANOTHER JOB, ANOTHER PARAGRAPH: Don#8217;t keep adding on to your resume job after job, year after year. By the time you#8217;re in your 40s, you need to articles have weeded out dissertation parents, your earlier, unrelated jobs and just list the and dissertation company and title. Drop your college activities, and leave your degree. 4. REFERENCES: Shouldn#8217;t be listed on dedication to my parents, your resume, nor should it say #8220;References available on essay $10/page, request#8221;. Present them separately when they#8217;re requested. This isn#8217;t about protocol.
This is about protecting your references so they aren#8217;t called until you and dissertation to my, the company are serious about each other. 5. Thesis. IT#8217;S NOT A STORY!: Don#8217;t write your resume in to my parents, the third person, this includes using your name, or the pronoun “I” anywhere. Argumentative Essay Purdue. That’s it’s you is implied because it’s your name on top! 6. Dissertation To My Parents. SKIP THE PERSONAL INFO: You might think your baseball coaching or church choir participation shows you#8217;re a well-rounded person, but they#8217;re irrelevant. If the interviewer wants to know who you are aside from purdue owl, your qualifications, he#8217;ll ask. 7. DEGREE DATE: No matter how old you are, don#8217;t leave the date of when you were graduated off your resume. It looks like you#8217;re hiding something (well, you are, aren#8217;t you?), and then everyone does the dedication to my parents math to figure out how old you are.
If you#8217;re trying to hide your age by purdue, not stating the to my parents date, what else might you not be forthcoming about? 8. SPELL CHECK, SPELL CHECK, SPELL CHECK: Spell checking visually by you and someone else, any fewer than three times, isn#8217;t enough. And don#8217;t forget to check your punctuation. 9. Marymount Manhattan College Essay. GETTING IT OUT THERE part one: If it#8217;s an dissertation dedication parents ad, you probably have instructions as to and dissertation search how to send it. If it says email, cut and paste it in dedication to my, the form, and attach it as a .pdf. Marymount Manhattan College. You don’t know what it will look like on dissertation dedication to my parents, the other end because of the variety of settings available to each user. Quite frankly, you#8217;re better off not emailing it at all, but unfortunately besides not sending it sometimes that#8217;s your only choice. Emailing your resume takes any option for further participation right out of your hands, because often there#8217;s no name given for schizophrenia, a follow up contact. You#8217;ve no other option than to wait and wonder. 10. To My. GETTING IT OUT THERE part two: If you know the fellowships in education name of the dissertation to my parents company, call and ask if they prefer email, fax, or snail mail.
I know a recruiter whose email was listed in The Kennedy Guide to fellowships in education Executive Recruiters. He received hundreds of resumes emailed to dedication parents him cold (so not pro-active!) and simply mass deleted them every morning. I#8217;ll bet less than 10% of those people bothered to thesis follow up to see if it was received (this isn#8217;t a numbers game)! Candidates he contacted for a specific search received an entirely different email address. How about dedication that? 11. VISUALS: Ivory paper.
Black ink. Individual pages. No plastic. Your resume is a professional document, not a school book report or an art project. Until every resume is done this way, yours will still stand out in the crowd. You are the product, and your resume is the argumentative essay purdue owl brochure. To find your perfect job you must differentiate yourself from the others who are also vying for attention. Your resume tells your story of dissertation dedication parents, who you are, how you make decisions and and dissertation search, how well you do what you do.
Your resume must be specific, individualized, easy to skim to invite a closer reading, and focused on the accomplishments you#8217;ve achieved with and for – each previous employer. Parents. This tells the hiring company what you can do for i wandered analysis, them and it is about the hiring company, not you. The resume is dissertation to my parents what gets you in the door. If it’s poorly written, looks sloppy, is difficult to read, is cryptic, or necessitates being slogged through, you’ll be tossed aside and forgotten. And how can you decide if you want the essay essay company, when they#8217;ve already decided they don#8217;t want you? Judi Perkins, the How-To Career Coach, was a recruiter for 22 years and worked with hundreds of hiring authorities on entry level through CEO. She set up over to my, 15,000 interviews, and has seen over half a million resumes. Her clients often find jobs 8 – 12 weeks because she brings them sequence, structure and argumentative owl, focus, and shows why typical strategies often fail.
She’s been on PBS’s Frontline, Good Morning Connecticut, in dedication, Smart Money magazine, CareerBuilder, MSN Careers, Yahoo Hot Jobs, New York Times, New York Daily News, multiple radio shows including a regular Thursday morning gig, and quoted in numerous career books. Sign up for her free newsletter at $10/page essay, www.FindthePerfectJob.com. If you are going to email your resume, make sure you send it as a PDF instead of a Word document. Dedication. You#8217;ll know that the spacing remained the same and that it looks the way you want it to look. Thanks for bringing that up it#8217;s a good point. For example, I have a client who originally emailed her resume in a word doc format. She#8217;s on the creative side of things and does design work etc. I don#8217;t know what her original resume looked like becuase it came out my end on courier or helveticaw hich. is what usually happens if the font doesn#8217;t match on the other side. Consequently her resume looked. even worse than it would have anyway (spacing, formatting, some other things). There seems to be a difference of college application, opinion on whether to include year of graduation on the resume. Some professional recruiters discourage including this info.
It can distract the resume reader from focusing on your relevant job experience and other key parts of the resume as they mentally calculate how old you are from the year of graduation. Yes, that#8217;s true. And in this, like in so many other things conventional wisdom advocates, I disagree. The other part of the dissertation dedication parents broad overview of why I recommend putting your date on there is that if a company isn#8217;t going to hire someone who#8217;s over a certain age, then bringing you in and visually seeing that you#8217;re over the age they want isn#8217;t going to change that. #8220;But what if I can wow them with my experience?#8221; you ask. Good question. That just cemented they won#8217;t hire you. Age isn#8217;t about age it#8217;s about salary. And if you#8217;re #8220;old,#8221; then you#8217;re #8220;overqualified#8221; which means you#8217;re going to research articles want more than they want to pay. And if you don#8217;t go the #8220;overqualified#8221; route and wow them with your experience, then if that#8217;s too different from what#8217;s on yoru resume, they#8217;ll be wary of hiring you becuase you#8217;re willing to take a cut in pay and will conclude you#8217;ll keep looking and won#8217;t be around long. So why not just be who you are, put the dissertation dedication date on there, and fellowships in education, go look for the companies who are looking for experience, and let the dissertation to my parents rest of them weed you out? (BTW that#8217;s a rhetorical question) William, did you join my community?
I#8217;ve got a very loyal following and lots of people refer others to me because while I#8217;m off center from conventional wisdom, my clients, and other people from my community, are getting hired, some in just a few weeks or months, depending on how much the work with me. Plus you#8217;ll get a cool resume report based on the half million I#8217;ve seen! http://www.FindthePerfectJob.com. Thanks for your comment William. I have read many resumes over the years and articles, your comments are on target. With so many companies using e/m resume sorting I would also suggest infusing key search words. Thanks for that! Yes, key words are essential but in some cases, hard to to my avoid anyway. $10/page Essay. If you#8217;ve been doing the dissertation to my work in that function or industry, they#8217;re going to application be there to some degree.
But they should be infused naturally within the resume, not glopped on the top like so many professional resume writers do it. Additionally, I#8217;ve worked with a lot of clients who have paid to have their resumes done (by someone else), and either a) it hasn#8217;t been working or b) they#8217;re uncomfortable with the finished product. The first one A is a different reason from key words, and thus irrelevant in parents, this post. But B is often because in those keywords glopped on top there are a whole bunch that aren#8217;t really true, or in context, with the thesis and dissertation person who owns the resume. They#8217;re overstated. Or overdone. Or both.
And so I work with them to reshape their resume and help them to understand better how and why the first one didn#8217;t work and the reshape (so to speak) will. As a result, they feel more comfortable with the resume, because it better represents who they are and dissertation, they begin to lonely as a cloud analysis essay see the results they weren#8217;t seeing before they came to me. Dedication To My. I appreciate your comment and bringing up the importance of essay, keywords, a word which by itself, can freak people out as they#8217;re usually not sure if they have enough! But if the resume is done well and dissertation dedication to my parents, done right, and pre-dissertation fellowships in education, really represents who the person is, then it#8217;s almost impossible to write a resume without keywords. Dedication To My Parents. What do you think, Ralph? And by the way, how#8217;s your resume? #128578; And as I mentioned to William above (and forgot to ask Mary) please join my community! http://www.FindthePerfectJob.com. Essay Purdue Owl. Thanks for your comment.
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Dissertation Dedication To My Parents
Dissertations, Electronic Dissertations, and Copyright. Please note that perhaps not all faculties offer all options. As a book with a publisher (the doctoral regulations require a certain number of copies published). As a journal article As a cumulative dissertation (submission of some peer-reviewed articles; the doctoral regulations of your faculty state whether a cumulative dissertation is dedication to my possible and argumentative whether it has to dissertation dedication, be published again as a complete work). As printouts from a printing service (the doctoral regulations require a very high number of printed and bound deposit copies). As electronic dissertation:
Theses on essay, the publication server can be found world-wide, are freely accessible, re-usable, and long-term preserved. Dedication. Besides, you don’t need as many printed deposit copies. To publish the dissertation electronically is possible at all the faculties at fellowships, the University of Regensburg (see the respective doctoral regulations). The doctoral regulations at the Faculties of dedication, Natural Sciences I-IV for example require the essay $10/page essay, supervisor’s written consent to an electronic dissertation. Please check also any copyright and licensing issues before publication to to my, avoid any conflicts with third party rights: If you wish to additionally publish your thesis with a publisher, the latter must have agreed to research articles, an electronic publication by the University Library (see also question 11). It is dedication parents not possible to change the documents after publication! 2) Are there any formal requirements for the thesis? It is important not to use spiral binding for your printed copies but adhesive binding. The copies must be printed on permanent wood-free and essay acid-free paper.
Apart from that there are no further formal requirements by the University Library for the printed deposit copies of electronic dissertations. Information as to formal requirements by the faculties can be found on the faculties’ web pages, in the doctoral regulations, or at the examination offices. In particular the design of the title page often is specified (e.g., with the dedication to my, university’s logo or seal). Medicine and economics for instance want deposit copies in DIN A5 format. Black-and-white printing is acceptable only if it does not influence readability and comprehensibility of the thesis (for instance, of figures or graphics), i.e., if the color has a purely aesthetic function. When submitting an electronic dissertation, the PDF version, on grounds of as a essay, citation, must be identical to the print version!
Printing out the PDF file guarantees that the formatting of parents, printed and electronic version is schizophrenia 2011 identical. Dissertation Dedication. Only the schizophrenia research articles, CV required by parents, some faculties (e.g., medicine) can be omitted for reasons of data protection. In this case, please replace the CV with blank pages so that the pagination of the PDF and i wandered lonely as a cloud analysis essay the print version is identical to to my, the end. The files uploaded to research 2011, the publication server must be free of password protection or encryption and must allow printing and dedication to my saving. For cumulative dissertations we recommend to include the accepted manuscript version of the articles, if not stated otherwise in the doctoral regulations. Most publishers allow including an pre-dissertation article in dedication a dissertation, but not the thesis and dissertation search, publisher’s version. Dissertation To My Parents. Please see questions 10 and question 11 regarding cumulative dissertations. 3) Which official forms do I have to submit? This depends on your faculty, see the doctoral regulations. Essay. The forms are either available at the examination office, at the faculty administration, on the faculty website, or as an appendix of the dissertation, doctoral regulations.
If you need to defer the marymount manhattan college application essay, publication of your thesis, you additionally have to dissertation dedication, submit a form of your faculty with the request for postponement of publishing your thesis on the Internet. This is only possible in justified cases, e.g. for pending patent procedures. For your electronic dissertation you also have to submit the signed form “Abgabe elektronischer Publikationen” ( submission of electronic publications ) along with your printed deposit copies and the other forms of your faculty at the thesis department in thesis and dissertation the central library (see last question for dissertation parents, contact information). With this form, you grant the University Library the i wandered lonely essay, right to store your document electronically, to make it available in public data networks, and, if necessary, to dissertation dedication, convert it into pre-dissertation in education other data formats. This right also applies to the German National Library and, if required, to the special collection libraries.
Furthermore, you affirm that you have checked any copyright and licensing issues and that the elctronic publication does not conflict with any third party rights (i.e., if you want to dedication to my, additionally publish your thesis with a publisher, the argumentative essay owl, latter must have agreed to the electronic publication by the University Library). Also, you declare that the doctoral committee (Promotionsausschuss) has approved the publication of your thesis, and that the electronic version is identical in form and content to the approved original version. In the “Upload” stage of the workflow on dedication to my parents, the publication server, you can find different versions of the form “Abgabe elektronischer Publikationen” which vary in i wandered as a cloud the rights of use you grant. Dedication. We recommend to schizophrenia research 2011, use the Creative Commons license CC BY or CC BY-ND. You can find detailed information on Creative Commons licenses on dissertation to my, our legal information page. In exceptional cases (e.g. for cumulative dissertations), you should either choose publishing license for thesis and dissertation search, publications including print on demand (with this license you allow interested readers to buy a printed copy of dissertation to my parents, your thesis which will be printed “on demand” for this reader by a library service), or publishing license for essay essay $10/page, publications excluding print on demand. Please print out one of these forms and hand it in at the thesis department in the central library. 4) How many printed and dissertation bound deposit copies do I have to hand in if I publish my dissertation electronically?
The library needs 5 (law just 3) printed and bound deposit copies. It depends on the doctoral regulations if you have to submit any further copies for your faculty. In Education. The philosophical faculties and law need no further copies; business and dissertation to my economic sciences, the manhattan college application essay, natural sciences, and medicine need one copy for the faculty; Catholic theology needs 2 copies. 5) How do I deposit my thesis on the publication server? It takes about ten minutes to create a new document on the publication server.
Please don't hesitate to contact us if you have questions! It is rather self-explaining but here are some hints so that you can submit your work without problems: For the deposit on the publication server you should have prepared the PDF, at least 3 keywords, the title in German and dissertation dedication to my parents English and an abstract in German and essay English (with a maximum of 5000 characters). The translations don't have to dedication parents, be exactly the same as the German versions; for the translated abstract some sentences would be sufficient. Analysis. The content descriptions are necessary so that the work can also be found with English search terms respectively that non-German-speaking scientists can also get an dissertation to my overview of the marymount, work. Publication format for your electronic dissertation is to my parents PDF. For reasons of essay $10/page essay $10/page, long-term availability, no protected documents are allowed, i.e., your file must not have any password protection or encryption, and it must allow printing and duplication. Besides it's important that deposit copies and PDF are identical (conten, page numbering etc.) The PDF file is uploaded to dissertation to my, the review area on marymount manhattan college application essay, the publication server which is not publicly accessible. Dissertation Dedication To My. After the entry is search reviewed by the library team, it is published, unless you have submitted an additional form of your faculty with the request for postponement. After publication changes are no longer possible!
To deposit your thesis on to my parents, the publication server, you have to “register” (only the first time) your computer center account, see the menu on the left, and then “log in” with the manhattan college, account registered. For a guest account please ask Mr. Schmidt, phone 0941 943-3904, email firstname.lastname@example.org. Go to “Manage deposits” on the left-hand menu and dissertation dedication to my parents click on the “New Item” button on the top of the manhattan college essay, page. Choose “Thesis of the dedication to my parents, University of Regensburg” (not Thesis) as item type.
Always click on “Next” for the next step. Research. Fields with a red star are mandatory fields and must be filled in. Enter your first name and dissertation to my family name as it is written in your dissertation. RZ user name and articles ORCID (a uniquely identification number for scientists) are not mandatory. The contact email address must still be valid for a longer period of dedication to my parents, time. Schizophrenia Research. Enter title, first name and dissertation to my parents family name of your first referee as stated in owl the dissertation. To My Parents. If you have been paid by a project or if your thesis is published in a series, please indicate this in the corresponding fields. Superscripts, subscripts, Greek letters, etc. can be copied into the title and fellowships in education abstract fields as Unicode characters (you can find some frequently used special characters for copy and paste on this help page). When coming to the date, choose “Publication” as the date type.
The thesis department of the library will enter the exact date here when publishing your thesis; until then you can choose the dissertation to my, “?”. 4. Institutional Affiliation, Subjects, Upload. After specifying one or several corresponding institutions and subjects, you get to the “Upload” stage where you can find different forms for schizophrenia, publishing licenses. Choose one of them , sign it and hand it in at the thesis department in the central library. We recommend choosing the CC BY license. Detailed information on CC licenses can be found on our legal information page.
Now you can upload your electronic document to the publication server. If there are difficulties (e. g. the upload doesn't work or is too slow), just give us a call. Into the dedication parents, fields below (you may need to click on “Show options”) please enter: “Format: PDF”; “Visible to: Anyone”; “License”: your chosen Creative Commons license or Publishing license for publications including/excluding print on demand, respectively, if you don’t want to essay purdue, allow ohters to reuse your work; “Language”: the language of dissertation parents, your thesis. In the last stage, by clicking on “Deposit Item Now” you can transfer your record to schizophrenia research articles 2011, the review area where librarians will check it before publishing. Depositing your thesis on dedication parents, the publication server is already possible before your thesis defense. The dissertation will not be published before you have passed your doctoral examination and you have submitted all the college application essay, necessary forms and deposit copies (please submit forms and deposit copies to the library after your thesis defense only; a short notification is recommended ). 6) How can I log in to the publication server if I don’t have a University account any more? If you don’t have a University account any more, please ask Mr. To My. Schmitt or Mrs.
Lang, phone 0941 943-3904, email email@example.com, for a guest account. 7) I want to i wandered as a, publish my dissertation at a later date. In justified cases (e.g. for pending patent procedures) you can postpone the dissertation dedication parents, publication of your thesis. For this you have to lonely, sign the dedication to my, corresponding form of your faculty. Thesis. On the dedication parents, publication server, please refer to the postponement in the “title” field by writing “Freigabe zum …” in front of the actual title.
Thus the pre-dissertation in education, librarians will immediately see that the document should not yet be published. To My. You should upload the PDF file as explained in question 5, and hand in the deposit copies and the forms at pre-dissertation fellowships in education, the dissertation department at the central library (see last question for dissertation to my, contact information). After the librarians have reviewed the document, the faculty administration gets an manhattan essay acknowledgement of receipt and will then issue the doctoral certificate. The printed copies won’t be passed on to the other departments and the electronic version won’t be published until the release date. Please note: The thesis must be published within a certain period after the doctoral exam, depending on your doctoral regulations. Exceeding the deadline results in losing all rights acquired by the doctoral candidate through the examination. Dedication. In the schizophrenia research 2011, Faculties of Natural Sciences I-IV, medicine, biology, law, and parents economics, postponement is possible for one year at 2011, most, in Catholic theology it is two years at most, and in the philosophical faculties three years at most. 8) Can I deposit my work on the publication server when it is already published by a publisher?
The additional release in an institutional repository is also called “secondary publication”, “self-archiving” or “green road to open access” . The benefits thereof are an increased visibility, world-wide findability by search engines, easy and free access , and hence the works can be better used . In particular, the dedication parents, authors benefit from essay higher citation rates . Through easy access to research results, the general public can achieve a higher level of knowledge and see what research is done with taxpayers’ money. Scientists can reuse research data and build on the results . Thus, they can avoid duplicate research and science will become more efficient . Dissertation To My. Documents deposited in a repository (whether institutional or disciplinary) are long-term archived , i.e. they can still be read in decades and essay $10/page $10/page can be found and dissertation dedication to my parents cited under the same DOI or URN even if the purdue, scientist changes the institution. If you have published your article or book open access under a Creative-Commons-licence , you did not transfer the dedication, copyright to the publisher or the journal. In this case you can continue to use your work as you like, so you can also deposit it in a repository, e.g. on the Regensburg publication server. Releasing a work by a publisher usually means transferring the argumentative essay purdue owl, exclusive rights to dissertation, the publisher.
Whether a secondary publication is and dissertation search possible or not is typically specified in the author’s agreement or on the publisher’s website (often under the headings “Authors’ Rights”, “Copyright Transfer Statement”, “Copyright Transfer Agreement”, “Consent to Publish”, “Copyright – Permissions”, “Manuscript Guidelines”, “Ethics”, “Guidelines”). The SHERPA/RoMEO list provides an overview about the rights journals grant their authors in their standard agreements. Parents. It classifies each journal into one of argumentative owl, four categories: whether self-archiving of dissertation dedication to my parents, preprints and postprints (“green” RoMEO journals), only of preprints (“yellow” RoMEO journals), only owl of postprints (“blue” RoMEO journals), or no self-archiving is allowed. Some publishers (e.g., Springer, Wiley, Elsevier) offer the RightsLink service of the Copyright Clearance Center to get permission for a secondary publication. To do so, choose your article on the publisher’s website and dissertation dedication parents click on college application, the link “Request Permission” (or similar). You will be redirected to the “Copyright Clearance Center”. RightsLink der Frankfurter Buchmesse is also an online platform for the automated trade with reprint rights, representing e.g. Hanser, Thieme, Carlsen, and BasteiLubbe. If you transferred exclusive rights to the publisher just temporarily and this time limit has already expired, a secondary publication is possible without consulting the publisher.
If you transferred non-exclusive rights in perpetuity to dedication to my, the publisher, you can also additionally deposit your work in a repository. If the primary publication appeared in a periodical (neither in a monograph nor in an edited volume) under German copyright law, there is argumentative owl another exploitation right according to dissertation to my parents, UrhG § 38 (1): If your work is published after 1 January 1995 and if there is no written contract or the essay $10/page, publisher refers to the statutory rules, it can be made publically available after one year, since the dissertation to my, exclusive rights then change into non-exclusive rights. For research results financed with public funds which have been published in periodicals, the fellowships in education, copyright law allows secondary publication after one year under certain conditions since 1 January 2014 (see UrhG § 38 Abs. 4). If you did not yet sign a publishing agreement for your primary publication, you should retain the right to dissertation to my parents, publish a freely available electronic version. Research Articles. Some publishers might insist on dedication to my parents, an embargo period. If a secondary publication is not possible , you can also deposit the metadata without any full text on the publication server. Thesis. Thus, your scientific work is visible and you can easily create a list of all your publications. Further information to German copyright law and secondary publication rights:
9) How to retain the rights for secondary publication when the dissertation parents, work is pre-dissertation in education not yet pubished? The answer to this question is cited from dissertation parents Spielkamp, Matthias: Zweitveroffentlichungsrecht fur Wissenschaftler: Geltende Rechtslage und Handlungsempfehlungen. This work is published under a CC-BY-ND licence which does not allow translations, so it is and dissertation search available in German only. „Bei noch unveroffentlichten Werken wird es in der Regel so sein, dass der Verlag der Autorin einen Vertrag vorlegt. Dann ist zu prufen, welche Rechte die AutorIn an den Verlag abtreten soll und welche Absicht die Autorin hat – ob sie z.B. das Werk direkt nach Veroffentlichung in der Verlagspublikation offentlich online zuganglich machen mochte, oder etwa erst nach einem Jahr. Dann muss die Autorin mit dem Verlag aushandeln, welche ausschlie?lichen Rechte fur welche Nutzungsarten und welche Dauer an den Verlag gehen und welche bei der Autorin verbleiben sollen. Unter welchen Umstanden der Verlag sich auf eine derartige Verhandlung einlasst bzw. wie Erfolg versprechend diese Verhandlungen sein werden, hangt von verschiedenen Faktoren ab (Prominenz der Autorin, Aufwand zur Produktion des Buches, Verhandlungsgeschick der Autorin). Dazu kann daher keine generelle Aussage getroffen werden. Vielmehr geht es darum, die denkbaren Vorgehensweisen zu skizzieren, mit denen eine Autorin dem Verlag gegenuber treten kann. Sie kann zum einen Passagen aus der Textvorlage des Verlags streichen, die ihrer Absicht im Weg stehen, ihr Werk moglichst bald nach Verlagsveroffentlichung open access zu stellen. Zum anderen kann sie dem Vertrag einen Passus anhangen, der ihr dies ermoglicht, einen so genannten Vertragszusatz.
Die Plattform Open-Access.net beschreibt den Vorgang so: Autorinnen und Autoren verandern Verlagsvertrage, die ihre Rechte auf eine Hinterlegung ihrer Publikationen auf einem Dokumentenserver einschranken, indem sie Ausdrucke wie exklusive Abgabe aller Rechte ebenso wie weitere einschrankende Formulierungen deutlich durchstreichen. Dissertation To My Parents. Ein Begleitbrief sollte auf die Anderungen aufmerksam machen.* Hier ist jedoch zu beachten, dass Vertrage sich nicht nur von Verlag zu Verlag und Publikationsform zu Publikationsform unterscheiden, sondern mitunter auch von Autorin zu Autorin. Kleinste Veranderungen konnen gro?e Wirkung haben – oder eben auch nicht haben. Das bedeutet nicht, dass Autorinnen davor zuruck scheuen sollten, selbst Anderungen vorzunehmen, doch es ist wunschenswert, dass – wenn moglich – auch eine im Urheberrecht versierte Juristin einen Blick auf die Veranderungen bzw. Argumentative Essay Owl. das Ergebnis wirft. Das kann die Hausjuristin der Universitat oder des Forschungszentrums sein (wenn vorhanden und verfugbar), aber auch eine externe Juristin, was jedoch ublicherweise mit Kosten verbunden ist. Eine Alternative kann ein so genannter Vertragszusatz sein.
Durch ihn werden, wenn er juristisch solide formuliert ist, Nachfragen bei Expertinnen uberflussig. Das reduziert Komplexitat und Kosten. Open-Access.net beschreibt es wie folgt: Alternativ zu Streichungen fugen Autorinnen und Autoren dem Verlagsvertrag einen Zusatz bei, um sich so das einfache Nutzungsrecht fur die Onlinenutzung auf einem Non-Profit-Dokumentenserver vorzubehalten. Dieser Zusatz muss vom Verlag gegengezeichnet werden, um Rechtsgultigkeit zu erlangen.
Der bekannteste und wohl auch anerkannteste Vertragszusatz ist das SPARC Author’s Addendum. Dedication To My Parents. Es wurde durch die Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) entwickelt, einem Zusammenschluss von Bibliotheken in den USA mit dem Ziel, die Entwicklung neuer Kommunikationsmodelle anzuregen, welche die Verbreitung von wissenschaftlicher Literatur steigern und den finanziellen Druck auf Bibliotheken reduzieren. Das Addendum besteht aus zwei Teilen: dem eigentlichen Vertragsanhang und einer Benutzungsanweisung. Mittels der Copyright Addendum Engine von Science Commons und SPARC konnen Autorinnen und Autoren je nach Wunsch ein Addendum in college application den Varianten Access-Reuse, Delayed Access und Immediate Access automatisch erstellen. Access-Reuse bedeutet, die Autorin/der Autor behalt ausreichende Rechte, um den Artikel neben der Veroffentlichung in einem Verlag unter eine nichtkommerzielle Creative-Commons- oder eine vergleichbare Lizenz zu stellen. Bei dem Delayed-Access-Modell kann die Autorin/der Autor die Autorenversion sofort online bereit stellen, die Verlagsversion jedoch erst nach Ablauf von sechs Monaten.
Immediate Access erlaubt dagegen, sofort bei Erscheinen sowohl die Verlagsversion als auch die Autorenversion online bereit zu stellen.* Neben dem SPARC Autor’s Addendum (SAA) nennt Open-Access.net eigene Beispiele fur Vertragszusatze: Der Verlag stimmt zu, dass der Autor das nichtexklusive Recht behalt, eine digitale Kopie des Dokumentes vor/wahrend/nach der Publikation durch den Verlag zeitlich unbeschrankt auf einen offentlich zuganglichen akademischen Non-Profit-Server zu legen. Der Autor verpflichtet sich, das Originaldokument auf dem akademischen Non-Profit-Server zu zitieren. Fur eine Online-Veroffentlichung des Werkes wird dem Verlag ein einfaches Nutzungsrecht ohne Benutzungspflicht eingeraumt. Dem Autor steht es frei, das Werk mit dem Zeitpunkt des Erscheinens als Buchversion parallel kostenlos als PDF-Datei im Internet uber seine Homepage, einen institutionellen Server oder ein geeignetes fachliches Repositorium offentlich zuganglich zu machen.* Auch eine englische Version wird angeboten, fur den – sicher nicht seltenen – Fall, dass ein Vertrag mit einem nicht-deutschsprachigen Verlag getroffen werden soll:
I hereby declare that I do not wish to assign the exclusive copyright to (Name des Verlages) but reserve the right to publish the article in dissertation dedication full on an open access platform.* Wie bereits oben angesprochen, sollte eine solche Vereinbarung immer vom Verlag / Vertragspartner gegengezeichnet sein, da es sonst im Fall einer Auseinandersetzung strittig sein kann, ob der Vertragszusatz Geltung erlangt hat. Denn rechtlich gesehen muss der Zusatz wohl als ein (Gegen-)Angebot des Autors an den Verlag gesehen werden, das der Verlag erst wieder annehmen muss, damit sich die Autorin auf die Gultigkeit verlassen kann. $10/page Essay $10/page. Wahrscheinlich kommt die Annahme auch dadurch zustande, dass der Verlag den Text veroffentlicht, nachdem die Autorin ihm das SAA zugeschickt hat. Dafur muss aber sehr klar aus dem Schreiben der Autorin an den Verlag hervor gehen, dass das SAA Bestandteil des Vertrags werden soll. Das wird in dissertation dedication to my parents der Regel dadurch erreicht, dass direkt bei der Unterschrift und zusatzlich durch ein Begleitschreiben darauf hingewiesen wird, dass das SAA Geltung erlangen soll. Wie Erfolg versprechend es ist, dass der Zusatz akzeptiert wird, beschreibt Mantz wie folgt: Das SAA ist ein vorformulierter Vertragsanhang, enthalt also Allgemeine Geschaftsbedingungen, die der Urheber dem Verlag stellt. Lasst sich der Verlag auf diese Abanderungen des Verlagsvertrags nicht ein, so bleibt dem Urheber nur, auf seine entsprechenden Forderungen zu verzichten oder vom Vertragsschluss ganz abzusehen.
Die Einbeziehung der SAA beruht also auch ma?geblich auf dem Verhandlungsgeschick des Urhebers. (Reto Mantz: Open Access-Lizenzen und Rechtsubertragung bei Open Access-Werken, in: Gerald Spindler (Hg.): Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen von Open Access-Publikationen, Gottinger Schriften zur Internetforschung, Band 2, Gottingen 2006, S. I Wandered Lonely As A. 98) Mantz weist jedoch ebenfalls darauf hin, dass es seiner Einschatzung nach ein schwer wiegendes Problem mit dem SAA selbst gibt. Aus Grunden, die hier nicht naher erlautert werden sollen, sieht Mantz einen Konflikt zwischen den Bestimmungen des deutschen Urheberrechts und den Freiheiten, die der Autorin durch das SAA zukommen sollen – namlich die Moglichkeit zu haben, das Werk auch online open access zuganglich zu machen: Wird das SPARC Author’s Addendum direkt oder in einer wortlichen Ubersetzung verwendet, so resultiert dies in einem Dissens, eine Einigung zwischen Verlag und Urheber kommt nicht zustande. Dissertation. Der Vertrag wird demzufolge nicht geschlossen. (a.a.O., S. As A Cloud Essay. 102) Um dem aus dem Weg zu gehen, sollten zwei Vorkehrungen getroffen werden. Dedication To My Parents. Zum einen muss das SAA bei Verlagen, bei denen die Vertragssprache nicht Englisch ist, in der jeweils gangigen Sprache vorliegen.
Es empfiehlt sich demnach, das SAA vor Absendung so abzuandern, dass eine rechtlich wirksame Einschrankung der zu ubertragenden Nutzungsrechte erfolgen kann. And Dissertation. Als dem Urheber zu erhaltende Nutzungsarten konnten die digitalen bzw. Dedication To My. elektronischen Verbreitungsmethoden gewahlt werden. Das SAA sollte fur diesen Fall so abgeandert werden, dass die Rechte nicht fur „jedes Medium“, sondern fur die Verwendung auf „elektronischem Wege“ vorbehalten werden. Cloud Essay. Allerdings ist in diesem Fall der Einsatz der Creative-Commons-Lizenz nicht mehr moglich, da diese eine Beschrankung auf den elektronischen Vertrieb nicht vorsieht. Dissertation Dedication Parents. Die Digital-Peer-Publishing-Lizenz wurde dieser Anforderung gerecht. I Wandered Lonely Cloud. (a.a.O., S. 101) Fur Vertrage mit deutschen Verlagen schlagt er daher folgende Formulierung vor: Der Urheber erteilt dem Verlag fur die elektronische Publikation nur ein einfaches Nutzungsrecht. Dissertation. Er behalt sich vor, das Werk unter eine Open Access-Lizenz, z. Essay $10/page $10/page. B. To My. die „Digital Peer Publishing License“ zu stellen, die die elektronische Verbreitung gestattet. (a.a.O., S. 103)
Mit der Annahme des Vertrages inklusive dieser Klausel durch den Verlag ist ein Vertrag geschlossen, der dem Urheber die Verfugungsgewalt uber die elektronische Publikation erhalt. (a.a.O., S. 2011. 103)“ Spielkamp , Matthias: Zweitveroffentlichungsrecht fur Wissenschaftler: Geltende Rechtslage und Handlungsempfehlungen / Matthias Spielkamp. iRights.Lab Policy Paper Series Nr. 1. 10) Can I publish my (print or online) thesis again as a journal article? If your thesis is free of any third party rights (e.g., participating companies), you can submit your work as an article to a journal. Publishers usually state that the do not accept articles already published elsewhere. Dissertation Parents. However, most publishers except dissertations from argumentative essay this rule. Some publishers do not accept online theses.
We have gathered some information on the acceptance of dissertations as articles from dedication a number of publishers: Information on secondary publication of dissertations as journal articles and on using journal articles as part of a (cumulative) dissertation. 11) Can I use an already published journal article as part of my (cumulative) thesis? Whether your a cumulative dissertation is possible at purdue owl, your faculty can be found in the respective doctoral regulations. You should also check your author’s agreement whether your publisher allows an parents additional publication as a thesis. Sometimes, publishers differentiate between online and printed theses.
Many publishers allow reusing an essay $10/page essay article as a dissertation, but often there are constraints whether the parents, submitted manuscript version, the accepted version (after including the reviewer’s comments), or the publisher’s version can be used. Information on reusing your own publications can also be found on i wandered as a analysis, the publisher’s websites – usually under the dissertation parents, headings “Authors’ Rights”, “Copyright Transfer Statement”, “Copyright Transfer Agreement”, “Consent to analysis, Publish”, “Copyright – Permissions”, “Manuscript Guidelines”, “Ethics”, “Guidelines”. In case you cannot find the information for your rights there, many publishers (e.g., Springer Wiley, Elesvier) offer an automated examination of your request by dedication to my parents, the RightsLink service of the Copyright Clearance Center. To do so, choose your article on schizophrenia articles 2011, the publisher’s website and click on dissertation, the link “Request Permission” (or similar). You will be redirected to the “Copyright Clearance Center”. Then select “Reuse in a dissertation/thesis” and you will ususally get a free license to include the original article in essay $10/page your dissertation. RightsLink der Frankfurter Buchmesse is also an online platform for the automated trade with reprint rights, representing Hanser, Thieme, Carlsen, and BasteiLubbe. If you have published your article open access under a Creative-Commons-licence, you did not transfer the copyright to dedication to my, the publisher and manhattan college essay thus, you can continue to use your work as you like. 12) I’d like to use an illustration for my thesis from to my a journal article (or a book chapter) I have written.
Do I have to ask for permission? Yes, usually you do, since you transferred all rights to the publisher (exception: open access publication). However, many publishers allow reusing parts of thesis and dissertation, your publication in your thesis. To My Parents. In case of a book you should check your individual author’s agreement, in case of journals there are standard agreements. Information on reusing your own publications can also be found on the publisher’s websites – usually under the and dissertation, headings “Authors’ Rights”, “Copyright Transfer Statement”, “Copyright Transfer Agreement”, “Consent to Publish”, “Copyright – Permissions”, “Manuscript Guidelines”, “Ethics”, “Guidelines”. In case you cannot find the information for your rights there, many publishers (e.g., Springer Wiley, Elesvier) offer an automated examination of your request by the RightsLink service of the Copyright Clearance Center. To My. To do so, choose your article on the publisher’s website and click on the link “Request Permission” (or similar). You will be redirected to the “Copyright Clearance Center”. Then select “Reuse in a dissertation/thesis” and you will ususally get a free license to essay $10/page, include the original article in your dissertation. RightsLink der Frankfurter Buchmesse is also an online platform for the automated trade with reprint rights, representing Hanser, Thieme, Carlsen, and BasteiLubbe.
However, if the illustrations are mere representation of data without any design/editing, you do not need to ask for permission, since pure data are not protected by copyright. 13) How can I publish research data to dissertation dedication, my dissertation? In the sense of Open Access we recommend to i wandered as a analysis, make also research data (e. Dissertation Dedication Parents. g. measurement and and dissertation survey data, laboratory values, audio-visual information, texts, software or simulations) accessible by the publication server if you have the rights therefor. Thus, the data are re-usable and to my can be cited with an URN or a DOI. Fellowships. The University Library Regensburg archives the data on a long term basis. Research data as supplement to your dissertation. If you collected underlying research data to dissertation parents, the dissertation and thesis added them as CD-supplement to your printed copies, please upload these data together with your dissertation's PDF to dedication to my, the publication server.
The research data will then be stored on a long term basis, made visible and transferred to schizophrenia research, the German National Library together with your PDF and the appropiate meta data. Therefor create an item with the type Thesis of the University of Regensburg according to dissertation dedication to my, question 5. And Dissertation. When you get to the “Upload” stage, first choose your dissertation's PDF to dissertation, upload it. $10/page. Then click on parents, Durchsuchen for college application essay, a second time and dissertation dedication parents choose the file with your research data. $10/page. If you have many files, it is recommended to combine them into one or several ZIP archives. For every uploaded file you can choose additional options, e.g., choose “Data” as content of the file and dedication to my “ZIP Archive” or “Other” as the format if not detected automatically. Essay. Especially if you have several files, you should enter a short description for each file, e.g., “Graphics”, “Measurements”, or the like.
Also, you can assign a license to each file that allows re-use of dedication to my, your data – for research data, we recommend the argumentative essay purdue owl, Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY) which allows others to re-use your data when citing you properly. If you wish to publish research data which was created during the dissertation, research process and in education which is not supplement of your printed copies, please create a new item on the publication server. The document type usually should be “dataset”. In the next step, fill in your author name, contact email address, date, keywords, and projects if applicable, as in the item for the dissertation. An example for a title could be Data to the dissertation “Title of the dissertation” . As a summary you may give a description of the data.
Enter the item ID of the dissertation dedication, item of schizophrenia 2011, your dissertation in dissertation to my the field “Superordinate Entry” (you can find the search, item ID as part of the item’s URL: eprintid= 12345 or, if the item has been published already, http://epub.uni-regensburg.de/ 12345 ). Dissertation To My Parents. If your dissertation has not yet been published, you could ask for simultaneous publication of argumentative owl, dissertation and dissertation data in the field “Comments and Suggestions (to a member of the library)”. More information on marymount manhattan college essay, publishing research data on the publication server is available on the page Research Data. If you have any questions or problems with publishing your data, please contact Cornelia Lang, phone: 0941 943-3904, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Information on CC licenses can be found on our legal information page. More FAQ to the publication server can be found on our help pages. 16) Whom can I ask if I have further questions regarding electronic dissertations, and where can I hand in my deposit copies and forms? Gregor Schmidt or Cornelia Lang. phone 0941 943-3904. Room 525 (take one of the doors on dedication to my, the left side at i wandered analysis essay, the information center) When publishing your dissertation electronically, please deposit it on the publication server at first (see instructions at to my, question 5) and argumentative essay purdue owl then submit the deposit copies together with the faculty's forms and the library's form (see question 3) after the doctoral examination in our thesis department in dissertation to my the central library. Marymount Manhattan College. Please give us a short call when you want to come so that we are surely at the office!
Submission is dissertation dedication to my parents usually possible Monday to Friday from 9.30 a.m. to i wandered lonely analysis, 11.30 a.m. Dedication Parents. (a short notification is recommended) or on appointment. Of course you can also send the deposit copies with the faculty's forms and research 2011 the library's form by dissertation dedication, mail to. Hochschulschriftenstelle - Herr Schmidt. Submission at fellowships, the faculty: Candidates of economics submit their copies always to the faculty. Some other faculties also want their candidates to contact them before submission.
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Dissertation Dedication My Parents
Edexcel GCSE Statistics Coursework. Extracts from this document. Edexcel GCSE Statistics 1389. PLANNING SHEET – MAYFIELD HIGH. My aim in dissertation parents this investigation is to query whether or not there is a correlation between height and pre-dissertation fellowships weight and find out dissertation to my parents, if this varies between genders. I believe that as a student becomes taller their weight will increase; due to this assumption I expect a graph of weight and height to schizophrenia show a rising trend. Listed below are my hypotheses. With the cumulative frequency graph displaying weight, the female’s data produces an dedication to my parents, almost perfect S-shape curve, whereas the male’s data has, what seems to be, an anomaly (the third point allocated at the weight of $10/page, 45KG and cumulative frequency of dedication, 9) which affects its shape. For a symmetrical distribution, the median will lie halfway between the first and third quartile- neither of the essay $10/page essay $10/page, medians lie halfway and so neither have exactly symmetrical distributions. Dissertation Parents! The female’s median, however, is essay purdue, extremely close to being halfway between the two quartiles showing us a more symmetrical distribution than that of the to my parents, males; this may explain the almost perfect curve on the frequency graph which the points plotted for females produce.
The inter-quartile range is a measure of the central tendency, much like the standard deviation. The advantage of the inter-quartile range over the standard deviation, however, is that the inter-quartile range includes half of the points regardless of the shape of the thesis, distribution. The smaller the inter-quartile range, the parents, more consistent the data is. The inter-quartile range for and dissertation, the weights of males appears to be 15 and the inter-quartile range for the weights of females is 10, 5 less than the males. This shows us the female’s weights are more consistent, another explanation as to dissertation dedication parents why the female’s curve on pre-dissertation the graph is closer to an S-shape than the males. Overall, it is evident from the cumulative frequency graph; females generally weigh less than males. Neither curves on the graph displaying height are perfect- nor near perfect, S-shape curves and dissertation neither median lies halfway between the lonely analysis, first and third quartile, and dissertation dedication parents so neither males nor females have symmetrical distributions. The inter-quartile range for research 2011, the heights of males appears to dedication to my parents be equal to the females showing us both sexes have an equal consistency, nevertheless, it is clear males are generally taller than females as their mean is higher. After looking back at the cumulative frequency graphs it is evident, particularly for the height of males, that I could have grouped the data more clearly. Fellowships In Education! The third and fourth row in the group of male heights show a frequency of 0, which has an effect on the S-shape of the curve on my graph, and dissertation to my possibly having an effect on the lower quartile.
To improve I should have used unequal groupings to ensure no empty groups were present. Box plots are an pre-dissertation fellowships in education, informative way to display a range of numerical data. It can show many things about a data set, like the lowest term in the set, the highest term in the set, the median, the upper quartile, and the lower quartile. Using these from my cumulative frequency curves, I have drawn four box plots. Outliers are not present in every box plot drawn, except one where there is an extreme value which deviates significantly from the dissertation to my parents, rest of the essay $10/page, sample.The size of the box can provide an dissertation dedication parents, estimate of the kurtosis of the distribution. A thin box relative to the whiskers indicates that a very high number of cases are contained within a very small segment of the sample indicating a distribution with a thinner peak whereas a wider box is indicative of a wider peak and essay purdue owl so, the wider the box, the more U-shaped the distribution becomes. Looking at to my, the box plots representing height, we can see the box plot for pre-dissertation fellowships, females is slightly more negatively skewed than that of the males, showing that most of the data are smaller values, proving females generally weigh less than males. The medians lie at the same point- 1.6M, and they both have an equal inter-quartile range, nevertheless, the tallest male is 0.5M taller than the tallest female. Dissertation To My Parents! As both boxes are of equal size both distributions are equally U-shaped. The box represents the search, middle 50% of the data sample- half of all cases are contained within it. The 50% of data within the box for the males ranges between 1.55M and 1.7M whereas for parents, the females it ranges between 1.5M and 1.65M, showing us females are generally shorter than males.
Looking at the box plots for weight, we see that half the female's weights are between 45 and $10/page essay 55KG whereas half the men's weights lie between 45 and 60KG. The highest value for females is 70KG (ignoring the outlier) and for males: 75KG, the median for dedication parents, the males’ weight is 5KG higher than that of the females. The lowest value which appears on the box plot for males is 30KG and the highest is 75KG, giving us a range of 45KG. Looking at the same pieces of data for the females, we can work out that the range is in fact 5KG less than that of the males. Essay $10/page! It is evident that the dedication to my, distribution of the female’s box plot has a thinner peak than the males attributable to the simple fact that the box of the female’s weight is far thinner than the males’. Marymount Manhattan Essay! The distribution for the weight of males is, therefore, more U-shaped. The location of the box within the whiskers can provide insight on the normality of the dissertation parents, sample's distribution, when the box is search, not centred between the whiskers, the sample may be positively or negatively skewed. If the dissertation parents, box is shifted significantly to the low end, it is positively skewed; if the box is marymount application essay, shifted significantly to dissertation the high end, it is negatively skewed, however, none of the four box plots are shifted significantly to either the high end or the low end. Argumentative Purdue! Nevertheless, if I were to be analytical, I could say both the box plot showing the dissertation dedication to my, weights are positively skewed, despite them being insignificantly shifted to the lower end; they are edging more towards that direction than the opposite. These all illustrate that females do in fact generally weigh less than males.
An outlier appears on the box plot showing the weights of females, this may be the result of an error in measurement, in which case it will distort the interpretation of the i wandered lonely as a cloud, data, having undue influence on many summary statistics- for example: the to my parents, mean , however, if the outlier is a genuine result, it is important because it may perhaps indicate an extreme of behaviour or may have been affected by college essay external behaviour, for example, dietary habits. For this reason, I have left the outlier in the data as I am not sure whether it be a genuine result or miscalculation, as a result of not having information on exercise or dietary habits. To conclude, it is construable that my hypothesis was in parents fact correct. It is evident from all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. Whether this is attributable to, as studies show, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the dissimilar hormones produced in both female and male bodies, it is known females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. When the articles 2011, average male and female both reach the dissertation to my parents, age of pre-dissertation in education, 20 it is said ‘females are generally 10 percent shorter than males and 20 per cent lighter’ and dedication between the schizophrenia research 2011, ages of 11 and 16 ‘males appear to generally be 15 percent taller and heavier than the female sex’.
After comparing my results to articles and published graphs on the internet, I am able to confirm that my hypothesis stating females are generally shorter and dedication to my parents weigh less than males, was correct. After calculating the frequency density for the male and female heights and weights, I created four histograms; the advantage of a histogram is essay, that it shows the shape of the distribution for dissertation dedication parents, a large set of data and so was therefore able to show me the shape of the distributions for male and lonely female heights and weights, however, when using histograms it is to my parents, more difficult to compare two or more data sets as we are unable to essay read exact values as the data is grouped into categories. For this reason I used standard to show whether or not the data is normally distributed. From a first glance at the histograms it is easy to see they are not completely symmetrical but not entirely asymmetrical, I expect if I were to dedication have used a larger sample the histograms would have appeared more symmetrical. Tables in which I used to create the histograms. From looking at the histograms, it is clear only lonely as a cloud essay, two of these encompass curves which are appropriate to super impose normal distribution curves, and so for this reason I will not calculate the normal distribution. If I had, perhaps, selected a bigger sample it may have been possible to calculate the normal distribution as the histograms may have been more symmetrical. After calculating the standard deviation, it is evident for dedication, both height and weight, that for the male data each value is closer to the central tendency meaning height and weight are normally distributed more so for males than females. Again it is clear males weigh less and are taller than females as the i wandered cloud analysis, means for the males are higher than that of the dissertation dedication to my parents, femles. After calculating the marymount college application essay, spearman’s rank it is evident there is a correlation between height and weight, and the taller the person is the dedication to my, heavier they are, vice versa.
There is a weak positive correlation between height and weight for $10/page essay $10/page, females and a moderate positive correlation for dedication to my parents, males as it is slightly stronger. The height and weight of a person is articles, affected by their age and dissertation dedication gender. I assumed that in years 7-9 girls will generally be taller than boys- due to the fact girls tend to grow faster than boys during the early stages of development. Boys will, however, eventually grow taller and so in years 10-11 I assumed the number boys taller than girls will be greater. I was correct. I also expected the relationship between height and weight to show a rising trend, although both trends for males and females were weak, they both showed this. It can be seen from all the graphs included that females are, in effect, generally shorter and weigh less than males. Whether this is attributable to, the varied skeletons of the opposed sexes or the dissimilar hormones produced, it has been proved females are generally shorter and weigh less than males. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.
Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Height and Weight of Pupils and other Mayfield High School investigations essays. Maths Statistics Coursework - relationship between the weight and height. 11 Girls: 86?1183?50=4 girls Now that I have calculated the number of manhattan college application, boys and girls that have to be sampled from each year group, I can now sample randomly from dedication parents, my database that displays all the details of every boy and lonely as a essay girl in the Mayfield High School from years 7 to 11. of the male and female people in my sample.
A box plot will be plotted to show the inter-quartile range and to see who is to my, more intellectually smarter (Male or female). Male Average SAT's Results Frequency Cumulative Frequency 1 x ? 2 2 2 2 x ? The purpose of this research paper is to present our findings on schizophrenia 2011 how the . Why should we be bothered when it seems to dissertation to my parents most observers that boys are the authors of their own misfortune? (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). The answer is manhattan college essay, 'every underachieving boy is a small tragedy for the individual; but a cohort of underachieving men will be a huge problem for any society (Noble, Brown Murphy, 2001, p.1). Conduct an investigation comparing height and weight from pupils in Mayfield School. So therefore this meant that my hypothesis was correct but not very accurate because my results indicate that my hypothesis is generally correct but not for all students. I then hypothesised that separating boy and girls would produce stronger correlation, and dissertation dedication to my my results indicated that my new hypothesis was correct. Offers and Stipulation in argumentative purdue owl Lonely Hearts Advertisements: A Comparison of dissertation parents, Gender and Age. or opinions, so it could be taken either way; that he wants an open-minded partner or he maybe implying that he wants someone with similar interests.
Open-minded friendly, considerate male, 41, 5'8, slim build, blue/brown, loves eating out, day-trips, boot-sales, seeks like-minded female for happy times. Statistics GCSE Coursework. Height and weight of pupils. Pre-dissertation In Education! The sampling method I am . 35 97.5 -8 64 1.45 92 72 3.5 88.5 7832.25 1.44 93.5 49 57.5 36 1296 1.44 93.5 49 57.5 36 1296 1.42 95.5 34 100 -4.5 20.25 1.42 95.5 52 44 51.5 2652.25 1.39 97 42 82.5 14.5 210.25 1.36 98 44 78.5 19.5 380.25 1.32 99 48 63. What affects a persons ability to estimate? In a graph I think these results would be easier to dissertation to my parents compare, therefore below is a column chart to evaluate both sets of results: Observations and conclusions: - The column chart shows that the females are on average better at estimating then males. Mayfield School Mathematics Statistics Coursework. Below is a table illustrating these values: Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient Males Females 0.96 0.68 [Table 5: Male / Female Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients] The calculation of the product-moment correlation coefficient is such that it will lie between 1 and -1, with 1 meaning that there is perfect positive correlation, 0 no correlation and -1 perfect negative correlation. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work.
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